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The Neighbourhood of the Baths of Diocletian 1 

The ESQtJiLiNE 32 


The Basilicas op the Lateral, Santa Croce, and S. 

Lorenzo 64 

In the Campus Martius 99 

The Boego and St. Peter's 148 

The Vatican 189 

The Island and the Trastevere 243 




The Tre Fontanb and S. Paolo 266 

The Villas Borghese, Madama, and Mellini . . 279 

The Janiculan . . . 299 

INDEX 319 



The Cappucciui— S. Isidore— S. Niccolo in Tolentina— Via S. Basilio — Conyent of 
the Pregatrici— Villa Massimo Rignano— Gardens of Sallust— Villa Ludorisi 
—Porta Salaria— (Villa Albani — Catacombs of S. Felicitas and S. Priscilla— 
Ponte Salario)— Porta Pia— (Villa Torlonia— S. Aguese— S. Costanza— Ponte 
Komentano— Mens Sacer- S. Alessandro)— Villa Torlonia within the walls — 
Via Macao— Pretorian Camp— RaUway Station— Villa Negroni— Agger of 
Servius Tullius — S. Maria degli Angeli— Fountain of the Termini — S. Maria 
della Vittoria— S. Susanna— S. Bernardo. 

OPENING from the left of the Piazza Barberini is the small 
Piazza of the Cappucciui, named from a convent which has 
always been one of the largest and most populous in Rome. The 
conventual church, dedicated to S. Maria deUa Concezione, contains 
several fine pictures. In the first chapel, on the right, is the magni- 
ficent Guklo of the Archangel Michael — the 'Catholic Apollo,' as 
Forsyth calls him — trampling upon the Devil — said to be a portrait 
of Pope Innocent X., against whom the painter had a peculiar 

' Here the angel, standing, yet scarcely tonching the groond, poised on his 
outspread wings, sets his left foot on the head of his adversary ; in one hand he 
brandishes a sword, in the other he holds the end of a chain, with which he is 
about to bind down the demon in the bottomless pit. The attitude has been 
criticised, and justly ; the grace is somewhat mannered, verging on the thea- 
trical ; but Forsyth is too severe when he talks of " the air of a dancing master." 
One thing, however, is certain, we do not think about the attitude when we look 
at Eaffaelle's .S. :Michael (in the Louvre) ; in Guido's it is the first thing that 
strikes us ; but when we look further, the head redeems all ; it is singularly 
beautiful, and in the blending of the masculine and feminine graces, in the 
serene purity of the brow, and the flow of the golden hair, there is something 
divine ; a slight, very slight expression of scorn is in the air of the head. The 
fiend is the worst part of the picture ; it is not a fiend, but a degraded prosaic 
human ruffian ; we laugh with incredulous contempt at the idea of an angel 
called down from heaven to overcome such a wretch. In Raffaelle the fiend is 
human, but the head has the godlike ugliness and malignity of a satyr ; Guido's 
fiend is only stupid and base. It appears to me that there is just the same differ- 
ence — the same kiwi of difference — between the angel of Raffaelle and the angel 
of Guido, as between the description in Tasso and the description in Milton ; let 
any one compare them. In Tasso we are struck by the pictoresqae elegance of 


2 Walks in Rome 

the description as a piece of art, the melody of the verse, the admirable choice 
of the expressions, as in Guido by the finished but somewhat artificial and 
studied grace. In Raffaelle and Milton we see only the vision of a "shape 
divine." ' — Jameson's 'Sacred Art,' p. 107. 

In the same chapel is a picture by Gherardo della Notte of Christ 
in the purple robe. The third chapel contains a fresco by Domcni- 
chino of the Death of S. Francis, and a picture of the Ecstasy of 
S. Francis, which was a gift from the same painter to this church. 

The first chapel on the left contains The Visit of Ananias to 
Saul, by Pietro da Cortona. 

' Whoever would know to what length this painter carried his style in his altar- 
pieces should examine the Conversion of S. Paul in the Cappuccini at Rome, 
which, though i)laced opposite to the S. Michael of Guido, cannot fail to excite 
the admiration of such judges as are willing to admit various styles of beauty in 
art.' — Lanzi. 

On the left of the liio;h-altar is the tomb of Prince Alexander 
Sobieski, son of John III., king of Poland, who died at Rome in 

The church was founded in 1624, by Cardinal Barberini, the old 
monk-brother of Urban VIII., who, while his nephews were em- 
ployed in building magnificent palaces, refused to take advantage 
of the family elevation otherwise than to endow this church and 
convent. He is buried in front of the altar, with the remarkable 
epitaph— very different to the pompous, self-glorifying inscriptions 
of his brother — 

' Hie jacet pulvis, cinis, et nihil.' 

This Cardinal Barberini possesses some historical interest from 
the patronage he extended to Milton during his visit to Rome in 

'During his sojourn in Rome Milton enjoyed the conversation of several 
learned and ingenious men, and particularly of Lucas Holsteinius, keeper of the 
Vatican library, who received him with the greatest humanity, and showed him 
all the Greek authors, whether in print or MS., wliich had passed througli his 
correction ; and also presented liim to Cardinal Barberini, who, at an entertain- 
ment of music, performed at his own expense, waited for him at the door, and 
taking him V)y the hand, brought him into the assembly. The next morning he 
waited upon the Cardinal to return him thanks for these civilities, and by the 
means of Holsteinius was again introduced to his Eminence, and spent some 
time in conversation with 'him.'~Newto7i's 'Life of Milton.' ^ 

Over the entrance is a cartoon (with some differences) for the 
Navicella of Giotto. 

From the courtyard of the convent, a monk^ will give admit- 
tance to the famous cemetery of the Cappuccini (not subterranean), 
consisting of four chambers, ornamented with human bones in 

1 ' At Rome, Selvaggi made a Latin distich in honour of Milton, and Salsilli a 
Latin tetrastich, celebrating him for his Greek, Latin, and Italian poetry ; and 
he in return presented to Salsilli in his sickness those fine Scazons or Iambic 
verses having a spondee in the last foot, which are inserted among his juvenUe 
poems. From Rome he went to H&plts.'—A'eicton. 

2 Ask in the churcli. 

The Cappuccini 3 

patterns, and with mummified bodies. The earth was bronght from 
Jerusalem. As the cemetery is too small for the convent, when any 
monk dies, the one who has been buried longest is ejected to make 
room for him. The loss of a grave is supposed to be amply com- 
pensated by the short rest in the holy earth which the body has 
already enjoyed. It is pleasant to read on the spot the pretty 
sketch in the ' Improvisatore ' : — 

' I was playing near the church of the Capuchins, with some other children 
who were all younger than myself. There was fastened on the church door a 
little cross of metal ; it was fastened about the middle of the door, and I could 
just reach it with my hand. Always when our mothers had passed by with us 
they had lifted us up that we might kiss the holy sign. One day, when we 
children were playing, one of the youngest of them inquired "why the Child 
Jesus did not come down and play with us ? " I assumed an air of wisdom, and 
replied, that He was really bound upon the cross. We went to the church door, 
and although we found no one, we wished, as our mothers had taught us, to kiss 
it, but we could not reach up to it ; one therefore lifted up the other, but just as 
the lips were pointed for the kiss, that one who lifted the other lost his strength, 
and the kissing one fell down just when his lips were aljout to touch the invisible 
Child Jesus. At that moment my mother came by, and when she saw our child's 
play, she folded her hands, and said, " You are actually some of God's angels, and 
thou art mine own angel," added she, and kissed me. 

' The Capuchin monk. Fra Martino, was my mother's confessor. He made very 
much of me, and gave me a picture of the Virgin, weeping great tears, which fell, 
like raindrops, down into the burning flames of hell, where the damned caught 
this draught of refreshment. He took me over with him into the convent, where 
the open colonnade, which enclosed in a square the little potato-garden, with the 
two cypress and orange trees, made a very deep impression upon me. Side by 
side, in the open jwissages. hung old portraits of deceased monks, and on the door 
of each cell were pasted pictures from the history of thfe martyrs, which I con- 
templated with the same holy emotions as afterwards the masterpieces of 
Batfaelle and Andrea del Sarto. 

' "Thou art really a bright youth," said he ; " thou shalt now see the dead." 
Tpon this, he opened a little door of a gallery which lay a few steps below the 
colonnade. We descended, and now I saw round al'out me skulls upon skulls, so 
placed one upon another, that they formed walls, and therewith several chapels. 
In these were regular niches, in which were seatetl perfect skeletons of the most 
distinguished of the monks, enveloped in their brown cowls, their cords round 
their waists, and with a bre%nary or withered bunch of flowers in their hands. 
Altars, chandeliers, bas-reliefs of human joints, horrible and tasteless as the 
whole idea. I clung fast to the monk, who whispered a prayer, and then said 
to me, "Here also I shall some time sleep ; wilt thou thus visit me? " 

' I answered not a word, but looked horrified at him, and then round al)out me 
upon the strange grisly assembly. It was foolish to take me. a chUd, into this 
place. I was singularly impressed with the whole thing, and did not feel myself 
easy again until I came into his little cell, where the beautiful yellow oranges 
almost hung in at the window, and I saw the brightly coloured picture of the 
Madonna, who was borne upwards by angels into the clear sunshine, while a 
thousand flowers filled the grave in which she had rested. . . . 

' On the festival of All Saints I was down in the chapel of the dead, where Fra 
Martino took me when I first visited the convent. All the monks sang masses 
for the dead, and I, with two other boys of my own age, swung the incense- 
breathing censer before the great altar of skulls. They had placed lights in the 
chandeliers made of bones, new garlands were placed around the brows of the 
skeleton monks, and fi«sh bouquets in their hands. Many people, as usual, 
thronged in ; they all knelt, and the singers intoned the solemn Miserere. I 
gazed for a long time on the pale yellow skulls, and the fumes of the incense 
which wavered In strange shapes l>etween me and them, and everything began 
to swim round before my eyes : it was as if I saw everything through a large 
rainbow ; as if a thousand prayer-bells rung in my ear ; it seemed as if I was 
borne along a stream ; it was unspeakably delicious — more I know not ; c<m- 
sciousness left me— I was in a swoon.' — Hans Ch. Andersen. 

4 Walks in Rome 

The beautiful gardens of the convent have been recently de- 
stroyed. It was in the Via de' Cappuccini that the venerable Abbot 
of Monte Vergine was brutally murdered by his servant a few 
years ago, the murderer of an eminent ecclesiastic receiving a free 
pardon I 

The street behind the Piazza Cappuccini leads to the Church of 
S. Isidoro,^ built 1622, for Irish J'ranciscan monks. The altar- 
piece, representing S. Isidore, is by Andrea Sacchi. The church 
contains several tombs of distinguished Irishmen who have died in 
Eome. The inmates of the convent have become celebrated as the 
art-followers of Overbeck. 

Opposite are or were the convent and small chapel of the Pregatrici 
— nuns most picturesquely attired in blue and white, and devoted 
to the perpetual adoration of the Sacrament, who sing during the 
Benediction service, like the nuns of the Trinitk de' Monti. 

The Via S. Niccolo da Tolentino leads, by the handsome Church 
of that name, from the Piazza Barberini to the railway station. 

Parallel with, and behind this, the Via S. Basilio runs up the hill- 
side. At the top of this street is the entrance of what was once the 
Villa Massimo Bignano, containing some fine palm trees. This 
site, with the ridge of the opposite hill, and the valley between, 
was once occupied by the Gardens of Sallust (Horti Pretiosissimi), 
purchased for the emperors after the death of the historian, and a 
favourite residence of Vespasian, Nerva, and especially of Aurelian. 
Some vaulted halls under the cliff of the opposite hill, and a circular 
ruin surrounded by niches, were the only remains of the many fine 
buildings which once existed here, and which comprised a palace, 
baths, and the portico called Milliarensis, 1000 feet long. These 
edifices are known to have been ruined when Rome was taken by 
the Goths under Alaric (410), who entered at the neighbouring Porta 
Salaria. The obelisk now in front of the Trinitd de' Monti was 
removed from thence by Pius VI. The old casino of the Barbe- 
rini, which occupied the most prominent position in the gardens, 
was pulled down in 1869, to make way for a house belonging to 
Spithoever the librarian. The hillside is supported by long but- 
tresses, beneath which were remains of the huge masonry of Servius 
Tullins, whose Agger may be traced on the ridge of the hill running 
towards the present railway station. The interesting remains of the 
Villa of Sallust were destroyed in 1884-85, its massive walls being 
blown up with gunpowder. Part of these grounds are supposed to 
have formed the Campus Sceleratus, where the vestal virgins suffered 
who had broken their vows of chastity. 

'When condemned by the college of pontiflces, the vestal was stripped of her 
vittae and other badges of office, was scourged, was attired like a corpse, placed 
in a close litter, and borne through the Forum, attended by her weeping kindred 
with all the ceremonies of a real funeral, to the Campus Sceleratus, within the 
city walls, close to the CoUine gate. There a small vault underground had been 
previously prepared, containing a couch, a lamp, and a table with a little food. 

1 A holy hermit of Scete, who died 391. 

Villa Ludovlsi 5 

The Pontifex Maximus, having lifted up his hands to heaven and uttered a secret 
prayer, opened the litter, led forth the culprit, and placing her on the steps of 
the ladder which gave access to the subterranean cell, delivered her over to the 
common executioner and his assistants, who conducted her down, drew up the 
ladder, and having filled the pit with earth until the surface was level with the 
surrounding ground, left her to perish, deprived of all the tributes of respect 
usually paid to the spirits of the departed. In every case the paramour was 
publicly scourged to death in the Forum.' — Stnith's '■Diet, of Antiquities.' 

' A Vignaiuolo showed us in the Gardens of Sallust a hole, through which he 
said those vestal virgins were put who had violated their vows of chastity. 
While we were listening to their story, some pretty Contadine came up to us, 
attended by their rustic swains, and after looking into the hole, pitied the vestal 
virgins — " Poverine," slirugged their shoulders, and, laughing, thanked their 
stars and the Madonna that poi>r Fanciulle were not buried alive for such things 
nowadays.' — Eaton's ^ Borne.' 

In pursuance of the ridiculous plan called Piano regolatore, 
intended to obliterate all trace of the historic hills of Rome, the 
valley which contained the house and gardens of Sallust has been, 
as far as possible, filled up by the present authorities. A broad 
road winds round the Cappaccini Convent, and passes the new 
Palazzo Piombino, built with the money received for the destruc- 
tion of the once glorious and beautiful Villa Ludovisi, sold by the 
Prince of Piombino for 6,000,000 lire to a bank, which has cut down 
all the trees and divided the land for building purposes. The 
avarice of the noble family of Piombino has since caused their 
decline from an almost regal to an utterly commonplace position, 
and has resulted in extreme poverty. During the life of King 
Victor Emmanuel in Rome, the villa was closed, as the casino was 
occupied by his morganatic wife, Madame de' Mirafiore. 

The villa was built early in the last century by Cardinal Ludovisi, 
nephew of Gregory XV., from whom it descended to the Prince of 
Piombino. The grounds, which were of an extent extraordinary 
when considered as being within the walls of a capital, were laid 
out by Le Notre, and were in the stiff French style of high clipped 
hedges and avenues adorned with vases and sarcophagi. 

Henry James describes the villa as it was : — 

"There is siurely nothing better in Kome, perhaps nothing so good. The 
grounds and gardens are immense, and the great rusty city wall stretches behind 
them, and makes Rome seem vast without making them seem small. There is 
everything— dusky avenues, trimmed by the clippings of centuries, groves and 
dells and glades, and glowing pastures and reedy fountains, and great flowering 
meadows studded with enormous slanting pines. The whole place seems a 
revelation of what Italy and hereditaiy grandeur can do together. Nothing can 
be more picturesque than the garden views of the city ramparts, lifting their 
fantastic battlements above the trees and flowers. They are aU tapestried with 
creeping plants, and made to serve as sunny fruit-walk — grim old defence as 
they once were.'— Portrait* of Places. 

With the fory against trees which characteriles Italians, all the 
magnificent ilexes and cypresses were cut down as soon as the land 
was secured, and the plots of building land rendered altogether 
hideous and undesirable. The folly of the authorities has been 
shown in nothing more than the destruction of all the immemorial 
ilexes, which would have given dignity and grandeur to openings 

6 Walks in Borne 

or squares even in the meanest quarter ; but nov/ trashy shrubs and 
false rockwork are preferred ! Not a trace remains of the pictur- 
esque glories of this once noble villa, which, if acquired by the 
municipality, who. refused to purchase it, might have been made 
into public gardens of beauty unrivalled in any European capital. 
The most perfect portion of the Aurelian wall is that which was 
so well seen from the Villa Ludovisi ; part of the moulded brick 
cornice remains which ran along the wall below the battlements. 
Near the entrance of the remaining walk is still a fountain shaded 
by a huge plane-tree, but its beauty is destroyed ; the Quirinal is 
seen in the distance. 

Opposite the present entrance is the principal casino of sculptures, 
a very beautiful collection (packed up, and never shown, in 1896). 
Especially remarkable are — the grand colossal head known as 
the 'Ludovisi Juno' (second room, 41); probably after a work of 
Alcamenes, the pupil of Phidias : 

' This work combines the unapproachaltle majesty of the queen of the miglity 
Jupiter with womanly grace and feminine dignity. The severe, commanding 
brow is softened into gracious loveliness by the soft, waving hair ; imperishable 
youthful beauty blooms on the delicately rounded cheeks, and the powerful out- 
line of the nose, lips, and chin expresses an energy of character based on moral 
purity, and invested with a gleam of marvellous heaxity. '—Liibke. 

'A Rome, une Junon surpasse toutes les autres par son aspect et rappelle la 
Junon de Polyclete par sa majesto : c'est la celfebre Junon Ludovisi que Goethe 
admirait tant, et devant laquelle dans un acces de devotion paienne, — seul genre 
de devotion qu'il ait connu a Rome, — il faisait, nous dit-il, sa priere du matin. 

' Cette tete colossale de Junon offre bien les caracteres de la sculpture do 
Polyclete : la gravite, la gi'andeur, la dignite ; mais ainsi que dans d'autres 
Junons qii'on pent supposer avoir ete sculptces il Rome, I'imitateur de Polycli:te, 
on doit le croire, adoucit la severitc, je dirai presque la durete de I'original, telle 
qu'elle se niontre sur les medailles d'Argos, et celles d'Elis.' — Ampere, UUt. 
Rom. iii. 264. 

— The Statue of Mars seated (second room, 1 ) with a Cupid at his 
feet, found in the portico of Octavia, and restored by Bernini : 

'II y avait bien un Mars assis de Scopas, et ce Mars 6tait a Rome; mais un 
dieu dans son temple devait utre assis sur un trone et non sur un rocher, comma 
le pretendu Mars Ludovisi. On a done eu raison, selon moi, de reconnaitre dans 
cette belle statue un Achille, i\ I'expression pensive de son visage, et surtout it 
I'attitude caractcristi<|ue que le sculpteur luj a donnee, lui faisant embrasser son 
genou avec ses deux mains, attitude qm. dans le langagedela sculpture antique, 
Stait le signe d'une meditation douloureuse. On citait conime tres beau un 
Achille de Silanion, sculpteur grec habile il rendre les sentiments violents. 
D'apr6s cela, son Achille pouvait etre un Achille indign6 ; c'est de lui que vien- 
drait 1' Achille de la villa Ludovisi. L' expression de depit, plus 6nergi(|ue dans 
roriginal, eftt (it6 adoucie dans une admirable coym.'— -Ampere, Hist. Rom. 
iu. 437. 

' The god is sitting in a careless, easy attitude, absorbed in a dreamy reverie. 
The shield is resting^unused at his side, his left hand inactively and almost 
absently holds the sword; the Cupid playing at his feet, moreover, indicates to 
us that it is love for Venus which has overcome the God of Battles. A mark on 
the left shoulder seems to indicate that Venus herself stood behind him, and 
that thus originally the work was a group.' — Liibke. 

— (Second room, 7), Merope and Aepytus, by Menelaos, pupil of 
Stephanos : 

The Aurora of G-uercino 7 

' This beautiful group depicts the meeting of a mother with her long-lost son, 
at the moment when, as Welcher says, the first agitating emotion of meeting is 
followed by calm and joy, and when, under the sense of happiness, the question 
arises, " Is it really thou "? " After various interpretations have been attempted, 
such as Penelope and Telemachus, Theseus and Aethra. Electra and Orestes, 
Otto Jahn at length has given an explanation of the scene which, more than any 
other, elucidates the work. It is Aepytus, who returns after a long absence to 
avenge his mother, Merope, on her consort Polyphontes, the murderer of her 
first husband. In order to make sure of the offender, Aepytus has assumed to 
be the murderer of the sou. Merope, beside herself with grief, is on the point 
of avenging her child on the stranger, when the former pupil is recognised by an 
old tutor, and the son is restored to his mother. This subject, which is dramati- 
cally treated by Euripides, and also employed by the Roman poet Ennius, is 
depicted in the marble work at the touching moment of recognition.' — Liibke. 

— and (second room, 28), the Dying Gaol and his Dead Wife : 

'The foe is evidently approaching, and the danger of captivity and slavery 
admits of no delay. The death-def>ing warrior uses the moment to give the 
fatal blow to his wife, who, after the fashion of the Xorthem races, accompanied 
him to the battle, ^^'hile he supports his victim with the left arm, letting her 
fall gently on the ground, with all the power of his uplifted right hand he 
plunges his short broadsword in her breast.' — Liibke. 

' Le Ijeau groupe auquel on avait donne le nom d'Arria et Paetus ; il fallait 
fermer les yeux a Tevidence pour voir un Komain du temps de Claude dans ce 
chef liarbare qui, apres avoir tue sa femme, se frappe lui-meme d'un coup mortel. 
Le type du visage, la chevelure, le caractere de Taction, tout est gaulois ; la 
maniere meme dout s'accomplit Timmolation volontaire montre que ce n'est pas 
un Romain que nous avons devant les yeux ; un Komain se tuait plus simple- 
ment, avec moins de fracas. Le principal personnage du groupe Ludovisi con- 
serve en ce moment supreme quelque chose de triomphant et de theatral ; soule- 
vant d'une main sa femme affaissee sous le coup qu'il lui a porte, de lautre il 
enfonce son epee dans sa jwitrine. La tete haute, I'oeil toume vers le ciel, il 
semble repeter le mot de sa race : " Je ne craius qu'une chose, c'est que le ciel 
tombe sur ma tete." ' — Ampere, Higt. Horn. iii. 207. 

We may also notice (No. 27) Bronze Head of Julius Caesar, and 
(No. 45) Head of the Dying Medusa. 

First room, No. 20, Venus Erycina (called a Juno), found near 
the remains of her temple, which were discovered in the sixteenth 
century by Gabriele Vacca, in the Vigna Yerospi, afterwards incor- 
porated with the Villa Ludovisi. 

' There is no doubt that we possess in this unique work tlie very statue wor- 
shipped in the Temple of Venus Erycina since its foundation in the year 572 ol 
Rome.' — Laneiani, in the 'Athenaeum,' Xo. 3317. 

The insatiable greed of the Piombini has destroyed even the 
beautiful avenue which led from the villa to the Aurora. The 
Casino of the Aurora (now often closed) must now be sought in 
the Via Lombarda, behind the Eden Hotel. Its position shows the 
former level of that part of the garden, and from its roof a beauti- 
'' ful view may be obtained. Here are the most famous frescoes of 
Guercino. On the ceiling of the ground-floor, Aurora driving away 
Darkness and scattering flowers in her course, with Night and Day- 
break in the lunettes ; and on the first floor, ' Fame ' blowing her 
trumpet. On the staircase is a fine bas-relief of two Cupids drag- 
ging a quiver. 

8 Walks in Eome 

' The prophets and sybils of Guercino da Cento (1590-1666), and his Aurora, in 
a garden pavilion of the Villa Ludovisi, at Rome, almost attain to the effect of 
oil paintings in their glowing colouring combined with broad and dark masses 
of shadow.' — Kugler. 

' In allegorising nature, Guercino imitates the deep shades of night, the twilight 
grey, and the irradiations of morning, with all the magic of chiaroscuro ; but his 
figures are too mortal for the region where they raowe.' —Forsyth. 

' The joyous day gan early to appeare ; 
And f ayre Aurora from the deawy bed 
Of aged Tithone gan herself e to reare 
With rosy cheekes, for shame as blushing red : 
Her golden locks, for hast, were loosely shed 
About her ears, when Una her did marke 
Clymbe to her charet, all with flowers spred. 
From heven high to chace the chearelesse darke : 
With mery note her lowd salutes the mounting larke.' 

Speiiser, ' 2%e Faerie Queeiie.' 

In B.C. 82, the district near the Porta Collina, till recently occu- 
pied by the Villa Ludovisi, was the scene of a great battle for 
the very existence of Rome, between Sulla and the Samnites and 
Lucanians under the Samnite general Pontius Telesinus, who de- 
clared he would raze the citj' to the ground if he were victorious. 
The left wing under Sulla was put to flight ; but the right wing, 
commanded by Crassus, enabled him to restore the battle, and to 
gain a complete victory ; fifty thousand men fell on each side. 

The road now runs along the ridge of the hill to the Porta Salaria, 
by which Alaric entered Rome, through the treachery of the Isaurian 
guard, on the 24th of August 410 ; the terrible event which led to 
S. Jerome's wail—' De nocte Moab capta est,' and which caused S. 
Augustin to write his ' De Civitate Dei.' 

The gate was rebuilt after the invasion of Rome in 1870, when the 
towers which flanked it were destroyed, and curious remains of an 
ancient tomb were laid bare on the outside. Built into the wall was 
found the marble cippus of a schoolboy of the time of Domitian, 
Q. Sulpicius Maximus, who died aged 11, after having won a prize 
for Greek verses on the reproof which Jupiter was supposed to have 
administered to Apollo for allowing liis son Phaeton to drive the 
horses of the Sun. Part of this prize poem — Agon Capitohnus — is 
given on the monument.^ 

Very near the Porta Salaria, on the outside, a great semicircular 
monument, discovered in 1866, is the Tomb of the Freedman 
Menajider, secretary to the aediles and quaestors. Further dis- 
tant, in the garden of Cav. Bertoni, was found the circular Tomb of 
Lucilius Paetus and his sister Lucilia PoUa. A vaulted passage, 
with recesses for urns on either side, leads to its central chamber. 

Just inside the gate, in the grounds of the Villa Bonaparte, the 
workmen, digging the foundations of modern houses in the spring 
of 1885, discovered a vaulted chamber, the hyjwgeum of the Tomb 
of the Licinian Family. Around it stood seven handsome marble 
cippi, with beautifully cut inscriptions. Of these, the most im- 

1 Now in the Capitoline Museum. 

The Porta Pinciana 9 

portant commemorated Calpurnius Piso Licinianus, the adopted son 
and heir of Galba, chosen partly on account of his noble character, 
partly on account of his high birth and descent from the Crassi 
and Pompeii. It was mortification at the adoption of Piso by the 
emperor that led to the rebellion of Otho and the murder of Galba 
in the Forum, followed by that of Piso himself, who was dragged 
from the Temple of Testa, where he had taken refuge. The next 
cippus, decorated with rams' horns and flowers, contained the ashes 
of the father of Piso, Marcus Licinius Crassns, pontifex, praetor 
urbanus, consul (A.D. 27), and legate of the Emperor Claudius in 
Mauritania, who, with his wife Scribonia (daughter of Pompeia, 
granddaughter of Pompey the Great) was put to death by order 
of Claudius. A third cippus contained the ashes of Piso's eldest 
brother, who had assumed, as he was fully entitled to do, the name 
of his mother's family, of which, through her, he was the only re- 
maining representative. Caligula prohibited him from using the 
cognomen of Magnus, but this distinction was restored to him by 
Claudius, whose eldest daughter, Antonia, he married, and by whose 
order he was ultimately put to death, at the wish of Messalina. 
Seneca, in his Apocolocyntosis, says satirically that Claudius restored 
to him his name and cut off his head. 

Passing through the gate and turning to the left along the outside 
of the wall, we may see, opening upon a street through what were, 
till recently, the grounds which belonged to the Villa Ludovisi, the 
two round towers of the Porta Pinciana, restored by Belisarius. 
This is the place where tradition declares that in his declining 
years the great general sat begging, with the cry, ' Date obolum 

' A cote de la Porta Pinciana, on lit sur une pierre les paroles celebres : " Donnez 
une obole a Belisaire : " niais cette inscription est modeme, comme la legende a 
laquelle elle fait allusion, et qii'on ne trouve dans mil historlen contemporain 
de Belisaire. Belisaire ne demanda jamais I'aumone, et si le cicerone montre 
encore aux voyageui-s I'endroit oii, vieu.x et aveugle, il implorait une obole de la 
charite des passants, c'est que pres de ce lieu il avait, sur la colline du Pincio, 
son palais, situe entre les jardins de LucuUus et les jardins de Salluste, et digne 
probablement de ce double voisinage par sa magnificence. Ce qni est vrai, c'est 
que le vainqueur des Goths et des Vandales fut disgracie par Justinien, grace aux 
intrigues de Theodora. La legende, comme presque toujours, a exprime par une 
fable une verite, I'ingratitude si Irequente des souverains envers ceux qui leur 
ont rendu les plus grands services.' — Ampere, Emp. iL 396. 

Close to this is a second entrance to the Villa Borghese. A 

ruined ' Domus Pinciana ' existed outside this gate in the time of 

\ Theodoric. Eight hundred and fifty tombs were found in nine 

months in making the road from the Porta Pinciana to Porta 


A short distance from the gate along the Via Salaria is, on the 
right, the Villa Albani (seldom shown since the change of govern- 
ment — inquire at the hotels), built in 1760 by Cardinal Alessandro 
Albani — sold in 1834 to the Count of Casteibarco, and in 1868 to 
Prince Torlonia, who is said to have sold it again since the Sardinian 
rule. In the centre of the grounds is an obelisk. 

10 Walks in Rome 

'Le cardinal Albani etoit si passionn6 poiir toutes les choses antiques que, 
lorsqu'on ne vouloit pas les Ini vendre, il les voloit ; il a fait dans ce genre una 
action inouie. . . . Voici le fait : le prince de Palestrine avoit eu, dans le jardin 
de sa maison de canipagne, iin superbe obelisque antique, qu'il refusa de vendre 
au cardinal Albani, qui vouloit, a tout prix, en faire racquisition. Peu de temps 
aprfes le prince fit un voyage ; alors le cardinal envoya dans la nuit qiiatre mille 
hommes, qui entrirent de force dans le jardin, enlevferent 1' obelisque et le lui 
apportferent : et il le niit dans son jardin ii la villa Albani. Comme le cardinal 
6toit excessivement puissant dans Koine, le prince n'osa pas lui intenter un proces, 
et il prit la chose en plaisantant, le fclicita sur cet exploit extraordinaire, et il 
ue se brouilla point avec lui. En nous promenant dans les jardins Albani, le 
prince de Palestrine me montra ce fameux obelisque." — Memoires de Madame de 
Genlis, vol. iii. 

The scene from the garden terrace was among the loveliest of 
Koman pictures, the view of the delicate Sabine mountains — Monte 
Gennaro, with the Monticelli beneath it — and in the middle dis- 
tance the churches of S. Agnese and S. Costanza, relieved by the 
dark cypresses and a graceful fountain of the villa ; now, nothing 
is to be seen but a number of huge boxlike houses which render 
modern Rome the most contemptible of cities. 

The Casino, which is, in fact, a magnificent palace, is remarkable 
as having been built from Cardinal Albani's own designs, Carlo 
Marchionni having been only employed to see that they were 
carried out. 

'Here is a villa of exquisite design, planned by a profound antiquary. Here 
Cardinal Albani, having spent his life in collecting ancient sculpture, fonned 
such porticoes and such saloons to receive it as an old Roman would have done ; 
porticoes where the statues stood free upon the pavement between columns pro- 
portioned to their stature ; saloons which were not stocked but embellished with 
families of allied statues, and seemed full without a crowd. Here Winclvelmann 
grew into an antiquary under the cardinal's patronage and instruction ; and here 
he projected his history of art, wliich brings this collection continually into 
view.' — Forsyth' IS 'Italy.' 

The collection of sculptures is much reduced since the French 
invasion, when 294 of the finest specimens were carried off by 
Napoleon to Paris, where they were sold by Prince Albani upon 
their restoration in 1815, as he was unwilling to bear the expense 
of transport. The greater proportion of the remaining statues are 
of no great importance. Those of the imperial family in the vesti- 
bule are interesting— those of Julius and Augustus Caesar, of 
Agrippina wife of Germanicus, and of Faustina, are seated ; most 
of the heads have been restored. 

The ceiling of the Great Saloon is decorated with the famous 
fresco of ' Parnassus ' by Raphael Men;/s. Conspicuous among the 
treasures of the villa are the sarcophagus with reliefs of the 
marriage of Peleus and Thetis, pronounced by Winckelmann to be 
one of the finest in existence ; a head of Aesop, supposed to be 
after Lysippus ; and the small bronze ' Apollo Sauroctonos,' con- 
sidered by Winckelmann to be the original statue by Praxiteles 
described by Pliny, and the most beautiful bronze statue in the 
world, — it was found on the Aventine. But most important of all 
is the famous relievo of Antinous crowned with lotus, from the 

Villa Albani 11 

Villa Adriana (over the chimney-piece of the first room to the left 
of the saloon), supposed to have formed part of an apotheosis 
of Antinous. It has been restored to suit the conception of a 


'As fresh and as highly finished as if it had just left the studio of the sculptor, 
this work, after the Apollo and the Laocoon, is perhaps the most beautiful 
monument of antiquity which time has transmitted to \is.'—Winclcel7nann, Hist, 
de CArt, vi. oh. 7. 

Inferior only to this is another bas-relief, also over a chimney- 
piece — the parting of Orpheus and Eurydice. 

' Les deux epoux vont se quitter. Eurydice attache sur Orphee un profond 
regard d'adieu. Sa main est posee sur I'epaule de son epoux, geste ordinaire 
dans les groupes qui expriment la separation de ceux qui s'aiment. La main 
d'Orphee dtigage doucement celle d'Eurydice, tandis que ilercure fait de la sienne 
un leger mouvement pour I'eutrainer. Dans ce leger mouvement est tout leur 
sort ; I'effet le plus pathetique est produit par la composition la plus simple ; 
I'emotion la plus penetrante s'exhale de la sculpture la plus tranquille.' — Ampere, 
Hist. Jtom. iii. 256. 

' The spirit of the highest Greek art, and the breath of a deep but restrained 
feeling, rest on these figures. Eurydice is grasping the shoulder of her husband, 
who is tiu-niug towards her once more, and looking into her eyes with one deep 
last look, which meets with a fond reply. But Merciuy, the guide of spirits, 
gently touches her right hand to conduct her into the land of shadows. Ihe com- 
position reminds us of the famous farewell terzetto in Mozart's Flauto Magico, 
where a similar situation is depicted by means of an art of a very different kind, 
though with equal majesty and grandeur of feeling.' — Liibke. 

The villa also contains a collection of pictures, of which the most 
interesting are the sketches of Gitdio Romano for the frescoes of 
the story of Psyche in the Palazzo del Te at Mantua, and two fine 
pictures by Luca Signorelli and Perugino, in compartments. All 
the works of art have lately been rearranged. The Gaffe and the 
Bigliardo — (reached by an avenue of oaks, which, being filled with 
ancient tombstones, has the effect of a cemetery) — contain more 
statues, but of less importance. 

Beyond the villa, the Via Salaria (said by Pliny to derive its name 
from the salt of Ostia exported to the north by this route) passes on 
the left the site of the Pelasgic town of Antemnae, now occupied by 
a modern fort, in making which a large portion of the ancient walls 
was discovered, and is still visible on the left of the entrance. The 
vast number of objects discovered in the necropolis (and now 
preserved at the museum in the Baths of Diocletian) are of great 
interest, as showing what Kome was in its earliest times, for 
Antemnae was destroyed soon after the foundation of Rome. On 
the left is Villa Ada, with the largest grounds near the city. A 
gateway on the right, marked with the arms of De la Rovere, is the 
entrance to a vineyard where the first catacomb discovered near 
Rome was opened, when Bosio, the historian of the catacombs, 
was three years old : it has since been lost. On the right a lane 
turns aside to the Villa Chigi, with beautiful ilex groves and glorious 
views of the Sabine mountains. 

The main road with beautiful views towards the mountain 

12 Walks in Rome 

ranges, overtopped by the snowy peak of Monte Velino, descends 
a hill, passing three ancient tombs on the right. Two miles from 
the city, the Anio is crossed by the Ponte Salario, destroyed by 
the Roman government in the terror of Garibaldi's approach from 
Monte Rotondo, in 1867. This bridge was a restoration by Narses, 
in the sixth century, but stood on the foundations of that famous 
Ponte Salario, upon which Titus Manlius fought the Gaulish giant, 
and cutting off his head, carried off the golden collar which earned 
him the name of Torquatus. 

'Manlius prend un bouclier Icger de fantassin, une epee espagnole commode 
pour combattre de tris pres, et s'avance a la rencontre du Barbara. Les deux 
champions, isolos sur le pont, comma sur un tlieatre, se joignent au milieu. 
Le Barbare portait un vOtament bariolu et une armure orniie da dessiiis et 
d'lncrustations dorees, conforme au caractere de sa race, aussi vaine qua vail- 
lante. Las armas du Romain etaient Ijonnes, mais sans eclat. Point chez lui, 
comme chez son advarsaire, da chant, de transports, d'armes agitoes avec fureur, 
mais un coeur plain de corn-age et d'une colore muette qu'il ruservait tout entifere 
pour le comliat. 

'Le Gaulois, qui dcpassait son adversaira de touta la tcta, met en avant son 
bouclier et fait tombar pesamment son glaive sur I'armure de son adversaira. 
Celui-ci le heurta deux fois de son bouclier, le force ii reculer, le trouble, et se 
glissant alors entra le bouclier et le corps du Gaulois, de deux coups rapidement 
portes lui ouvre le ventre. Quand le grand corps est tomb6, Manlius lui coupe 
la tete, et, ramassant le collier de son ennemi decapitd, jette tfjut sanglant sur 
son cou ce collier, torques, propre aux Gaulois, et qu'on pent voir au Capitole 
porte par celui qu'on appelle ;\ tort le gladiatam- mourant. Un soldat donne, en 
plaisantant, a Manlius le sobriquet de Torquatus, que sa famille a toujours et6 
fl6re de -poTi&c.'— Ampere, Hist. Rmn. iii. 10. 

Beyond the ruins of the bridge is a huge tomb with a tower, now 
used as an Osteria. Hence, the road leads by the Villa Spada, 
occupying the site of the arx of Fidenae, and then by Castel 
Giubileo, on the site of one of the outposts of that deserted city, to 
Monte Rotondo. 

The district beyond the Porta Salaria, and that extending between 
the Via Salaria and the Monte Parioli, are completely undermined 
by catacombs (see Chap. IX.). The most important are — 1. Nearest 
the gate, the Catacomb of S. Felicitas, which had three tiers of 
galleries, adorned by Pope Boniface I., who took refuge there from 
persecution^now much dilapidated. Over this cemetery was a 
church, now destroyed, which is mentioned by William of Malmes- 
bury. Many of the galleries of this catacomb have been reciently 
filled up, that the site may be used for building 1 2. The Catacomb 
of SS. Thraso and Satviminus, much decorated with the usual 
paintings. 8. The Catacomb of S. Priscilla, on the left of the 
descent to the Anio. This cemetery is of great interest, from the 
number of martyrs' graves it contains, and from its peculiar con- 
struction in an ancient arenarium, pillars and walls of masonry 
being added throughout the central part, in order to sustain the 
tufa walls. In the vineyard of Count Telfener, above the crypt 
of the Acilii Glabriones, remains of a siuall basilica have been 
discovered, built by S. Sylvester, and in which he was buried with 
four other popes — Liberius, Siricius, Celestinus, and Vigilius. In 

Catacomb of S. Priscilla 13 

the catacomb below were buried — probably because the entrance 
to the Chapel of the Popes at S. Calixtus was blocked up to pre- 
serve it in the persecution under Diocletian — Pope S. ilarceUinus 
(ob. 308), and Pope S. Marcellus (ob. 310), who was sent into exile 
by Maxentius. On the tomb of the latter was placed, in finely cut 
type, the following epitaph by Pope Damasus : — 

' Veridicua Rector, lapsos quia crimina flere 
Praedixit, miseris fuit omnibus hostis amarns. 
Hinc furor, hinc odiiun sequitur, discordia. lites, 
Seditio, caedes, solvuntur foedera paeis. 
Crimen ob alterius Christum qui in pace negavit, 
Flnibus erpiUsus patriae est feritate tjranni. 
Haec brertter Damasus voluit comperta referre, 
ilarcelli ut populus meritum cognoscere posset.' • 

(' The truth-speaking pope, because he preached that the lapsed should weep 
for their crimes, was bitterly hated by all those unhappy ones. Hence followed 
fury, hatred, discord, contentions, sedition, and slaughter, and the bonds of 
peace were niptiu-ed. for the crime of another, who in [a time of] peace had 
denied Christ, [the pontiff] was expelled the shores of his country by the cruelty 
of the tyrant. These things Damasus lia\-ing learnt, was desirous to narrate 
briefly, tiiat people might recognise the merit of Marcellus.') i 

Several of the paintings in this catacomb are remarkable ; especi- 
ally a Last Supper with wreathed apostles, and that of a woman 
with a child, which, dating without doubt from the second century, 
is the earliest known representation of the Virgin. The painting is 
thus described by Northcote : — 

' De Rossi unhesitatingly says that he believes this painting of our Blessed 
Lady to belong almost to the Apostolic age. It is to be seen on the vaulted 
roof of a loculus. and represents the Blessed Virgin seated, her head partially 
covered by a short light veil, and with the Holy Child in her arms : opposite to 
her stands a man, clothed in the pallium, holding a volume in one hand, and 
with the other pointing to a star which appears alx)ve and between the figures. 
This star almost always accompanies our Blessed Lady, both in paintings and in 
sculptui-es. where there is an obvious historical excuse for it — e.g., when she is 
represented with the Magi offering their gifts, or by the side of the manger with 
the ox and the ass ; but with a single flgiu-e, as in the present instance, it is 
unusual. The most obvious conjecture would be that the figui-e was meant for 
S. Joseph, or for one of the Magi. De Rossi, however, gives many reasons for 
preferring the prophet Isaias, whose prophecies concerning the Messias abound 
with imagery Ixiri-owed from light.' — Roma Sotterranea. 

The passages of this catacomb are unusually picturesque in 
effects of shadow and colour, and the catacomb is one of the 
oldest, S. Priscilla, from whom it is named, being supposed to be 
the mother of Pudens, and a contemporary of the apostles. Part 
of her inscription remains in the chapel beneath the Basilica of 
S. SUvestro. Her granddaughters, Praxedis and Pudentiana, were 
buried here before the removal of their relics to the church on the 
Esquiline. With this cemetery is connected the extraordinary 
history of the manufacture of S. Filomena, now one of the most 
popular saints in Italy, and one towards whom idolatry is carried 
out with frantic enthusiasm both at Domo d'Ossola and in some of 

1 See Roma Sotterranea, p. 174. 

14 Walks in Rome 

the Neapolitan States. The story of this saint is best told in the 
words of Mrs. Jameson : — 

' In the year 1802, while some excavations were going forward in the Catacomb 
of Priscilla, a sepulchre was discovered containing the skeleton of a young 
female ; on the exterior were rudely painted some of the symbols constantly 
recurring in these chambers of the dead — an anchor, an olive branch (emblems 
of Hope and Peace), a scourge, two arrows, and a javelin ; above them the 
following insciiption, of which the beginning and end were destroyed : — 


' The remains, reasonably supposed to be those of one of the early martyrs for 
the faith, were sealed up and deposited in the treasury of relics in the Lateran ; 
here they remained for some years unthought of. On the return of Pius VII. 
from France, a Neapolitan prelate was sent to congratulate him. One of the 
priests in his train, who wished to create a sensation in his district, where the 
long residence of the French had probably caused some decay of piety, begged 
for a few relics to carry home, and these recently discovered remains were 
bestowed on him ; the inscription was translated somewhat freely to signify 
Santa Philumena, rest in peace. Another priest, whose name is suppressed, 
because of kin great humility, was favoured by a vision in the broad noon-day, in 
which he beheld the glorious virgin Filomena, who was pleased to reveal to him 
that she had sutfered death for preferring the christian faith and her vow of 
chastity to the addresses of the emperor, who wished to make her his wife. 
This vision leaving much of her history obscure, a certain young artist, whose 
name is also suppressed, perhaps because of his great humility, was informed in 
a vision that the emperor alluded to was Diocletian, and at the same time the 
torments and persecutions suffered by the christian virgin Filomena, as well as 
her wonderful constancy, were also revealed to him. There were some diffl- 
culties in the way of the Emperor Diocletian, which incline the writer of the 
historical account to incline to the opinion that the young artist in his wisdom 
may have made a mistake, and that the emperor may have been not Diocletian, 
but Maximian. The facts, however, now admitted of no doubt ; the relics were 
carried by the priest Francesco da Lucia to Naples ; they were enclosed in a case of 
wood resembling in form the human body ; this figure was habited in a petticoat 
of white satin, and over it a crimson tunic after the Greek fashion ; the face was 
painted to represent nature, a garland of flowers was placed on the head, and in 
the hands a lily and a javelin with the point reversed to express her purity and 
her martyrdom ; then she was laid in a half-sitting posture in a sarcophagus, of 
which the sides were glass, and, after lying for some time in state in the chapel 
of the Torres family in the church of Sant' Angiolo, she was carried in grand 
procession to Mugnano, a little town about twenty miles from Naples, amid the 
acclamations of the people, working many and surprising miracles by the way. 
. . . Such is the legend of S. Filomena, and such the authority on which she 
has become within the last twenty years one of the most popular saints in Italy.' 
— Sacred and Legendary Art, p. 671. 

It is hoped that very interesting relics may still be discovered in 
this catacomb. 

' In an account preserved by S. Gregory of Tours, we are told that under 
Numerianus, the martyrs Chrysanthus and Daria were put to death in an 
arenaria, and that a great number of the faithful having been seen entering a 
subterranean crypt on the Via Salara to visit their tombs, the heathen emperor 
caused the entrance to be hastily built up, and a vast mound of sand and stone 
to be heaped in front of it, so that they might be all buried alive, even as the 
martyrs whom they had come to venerate. S. Gregory adds, that when the 
tombs of these martyrs were rediscovered, after the ages of persecution had 
ceased, there were found with them, not only the relics of those worshippers 
who had been thus cruelly put to death, skeletons of men, women, and children 
lying on the floor, but also the silver cruets (wrcet argentei) which they had 
taken down with them for the celebration of the sacred mysteries. S. Damasua 

Crypt of the Glabriones 15 

was unwilling to destroy so touching a memorial of past ages. He abstained 
from making any of those changes by which he usually decorated the martyrs 
tombs, but contented himself with setting up one of his invaluable historical 
inscriptions, and opening a window in the adjacent wall or rock, that all might 
see, without disturi)ing, this monument so unique in its kind — this christian 
Pompeii in miniature. These things might still be seen in S. Gregnrj's time, 
in the sixth century ; and De Eossi holds out hopes that some traces of them 
may be restored even to our own generation, some fragments of the inscription 
perhai)s, or even the window itself through which our ancestors once saw so 
moving a spectacle, assisting, as it were, at a mass celebrated in the third 
century.' — Roma Sotterranea, p. 88. 

Near the Catacomb of Priscilla, the Crypt of the Glabriones has 
been discovered, being the burial - place of the Glabrio family, 
which first became celebrated when the Consul Acilius Glabrio 
(B.C. 191) conquered the Macedonians at the battle of Thermopylae. 
The Temple of Piety, now represented by S. Nicolo in Carcere. was 
built by him, and he had a palace and gardens on the Pincian hill. 
The family had attained such wealth and influence before the time 
of Pertinax, that he proclaimed them the noblest race in the world. 
Several inscriptions to different members of the family have been 
found in the crypt, and in an oratory at its southern extremity the 
burial-place of their martyr-hero Marius Acilius Glabrio, consul 
with Trajan, A.D. 91, who suffered for the christian faith under 
Domitian in 95. In a search for hidden treasure under Clement IX., 
the crypt was broken into, and its contents greatly mutilated. 

Returning to the Porta Salaria, and following the walls, where 
the Via Salaria falls into the Via Venti Settembre, the remains of 
a Temple of Venus Erycina, or Venus Hortorum Sallnstianorum, 
were found in 1882. Its foundations of rubble (100 feet long and 50 
feet wide) were blown up by dynamite. 

The Villa Bonaparte was built by Milizia, the well-known writer 
on architecture, and was bequeathed by Pauline Borghese to the 
wife of Charles Bonaparte, Prince Musignano, who was daughter 
of her brother Joseph. 

The Via Venti Settembre ends in the Porta Pia, rebuilt since the 
capture of Rome, in 1870, by the 70,000 Italian troops, who, on 
September 20, by a breach in the wall close to this, entered the 
defenceless city which they had most cruelly bombarded for five 
hours, and marched, unwelcomed, through the silent streets of the 
conquered city to their different quarters. Outside is a lying 
inscription, saying that they entered in answer to the entreaties of 
the Romans ; not one voice having urged it. A little to the right 
was the Porta Nomentana, flanked by round towers, closed by 
Pius IV. It was by this gate that the oppressed Roman people 
retreated to the Mons Sacer — and that Nero fled. 

The road outside the Porta Pia, which was the favourite sunny 
walk of the cardinals in the stately old times, has been lined, since 
the change of government, by box-like houses of the most miserable 

16 Walks in Rome 

kind, hastily run up and already falling to pieces. Here and there 
are remains of old villas. Immediately outside the gate was the 
entrance of the beautiful Villa Patrizi (recently sold to a building 
association), whose grounds enclosed the small Catacomb of S. 
Nicomedus. Their lovely screen of pink Judas trees and ilex, 
which were such a feature of this approach to Rome, was destroyed 
in the spring of 1892 to make the dusty, shadeless piazza we now 
see. Then came the Villa Lezzani, where S. Giustina was buried 
in a chapel, and where her festa was observed on the 25th of 

A little to the right is the Villa Victoria, an admirably managed 
orphanage in English hands, on the site of a military cemetery ; 
many inscriptions and urns for ashes have been found in its 

Beyond this is the ridiculous Villa Torlonia, sprinkled with mock 
ruins. It has been sold by Prince Torlonia to the Banca Tiberina 
for 3,000,000 lire, since the change of government. 

At a little more than a mile from the gate the road reaches the 
Basilica of S. Agnese fuori le Mura, founded by Constantino at the 
request of his daughter Constantia, in honour of the virgin martyr 
buried in the neighbouring catacomb, but rebuilt G25-63S by 
Honorius I. It was altered in 1490 by Innocent VIII., but retains 
more of its ancient character than most of the Roman churches. 
The polychrome decorations of the interior and the rebuilding of 
the monastery were carried out at the expense of Pius IX. , as a 
thank-offering for his escape when he fell through the floor here 
into a cellar, with his cardinals and attendants, on April 15, 1855. 
The scene is represented in a large fresco by Domenico Tojetti, in a 
chamber on the right of the courtyard. 

The approach to the church is by a picturesque staircase of 
forty-five ancient marble steps, lined with inscriptions from the 
catacombs. The nave is divided from the aisles by sixteen columns, 
four of which are of ' porta-santa ' and two of ' pavonazzetto.' A 
smaller range of columns above these supports the roof of a triforium, 
which is on a level with the road. The baldacchino, erected in 
1614, is supported by four porphyry columns. Beneath is the shrine 
of S. Agnes, surmounted by her statue, an antique of oriental 
alabaster, with modern head and hands of gilt bronze. The mosaics 
of the tribune, representing S. Agnes between Popes Honorius I, 
and Symmachus, are of the seventh century. Beneath is an ancient 
episcopal chair. 

The second chapel on the right has a beautiful mosaic altar, and 
a relief of SS. Stephen and Laurence of 1490. The third chapel 
is that of S. Emerentiana, foster-sister of S. Agnes, who was dis- 
covered praying beside the tomb of her friend, and was stoned to 
death because she refused to sacrifice to idols. 

' So ancient is the worship paid to S. Agnes, that, next to the Evangelists and 
Apostles, there is no saint whose etllfry is older. It is found on the ancient glass 
and earthenware vessels used by the Christians in the early part of the third 
century, with her name inscribed, which leaves no doubt of her identity. But 

S. Agnese fuori le Mura 17 

neither in these images, nor in the mosaics, is the Iamb introduced, which in 
later times has become her inseparable attribute, as the patroness of maidens and 
maidenly modesty.'— t/aj/ie^o-w's 'Sacred Art,' p. 105. 

S. Agnes suffered martyrdom by being stabbed in the throat, 
under Diocletian, in her thirteenth year (see Chap. XIV.), after 
which, according to the expression used in the acts of her martyr- 
dom, her parents 'with all joy' laid her in the catacombs. One 
day, as they were praying near the body of their child, she appeared 
to them surrounded by a great multitude of virgins, triumphant and 
glorious like herself, with a lamb by her side, and said, ' I am in 
heaven, living with these virgins my companions, near Him whom I 
have so much loved.' By her tomb, also, Constantia, a princess sick 
with hopeless leprosy, was praying for the healing of her body, when 
she heard a voice saying, ' Rise up, Constantia, and go on constantly 
{'' Constanter age, Constantia ") in the faith of Jesus Christ, the Son 
of God, who shall heal your diseases,' — and being cured of her evil, 
she besought her father to build this basilica as a thank-offering.' 
The story of Agnese, in its main points, is one of those of the early 
Church least open to doubt. S. Jerome speaks of her in the fourth 
century, and ancient glass and earthenware vessels used by Christians 
of that date bear her name inscribed. Her legend says : ' She was 
filled with all good gifts of the Holy Spirit, having loved and followed 
Christ from her infancy, and was distinguished for her wonderful 

On the 21st of January a beautiful service is celebrated here, 
in which two lambs, typical of the purity of the virgin saint, are 
blessed upon the altar. They are sent by the Chapter of S. John 
Lateran, and their wool is afterwards used to make the pallium of 
the Pope, which is consecrated before it is worn by being deposited 
in a golden urn upon the tomb of S. Peter. The pallium is the 
sign of episcopal jurisdiction. 

' Ainsi, le simple omenient de laine que ces pr^lats doivent porter sur leurs 
epaules comme symbole de la brebis du Bon-Pasteur, et que le pontife remain 
prend sur I'autel meme de Saint-Kerre pour le leur adresser, va porter jusqu'aux 
extremities de I'Eglise, dans une union sublime, le double sentiment de la force du 
Prince des Apotres et de la douceur virginale d' Agnes.' — Dom (J-iuranger. 

Close to S. Agnese is the round Church of S. Costanza, erected 
by Constantine as a mausoleum for his daughters, and converted 
into a church by Alexander IV. (1254-61) in honour of the Princess 
Constantia, ob. 354, whose life is represented by Marcellinus as 
anything but saintlike,- and who is supposed to have been confused 
in her canonisation with a sainted nun of the same name. The 
other two daughters of Constantine, Helena, wife of Julian, and 
Constantina, wife of Gallus Caesar, were buried in the same place. 
The rotunda, seventy-three feet in diameter, is surrounded by a 

1 ITne Chretienne a Rome. 

- ' She was an incarnate fury, never weary of exciting the savage disposition of 
her husband (Hanuibalianus), and as insatiable as he was in her thirst for human 
blood.' — xiv. 1, 2. 


18 Walks in Rome 

vaulted corridor ; twenty-four double columns of granite support 
the dome. The vaulting is covered with mosaic arabesques of the 
fourth century, of flowers and birds, with scenes referring to a 
vintage. The same subjects are repeated on the splendid porphyry 
sarcophagus of S. Costanza, the interest of which is so greatly 
marred by its removal to the Vatican from its proper site, whence 
it was first stolen by Pope Paul II., who intended to use it as his 
own tomb. 

' Les enf ants qui f oulent le raisin, tels qu'on les voit dans les mosaiques de I'dglise 
de Sainte-Constance, les bas-reliefs de son tombeau et ceux de beaucoup d'autres 
tombeaux Chretiens, sont bien d'origine paienne, car on les voit aussi figurer dans 
les bas-reliefs oii parait Priape.' — Ainpere, Hist. Horn. iii. 257. 

Behind the two churches is an oblong space, ending in a fine mass 
of ruin — ' La Sedia del diavolo ' — which is best seen from the valley 
below. This was long supposed to be the Hippodrome of Constan- 
tine, but is now discovered to have belonged to an early christian 

A portion of the Catacombs of S. Agnese, lighted up on the 
festival of the saint, is entered from the left aisle of the church. 
Another portion (for which a special jjcrjKcsso is required) is entered 
through the adjoining vineyard. After that of S. Calixtus, this, 
perhaps, is the catacomb which is most worthy of a visit, though 
the bit usually shown has little interest. 

Armed with a permesso, we enter by a staircase attributed to the 
time of Constantino. The passages are lined with the usual locuU 
for the dead, sometimes adapted for a single body, sometimes for 
two laid together. Beside many of the graves the palm of victory 
may be seen scratched on the mortar, and remains of the glass 
bottles or ampullae, which are supposed to indicate the graves of 
martyrs, and to have contained a portion of their blood, of which 
they are often said to retain the trace. One of the graves in the 
first gallery bears the names of consuls of A.D. 33G, which fixes the 
date of this part of the cemetery. 

The most interesting features here are a square chamber hewn in 
the rock, supposed to have been a school for catechists, with an 
armchair (sedia) cut out of the rock on either side of the entrance ; 
and near this is a second chamber for female catechists, with plain 
seats in the same position. Opening out of the gallery close by is 
a chamber which was apparently used as a chapel ; its arcosolium 
has marks of an altar remaining at the top of the grave, and near it 
is a credence table ; the roof is richly painted — in the central 
compartment is our Lord seated between the rolls of the Old and 
New Testament. Above the arcosolium, in the place of honour, is 
our Saviour as the Good Shepherd, bearing a sheep upon His 
shoulders, and standing between other sheep and trees ;■ — in the 
other compartments are Daniel in the lions' den, the Three Children 
in the furnace, Moses taking o£P his shoes, Moses striking the rock, 
and — nearest the entrance — the Paralytic carrying his bed. A 
neighbouring chapel has also remains of an altar and credence table, 

Catacombs of S. Agnese 19 

and well-preserved paintings — the Good Shepherd ; Adam and Eve, 
with the tree between them ; Jonah under the Gourd ; and in the 
fourth compartment a figure described by Protestants merely as an 
Orante, and by Roman Catholics as the Elessed Virgin. ^ Near this 
chapel we can look down through an opening into the second floor 
of the catacomb, which is lined with graves like the first. 

In the farther part of the catacomb is a long narrow chapel 
which has received the name of the cathedral or basilica. It is 
divided into three parts, of which the farthest, or presbytery, con- 
tains an ancient episcopal chair with lower seats on either side for 
priests — probably the throne where Pope S. Liberius (A.D. 359) 
officiated with his face to the people when he lived for more than 
a year hidden here from persecution. Hence a flight of steps leads 
down to what Northcote calls 'the Lady Chapel,' where, over the 
altar, is a fresco of an orante, without a nimbus, with outstretched 
arms, with a child in front of her. On either side of this picture, 
a very interesting one, is the monogram of Constantine, and the 
painting is referred to his time. Near this chapel is a chamber 
with a spring running through it, evidently used as a baptistery. 

At the extremity of the catacomb, under the basilica of S. Agnes, 
is one of its most interesting features. Here the passages become 
wider and more irregular, the walls sloping and unformed, and 
graves cease to appear, indicating one of the ancient arenai-iae, 
which here formed the approach to the catacomb, and beyond 
which the Christians excavated their cemetery. 

The graves throughout almost all the catacombs have been rifled, 
the bones which they contained being distributed as relics through- 
out Roman Catholic Christendom, and most of the sarcophagi and 
inscriptions removed to the Lateran and other museums. 

' Vous pourriez voir icl la capitale des catacombes de toute la chretiente. Les 
martjTs, les confesseurs, et les vierges y fournilUent de tons cotes. Quand on 
se fait besoin de quelques reliques en pays etrangers, le Pape n'a qu'a descendre 
ici et crier. Qui de toug aiitres veut alter etre saint en Pologne? Alors, s'il se 
trouve quelque mort de bonne volout^, il se live et s'en va.'— "Z)e Brasses, 1739. 

Half a mile beyond S. Agnese, the road reaches the willow- 
fringed river Anio, in which 'Silvia changed her earthly life for 
that of a goddess,' and which carried the cradle containing her two 
babes, Romulus and Remus, into the Tiber, to be brought to land at 
the foot of the Palatine fig-tree. Into this river "we may also 
recollect that Sulla caused the ashes of his ancient rival Marius to 
be thrown. The river is crossed by the Ponte Nomentano, a 
mediaeval bridge, partially covered, with forked battlements. 

' Ponte Nomentano is a solitary dUapidated bridge in the spacious green Cam- 
pagna. Many ruins from the days of ancient Rome, and many watch-towers 
from the Middle Ages, are scattered over this long succession of meadows ; chains 
of hills rise towards the horizon, now partially covered with snow, and fantasti- 
cally varied in form and colour by the shadows of the clouds. And there is also 

1 The reasons for this belief are given in The Roman Cataemnbs of Xorthcote, 
p. 78. 

20 Walks in Rome 

the enchanting vapoury vision of the Alban hills, which change their hues like 
the chameleon as you gaze at them — where you can see for miles little white 
chapels glittering on the dark foreground of the hills, as far as the Passionist 
Convent on the summit, and whence you can trace the road winding through 
thickets, and the hills sloping downwards to the lake of Albano, while a hermi- 
tage peeps through the trees.' — Mendelssohn's Letters. 

The hill immediately beyond the bridge is tlie Mons Sacer (not 
only the part usually pointed out on the right of the road, but the 
whole hillside), to which the famous secession of the Plebs took 
place in 549 B.C., amounting, according to Dionysius, to about 4000 
persons. Here they encamped upon the green slopes for four 
months, to the terror of the patricians, who foresaw that Rome, 
abandoned by its defenders, would fall before its enemies, and that 
the crops would perish for want of cultivation. Here Menenius 
Agrippa delivered his apologue of the belly and its members, which 
is said to have induced them to return to Rome ; that which really 
decided them to do so being the concession of tribunes to be the 
organs and representatives of the plebs, as the consuls were of the 
patricians. The epithet Sacer is ascribed by Dionysius to an altar 
which the plebeians erected at the time on the hill to Zei>s Aeifidnos. 
A second secession to the Mons Sacer took place in B.C. 449, 
when the plebs rose against Appius Claudius after the death of 
Virginia, and retired hither under the advice of M. Duilius, till the 
decemvirs resigned. The sacred hill is gradually being carted away 
by the municipality to be used as building material. 

The second turn on the left beyond the bridge is the Via Vigne 
Nuove. We must follow this to find, taking a second turn on the 
left, the Villa of Phaon — ' Suburbanum Phaontis ' — which was the 
scene of Nero's death. Leaving the carriage, we cross a vineyard 
(on right) to a farmhouse, whence a path winds through the vine- 
yard to the ruins of the villa, with a lovely view of the Sabine and 
Alban hills. The Fosso della Cecchina, which made the marshy 
place crossed by Nero, still exists. It is where the road forks off 
that he was recognised by the Pretorian guard. In the unearthed 
chambers are many fragments of pillars, and the inscription to the 
faithful nurse of Nero, Claudiae Ecloge, which has identified the 

' When Nero perished by the justest doom 
Which ever the destroyer yet destroy'd, 

Amidst the roar of liberated Rome, 
Of nations freed, and the world overjoy'd. 

Some hands unseen strew'd flowers upon his tomb, — 
Perhaps the weakness of a heart not void 

Of feeling for some kindness done, when power 

Had left the wretch an unconnipted hour.' 

Byron, ' Don Juan.' 

'Suivons-le du Grand-Cirque .'i la porte Nomentane. Quel spectacle ! N6ron 
accoutume u toutes les recherches de la volupt(5, s'avance a cheval, les picds nus, 
en chemise, couvert d'un vieux nianteau dont la couleur 6tait passue, un mouchoir 
sur le visage. Quatre personnes seidement I'accompagnent; parmi elles est ce 
Sporus, (|ue dans un jour d'indicible folic il avait pnbli(|uement Spouse. 11 sent 
la terre treni))ler, il voitles Eclairs au ciel : Ncron a peur. Tons ceux (|u'il a fait 
mourir lui apparaissent et semblent se pr6cipiter sur lui. Nous voici ix la porte 

Basilica of S. Alessandro 21 

Nomentane, qui touche au Camp des Pretoriens. N^ron reconnait ce lieu oii, 
il y a quinze ans, sulvant alors le chemin qu'il vient de suivre, U est venu se faire 
reconnaitre empereur par les pretoriens. En passant sous les murs de leur camp, 
vers lequel son destin le ramene, il les entend former des voeux pour Galba, et 
lancer des imprecations contre lui. Un passant lui dit : " Voila des gens qui 
cherchent Neron." Son clieval se cabre au milieu de la route : c'est qu'il a flaire 
un cadavre. Le mouchoir qui couvrait son visage tombe ; un pretorien qui se 
trouvait la le ramasse et le rend a I'empereur, qu'il salue par son nom. A chacun 
de ces incidents son effroi redouble. Enfln il est arrive a un petit chemin qui 
s'ouvre a notre gauche, dans la direction de la voie Salaria, parallele a la voie 
Nomentane. C'est entre ces deux voies qu'etait la villa de Phaon, a quatre 
milles de Kome. Pour I'atteindre, Neron, qui a mis pied a terre, s'enfonce a 
travers un fourre d'epiues et un champ de roseaux comme il s'en trouve tant 
dans la campagne de Home ; il a peine a s'y frayer un chemin ; U arrive ainsi 
au miu- de derriere de la villa. Pi'es de la etait un de ces antres creuses pour 
I'extraction du sable volcanique, appele pouzzolane, tels qu'on en voit encore de 
ce cote. Phaon engage le fugitif a s'y cacher ; il refuse. On fait un trou dans 
la muraille de la villa par oii il penetre, marchant a quatre pieds, dans I'interieur. 
II entre dans une petite salle et se couche sur un lit forme d'un mechant matelas 
sur lequel on avait jete un vieux manteau. Ceux qui I'entourent le pressent de 
mourir pour echapper aux outrages et au supplice. II essaye a plusieurs reprises 
de se donner la mort et n'y pent s'y resoudre ; il pleure. Enfln, en entendant les 
cavaliers qui veuaient le saisir, U cite uu vers grec, fait un effort et se tue avec 
le secours d'un affranchi.' — Ampere, Emp. iL 65. 

Returning, and following the main road past the castle known as 
Casale dei Pazzi (once used as a lunatic asylum) and the picturesque 
tomb called Torre Nomentana — as far as the seventh milestone — 
we reach the remains of the unearthed Basilica of S. Alessandro, 
built on the site of the place where that pope suffered martyrdom 
with his companions Eventius and Theodulus, a.d. 119, and was 
buried on the same spot by the christian matron Severina.^ The plan 
of the basilica, disinterred 1856-57, is still quite perfect. The tribune 
and high altar retain fragments of rich marbles and alabasters ; the 
episcopal throne also remains in its place. 

The 'Acts of the martyrs Alexander, Eventius, and Theodulus,' 
narrate that Severina buried the bodies of the first two martyrs 
in one tomb, and the third separately — 'Theodulum vero alibi 
sepelivit.' This is borne out by the discovery of a chapel opening 
from the nave, where the single word 'martyri' is supposed to 
point out the grave of Theodulus. A baptistery has been found 
with its font, and another chapel adjoining is pointed out as the 
place where neophytes assembled to receive confirmation from the 
bishop. Among epitaphs laid bare in the pavement is one to a 
youth named Apollo, ' votus Deo ' (dedicated to the priesthood ?) 
at the age of fourteen. Entered from the church is the catacomb 
called 'adnymphas,' containing many ancient inscriptions and a 
few rude paintings. 

Mass is solemnly performed here by the Cardinal Prefect of the 
Propaganda on the festival of S. Alexander, May 3rd, when the 
roofless basilica, backed by the blue Sabine mountains and sur- 
rounded by the utterly desolate Campagna, is filled with wor- 
shippers, and presents a striking scene. Beyond this a road to 
the left leads through beautiful woods to Mentana, occupying the 

1 The bodies were removed to S. Sabina in the fifth century by Celestine I. 

22 Walks in Rome 

site of the ancient Nomentum, and celebrated for the battle be- 
tween the Papal troops and the Garibaldians on Nov. 3rd, 1867. 
The conflict took place chiefly on the hillside which is passed on 
the right before reaching the town. Two miles farther is Monte 
Botondo, with a fine old castle of the Barberini family (once of the 
Orsini), from which there is a beautiful view. This place was also 
the scene of fighting in 1867. It is possible to vary the route in 
returning to Rome from hence by the lower road which leads by 
the Ponte Salario. 

If we re-enter Rome by the Porta Pia, immediately within the 
gates (left), we find another villa, which formerly belonged to the 
Torlonia family, but which has been purchased and greatly en- 
larged for the British Embassy. Its beautiful garden has since 
been spoilt by the municipality. The straight road, which leads 
to the Quattro Fontane and Monte Cavallo, is lined on the left by 
the huge and hideous buildings of the new Ministerio delle Finanze, 
commonly called the ' Debito Pubblico.' 

'Un anias gigantesque, un cube cyclop6en oii les colonnes, les balcons, les 
frontons, les sculptures s'entassent, tout un monde d^mesure, enfant^ en un 
jour d'orgueil par la folie de la pierre. '—Zola. 

In laying the foundations for this building, those of the original 
Porta Collina were discovered, from which the main road to the 
Sabines issued, and which was attacked by the Gauls in 360 B.C., 
by Sulla, 88 B.C., and by the Democrats and Samnites, 82 B.C. Near 
this also was the Campus Scelcratus, already mentioned. Here the 
innocent Abbess Cornelia suffered, to gratify a cruel whim of 
Domitian. The district of Macao, behind this, received its strange 
name from a gift of land which the princes of Savoy made long 
ago to the Jesuits for a mission in China. Here, since the change 
of government in 1870, have arisen many of the ugliest buildings 
of the new town — wide, shadeless streets of featureless, ill-built, 
stuccoed houses, bearing foolish names connected with Piedmontese 
history, and a wretched square called the Piazza dell' Independenza, 
in the construction of which much of interest and beauty was swept 
away, though many of its ill-built houses tumbled down before they 
were finished. Whilst some of the improvements in the old town 
are well executed, there is not a single point in the entirely giodern 
Rome which calls for anything but contempt. Hastily run up, with 
the worst materials, and by the most unskilled workmen, its build- 
ings all seem destined to perish within the century. The drainage 
is of the worst possible description ; and decency is almost as much 
disregarded as comfort, even in most of the better class of buildings 
— case signorili. Yet such is the rapid increase of tlie Roman popu- 
lation, that, before the roof is finished, poor families are often put 
into the lower apartments — without rent — to dry the walls with 
their life, or meet death in the attempt. 

The straight road beyond the Piazza leads to the remains of the 
Pretorian Gamp, established by Sejanus, the minister of Tiberius. 

Wall of Servius TuUius 23 

It was dismantled by Constantine, but, from three sides having been 
enclosed by Aurelian in the line of his city wall, its form is still 
preserved to us. The Pretorian Camp was an oblong of 1200 by 
1500 feet ; its area was occupied by a vineyard of the Jesuits till 
1861, when a ' Campo Militare' was again established here. At the 
angle where the camp joins the Aurelian wall is the Porta Clausa, 
a gate apparently closed in the ninth century. 

'En suivant I'enceinte de Rome, quand on arrive i Tendroit oil elle se continue 
par le mur du Camp des pretoriens, on est frappd de la superiorite de con- 
struction que presente celui-ci. La partie des murs d'Honorius qui est voisine a 
et^ refaite au huitieme siecle. Le commencement et la fin de I'empire se 
touchent. On i)eut apprecier d'un coup d'ceil I'etat de la civilisation aux deux 
6poques : voUa ce qu'on faisait dans le premier siecle, et voila. ce qu'on faisait au 
huitieme, apres la conquete de I'empire romain par les Barbares. II faut songer 
toutefois que cette epoque ou Ton construisait si bien a amene celle oil Ton ne 
savait plus construii'e.' — Ampere, Emp. i. 421. 

It was within this camp that the Pretorians put up the empire 
to auction after the death of Pertinax, in A.D. 193, when it was 
knocked down to Didius Julianus.^ 

Turning joyfully away from the vulgarities of the Piazza dell' 
Independenza in the direction of the railway station, we pass some 
huge fragments of the Wall of Servius TulUus, formed of massive 
blocks of tufa and peperino. The Agrjer behind the wall, which 
could be traced from the Porta Esquilina (near the Arch of 
Gallienus) to the Porta Collina (near the Gardens of Sallust) has 
been destroyed. In the time of the empire it had become a kind of 
promenade, as we learn from Horace.^ But on the occasion of a 
sudden pestilence under the Republic, the whole of its moat, 
skirting the cemetery of the Esquiline (100 feet wide and 30 high) 
had been piled with corpses thrown in till they reached the level 
of the embankment, and there a mass of human remains — 24,000 
corpses, it is supposed, was found during recent excavations.^ 

To the left, a road, three-quarters of a mile long, leads — passing 
under an arch of Sixtus V. — to the Porta S. Lorenzo (Chap. XIII.). 

A small Obelisk erected opposite the railway station (in memory 
of soldiers killed at Dagola in Africa in January 1887) was found 
near S. Stefano del Cacco. 

The Railway Station and the adjoining buildings occupy a site 
which, till 1870, was one of the most delightful spots in Rome — 
the grounds of the Villa Massimo Negroni, once celebrated for its 
exquisite cypress avenues and its stately terrace, lined with ancient 
orange-trees and noble sarcophagi.* In a part of this villa, north 

1 Herodian, iL 6 ; Spartian, Julian, 1 ; Tac. Ann. iv. 1 ; and Hist. L 40, ii. 94. 

2 Sat. i. 8, 15. 3 See Laneiani, Ayicient Borne. 

4 ITie destruction of the Villa Xegroni is one of the most flagrant instances of 
injustice under the Sardinian goveniment. It was not sold from motives of 
avarice like the Villa Ludovisi, but violently and forcibly expropriated ' for the 
needs of the city.' Only seven francs a metre was paid as compensation, though 
twenty francs were offered at the very same time by an eminent private indi- 
vidual still living in Rome. It was in vain that the aged Prince Massimo, who 
was devoted to his paternal inheritance, prayed for redress ; and when the cruel 
seizure was complete, and the magnificent old cypress and orange trees of the 
villa fell under the axe of the spoiler, he died of a broken heart. 

24 Walks in Rome 

of the railway, stood a colossal statue of Minerva (generally called 
' Kome '), which was a relic of the residence here of Cardinal Felix 
Peretti, who, as a boy, had watched the pigs of his father at 
Montalto, and who lived to mount the papal throne as Sixtus V. 
The pedestal of the statue bore his arms, — a lion holding three 
pears in its paw. In the villa, of which the last relic — its noble 
gateway — was finally destroyed in January 1889, lived, with her 
husband's uncle, the famous Vittoria Accoramboni (the wife of the 
handsome Francesco Peretti), who had been vainly sought in 
marriage by the powerful and ugly old Prince Paolo Orsini. It 
was from hence that her young husband was summoned to a secret 
interview with her brothers on the slopes of the Quirinal, where 
he was cruelly murdered by the hired bravoes of her first lover. 
Hence also Vittoria went forth — on the very day of the installation 
of Sixtus V. — to her strange second marriage with the murderer of 
her husband, who died six months after, leaving her with one of 
the largest fortunes in Italy— an amount of wealth which led to 
her own barbarous murder a month afterwards through the jealousy 
of the Orsini. 

Here, after the election of her brother to the papacy, lived 
Camilla, the sister of Sixtus V., whom he refused to recognise when 
she came to him in splendid attire as a princess, but tenderly 
embraced when she appeared in her peasant's wimple and hood. 
From hence her two granddaughters were married — one to Virginius 
Orsini, the other to Marc-Antonio Colonna, a double alliance which 
healed the feud of centuries between the two families. 

The noble garden-terrace of the Villa Negroni ended near a 
reservoir which belonged to the Baths of Diocletian. Magnificent 
remains of a villa, supposed to be the Villa of Maecenas, built of 
concrete, faced with fine opus reticulatum, were discovered in 
1874, and barbarously destroyed, with the exception of one hall, 
decorated with frescoes, sometimes considered to be the Auditorium 
of Maecenas. An inscribed stone found near the south-west corner 
of the railway station marked the boundary of the property of the 
rich Lollia Paulina, the repudiated wife of Caligula, whose estates 
were confiscated by the jealousy of Agrippina, under the Emperor 

The lower part of the villa, which occupied the slope towards the 
Esquiline, now all built over in the worst style of Chicago, was once 
celebrated as the Campus EsquUinus, a large pauper burial-ground, 
where bodies were thrown into pits called pnticuli,^ as is still the 
custom at Naples. There were also tombs here of a somewhat pre- 
tentious character: 'those probably of rich well-to-do burgesses, 
yet not great enough to command the posthumous honour of a road- 
side mausoleum.' ^ Horace dwells on the horrors of this burial- 
ground, where he places the scene of Canidia's incantations : — 

1 Cramer's Ancient Italy, i. 389. 

2 Clc. Phil. ix. 7. See Dyer's Rome, p. 215. 

The Esquiline Cemetery 25 

'Nee in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus 
Novendiales dissipare pulveres.' 

Epod. xvii. 47. 

' Has nuUo perdere possum 
Nee prohibere modo, simul ac vaga luna decorum 
Protulit OS, quin ossa legant herbasque nocentes. 
Vidi egoniet nigra succinctam vadere palla 
Canidiam, pedibus nudis, passoque capillo, 
Cum Sagana majore ululautem ; pallor utrasque 
Fecerat horrendas aspectu. 

Serpentes atque videres 
Infemas errare canes ; lunamque rubentem, 
Ne foret his testis, post magna latere sepulcra.' 

Hor. Sat. i. 8. 20. 

The place was considered very unhealthy until its purification by 

' Hue prius angustis ejeeta cadavera cellis 
Couservus vili portanda locabat in area. 
Hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 
Pantolabo scurrae, Nomentanoque nepoti. 
Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 
Hie dabat ; haeredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 
Nunc lieet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 
Aggere in aprieo spatiari, ciua modo tristes 
Albis informem spectal)ant ossibus agrum.' 

Hor. Sat. i. 8. 8. 

' Post insepulta membra different lupi, 
Et Esquilinae alites.' 

Hor. Epod. V. 100. 

' The Campus Esquilinus, between the roads which issued from the Esquiline 
and Viminal gates, was the spot assigned for easting out the carcasses of slaves, 
whose foul and half-burnt remains were hardly hidden from the vultures. The 
accursed field was enclosed, it would appear, neither by wall nor fence, to exclude 
the wandering steps of man or beast ; and from the public walk on the summit of 
the ridge it must have been viewed in all its horrors. Here prowled in troops 
the houseless dogs of the city and the suburbs ; here skulked the solitary wolf 
from the Alljan hills, and here perhaps, to the doleful mumiurs of the Marsie 
chant, the sorceress compounded her philtres of the ashes of dead men's Ixjnes. 
Maecenas (B.C. 7) deserved the gratitude of the citizens when he obtained a grant 
of this piece of land, and transformed it into a park or garden.' — Merivalf, 
' Jiomans under the Empire.' 

' The Esquiline cemetery was divided into two sections, one for the artisans who 
could afford to be buried apart in Columbaria, containing a certain numlier of 
cinerary urns ; one for the slaves, beggars, prisoners and others, who were thrown 
In revolting confusion into common pitsior fosses. This latter section covered an 
area one thousand feet long and three hundred deep, and confciined many hundred 
putietiH, or vaults, thirty feet square, thirty deep. In many cases the contents of 
each vault, when examined, were reduced to a uniform mass of black, viscid, 
pestilent, unctuous matter : in a few cases the bones could in a measure be singled 
out and identified. The readers will hardly believe me when I say that men and 
beasts, bodies and carcasses, and any kind of inimentionable rubbish of the town 
were heaped up in these dens. Fancy what must have been the condition of this 
hellish district in times of pestilence, when the mouths of the crypts must have 
been kept wide open the whole day.'— Lanciani, ' Aiieient Home.' 

Close to the Villa Negroni stood, with beautiful gardens, the VUla 
Strozzi, where Alfieri wrote his ' Merope ' and. ' Saul.' It is here 
that he posted up at his entrance the eccentric notice : ' Vittorio 

26 Walks in Rome 

Alfieri non riceve in casa ne persone ne ambasciate di quelli che non 
conosce e da quali non dipende.' A mosaic carpet (let into the 
wall) hung before a window, where Pope Sixtus V. looked out. The 
gardens, with their curious grottoes and fountains, were first swept 
away by the municipality, and now the fine old villa has been 

Opposite the station are the vast, but for the most part un- 
interesting, remains of the Baths of Diocletian, covering a space 
of 440,000 square yards. They could accommodate 3200 bathers. 
They were begun by Diocletian and Maximian about A.D. 302, 
and finished by Constantius and Maximinus. It is stated by 
Cardinal Baronius that 40,000 Christians were employed in the 
work ; some bricks marked with crosses have been found in the 
ruins. At the angles of the principal front were two circular halls, 
both of which remain : one was near the Villa Strozzi, at the back 
of what was the Negroni garden, and is now used as a granary ; the 
other is transformed into the Church of S. Bernardo, 

The Baths are supposed to have first fallen into decay after the 
Gothic invasion of A.D. 410. In the sixteenth century the site was 
sold to Cardinal Bellay, ambassador of Francis I. at Rome, who 
built a fine palace among the ruins ; after his death, in 1560, the 
property was resold to S. Carlo Borromeo. He sold it again to his 
uncle, Pope Pius IV., who founded the monastery of Carthusian 
monks. These, in 1593, sold part of the ruins to Caterina Sforza, 
who founded the Cistercian Convent of S. Bernardo. Recalling 
their youth, we find Petrarch writing to his friend Cardinal Giovanni 
Colonna : — 

' We used, after the fatigue of wandering about the immense city, often to make 
a halt at tlie Baths of Diocletian, and sometimes to ascend to the vaulted roof of 
that once magnificent edifice ; for nowhere is there sweeter air, a wider prospect, 
more silence and desirable solitude. There came to us no talk of business nor of 
private matters, nor of the affairs of tlie commonwealth, which we had often 
enougli grieved over. And wandering among the crumbling walls, or sitting on 
the roof, the fragments of the ruins Ijeneath oiu' eyes, we used to have much talk 
on history, I being allowed to l)e the better versed in ancient, you in modern 
story. Much discourse, too, was held of that part of philosophy which treats of 
morals ; and sometimes we spoke of the arts, and their inventors and beginners.' i 

About 1520, a Sicilian priest called Antonio del Duca came to 
Rome, bringing with him from Palermo pictures of the seven arch- 
angels (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Santhiel, Gendiel, and 
Borachiel), copied from some which existed in the Church of 
S. Angiolo. Carried away by the desire of instituting archangel- 
worship at Rome, he obtained leave to affix these pictures to seven 
of the columns still standing erect in the Baths of Diocletian, which, 
ten years after, Julius II. allowed to be consecrated under tlic title 
of S. Maria degli Angeli ; though Pius IV., declaring that angel- 
worship had never been sanctioned by the Churcli, except under the 
three names mentioned in Scripture, ordered the pictures of Del 

1 See TroUope's Ilomes and Haunts of the Italian Poets. 

S. Maria degli Angeli 27 

Duca to be taken away.* At the same time he engaged Michelangelo 
to convert the great oblong haU of the Baths (Calidarium) into a 
church. The church then arranged was not such as we now see, 
the present entrance having been then the atrium of the side 
chapel, and the main entrance at first by what is now the right 
transept, while the high altar stood in what is now the left tran- 
sept. In 1749, the desire of erecting a chapel to the Beato Nicolo 
Albergati led to the church being altered under Vanvitelli as we 
now see it. The piscina of the Baths was destroyed in 1726. 

The Church of S. Maria degli Angeli, still most magnificent, is 
now entered by a rotunda (Laconicum), which contains four monu- 
ments of some interest : on the right of the entrance is that of the 
artist Carlo Maratta, who died 1713 ; on the left, that of Salvator 
Rosa, who died 1673, with an epitaph by his son, describing him as 
' Pictorum sui temporis nulli secundum, poetarum omnium tem- 
porum principibus parem ! ' Beyond, on the right, is the monument 
of Cardinal Alciati, professor of law at Milan, who procured his hat 
through the interest of S. Carlo Borromeo, with the epitaph ' Virtute 
vixit, memoria vivit, gloria vivet;' — on the left, that of Cardinal 
Parisio di Corenza, inscribed, 'Corpus humo tegitur, fama per ora 
volat, spiritus astra tenet.' In the chapel on the right are the 
angels of Peace and Justice, by Pettrich ; in that on the left, Christ 
appearing to the Magdalen, by Arrigo Flamingo. Against the pier 
on the right is the grand statue of S. Bruno, by Houdon, of which 
Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) used to say, ' He would speak, if the rule 
of his Order did not forbid it.' 

The body of the church is now a gallery of very large pictures, 
most of which were brought from S. Peter's, where their places have 
been supplied by mosaic copies. In what is now the right transept, 
on the right, is the Crucifixion of S. Peter, Ricdolini ; the Fall of 
Simon Magus, a copy of Francesco Vanni (the original in S. Peter's) ; 
on the left, S. Jerome, with S. Bruno and S. Francis, Muziano 
(1528-92) (the landscape by Brill) ; and the miracles of S. Peter, 
Baglioni. This transept ends in the chapel of the Beato Nicolo 
Albergati, a Carthusian Cardinal, who was sent as legate by 
Martin V., in 1422, to make a reconciliation between Charles VI. 
of France and Henry V. of England. The principal miracle 
ascribed to him, the conversion of bread into coal in order to 
convince the Emperor of Germany of his divine authority, is 
represented in the indifferent altar-piece. In the left transept, 
which ends in the chapel of S. Bruno, are : on the left, S. Basil 
by the solemnity of the Mass rebuking the Emperor Valens, SuUcy- 
ras ; and the Fall of Simon Magus, Pompeo Button i ; — on the 
right, the Immaculate Conception, P. Bianchi; and Tabitha raised 
from the Dead, P. Costanzi. 

In the tribune are, on the right, the Presentation of the Virgin 
in the Temple, Romanelli, and the Martyrdom of S. Sebastian, 

I See Hemans' Catholic Italy, Fart I. 

28 Walks in Rome 

a grand fresco of Domenichino painted originally on the walls of 
S. Peter's, and removed here with great skill by the engineer 
Zabaglia ; on the left, the Death of Ananias and Sapphira, 
Pomarancio, and the Baptism of Christ, Maratta. 

On the right of the choir is the tomb of Cardinal Antonio Serbel- 
loni ; on the left, that of Pius IV., Giovanni Angelo Medici (1559- 
1565), under whose reign the Council of Trent was closed — uncle of 
S. Carlo Borromeo, a lively and mundane pope, but the cruel per- 
secutor of the Caraffas (nephews of his predecessor, Paul IV.), 
whom he executed in the Castle of S. Angelo. 

The enormous space of the vaulting of the church is an example 
of the strength of the Roman cement (pozzolana). Of the sixteen 
columns (45 feet in height, 16 feet in circumference), only the 
eight in the transept are of ancient Egyptian granite ; the rest are 
in brick, stuccoed in imitation, and were additions of Vanvitelli. 
Eight feet of the ancient columns are buried beneath the pavement, 
on which is a meridian line, laid down in 1703. 

' Quand Dioclitien faisait travaillerles pauvres clir^tiens a ses ctuves, ce n'etalt 
pas son dessein de batir des eglises a leurs successeurs ; il ne pensait pas etre fon- 
dateur, conime il I'a et^, d'un monastere de Pferes Chartreux et d'un monastere de 
Peres I'euillants. . . . C'est aux depens de Uiocl^tien, de ses pierres et de son 
ciment qu'on fait des autels et des cliapelles ii Jesus-Clirist, des dortoirs et des 
refectoires a ses serviteurs. La providence de Dieu se joue de cette sorte des 
pensees des honimes, et les 6v6nements sont bien 61oign6s des intentions quand 
la terre a un dessein et le ciel un autre. '—Balzac. 

The time-honoured Carthusian convent behind the church has 
been confiscated by the present government, and is partially used 
as a barrack. 

A passage through the ruins of the baths between the church and 
the railway station leads to the Museo delle Terme (open daily 9 to 
3, 1 fr., Sundays free), appropriated to sculpture discovered during 
recent excavations in the city. The nucleus of the collection was 
the Museo Teverino, removed in 1886 from the Trastevere, where 
it was devoted to objects found in diverting the course of the Tiber. 
The collection is now arranged in and around the grand Cloister of 
the convent, built from designs of Michelangelo. In the centre 
are fragments of a noble group of five cypresses said to have been 
planted by his hand. But the grand old well and fountain, which 
they formerly overshadowed, have been removed, and in doing so, 
their roots were so much injured that they never recovered it. We 
can no longer realise here the feelings of Madame de Stael : — 

' II semble que la vie ne sert ici qu'a contempler la mort — les homnies qui 
existent ainsi sont ponrtant les niemes i qui la guerre et toute son activit«5 suHl- 
raient a peine s'ils y itaient accoutunids. C'est un sujet inepuisable de reflexion 
que les diflerentes combinaisons de la destinee huniaine sur la terre. II se passe 
dans I'interieur de Tame mille accidents, il se forme mille habitudes, qui font de 
chaque individu un monde et son histoire.'— Co»-irt»i«. 

The garden, however, is pretty, and the surrounding arcades are 
filled with beautiful sarcophagi and fragments of sculpture. In the 
monks' cells, which open from the corridor, are arranged inscriptions, 
fragments of sculpture, and a number of small objects in bronze, 

Museo delle Terme 29 

glass, earthenware, &c., from Antemnae and other sites. On the 
upper floor are the finest objects of the collection. These include 
a bronze Bacchus, from the neighbourhood of the Farnesina, which 
had precious stones for eyes, and a silver fillet in the hair, and in 
which copper was used to redden the lips. An exquisite marble 
statue of a boy (Bacchus ?) was found near Tivoli. Of a still nobler 
character are two bronze statues discovered in laying the founda- 
tions of the new theatre on the slope of the Quirinal — a very realistic 
PugUist, whose bruises are represented in the bronze ; and the 
splendid figure described as a Macedonian prince (supposed by 
some to be a portrait of Philip V. of Macedon), which may rank 
with the finest works of the Vatican. Here, also, is a beautiful 
fragment of a statue with flowing drapery, found in the ancient 
sculptors' studios on the Palatine, but believed, on account of its 
great superiority to the objects lying around it, to have only been 
sent there to be copied. Some suppose it to have belonged to a 
figure of one of the daughters of Niobe ; others, from its likeness 
to a statue found in Greece, to a Ceres in search of a Proserpine. 
A beautiful head of a sleeping Ariadne was found in the Villa of 
Nero near Subiaco, and from the same place comes the wonderful 
(headless) figure of a young man in full motion and action. A reclining 
Hermaphrodite was found in laying the foundations of the Contanzi 
theatre. A statue and bust, with other relics, come from the Villa of 
Sulpicio Platorina, found near the Farnesina : a hand with the mystic 
serpent was found at the Temple of Esculapius on the island. 

An object of great interest is a magnificently-cut inscription, 
recording the Ludi Saeculares of 17 B.C. under Augustus, comme- 
morating the Carmen Saeculare of Horace, which had just appeared, 
and appointing singers, twenty-seven boys and twenty-seven girls 
of patrician descent, who were to recite it. The inscription was 
found in many fragments, September 20th, 1890, near the site of 
the Pons Triumphalis. Another inscription of the time of Severus 
was executed with the same object. In this the name of Geta 
twice appeared. In one place it has been erased, in the other 
apparently overlooked. 

On a line with the monastery is a Prison for Women — then an 
Institution for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind — then the ugly Fountain of 
the Tenne ^ (designed by Fontana), sometimes called Fontanone 
deir Acqua Felice (Felice, from Fra Felice, the name by which 
Sixtus V. was known before his papacy), to which the Acqua Felice 
(or Alexandrina) was brought from Colonna, twenty-two miles 
distant in the Alban hills, in 1583, by Sixtus V. It is "surmounted 
by a hideous statue of Moses by Prospero Brcsciano, who is said to 
have died of vexation at the ridicule it excited when uncovered. 
The side statues, of Aaron and Gideon, are by Giov. Batt. dclla Porta 
and Fldminio Vacca. Some of the buildings round the piazza belong 
to the Horrca EccUsiae, in which the old custom of imperial store- 

1 The name Termini, as applied to this fountain and district— a lingering 
Latinism— was retained till 1876. 

30 Walks in Rome 

houses of grain was revived by the popes, Gregory XIII., Paul V., 
and Clement XI. 

Opposite this, in the Via Venti Settembre (the straight lines of 
which correspond with the ancient Alta Semita) is the Church of 
S. Maria della Vittoria, built in 1605 by Carlo Maderno for Paul Y. 
Its fagade was added from designs of Giov. Batt. Soria, by Cardinal 
Borghese, in payment to the monks of the adjoining Carmelite 
convent, for the statue of the Hermaphrodite, which had been found 
in their vineyard. 

The name of the church commemorates an image of the Virgin, 
burnt in 1833, which vras revered as having been instrumental in 
gaining the victory for the Catholic imperial troops over the Pro- 
testant Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia at the battle of the 
White Mountain, near Prague. The third chapel on the left con- 
tains the Trinity, by Guercino ; a Crucifixion, by Guido ; and a 
portrait of Cardinal Cornaro, Guido. The altar-piece of the second 
chapel on the right, representing S. Francis receiving the infant 
Clirist from the Virgin, is by Domenichino, as are two frescoes on 
the side walls. In the left transept, above an altar adorned with a 
gilt bronze-relief of the Last Supper, by Cav. d'Arpino, is a group 
representing S. Teresa transfixed by the dart of the Angel of Death, 
by Bernini. The following criticisms upon it are fair specimens of 
the contrast between English and French taste : — 

' All the Spanish pictures of S. Teresa sin in their materialism ; but the grossest 
example — the most offensive — is the marble group of Bernini in the Santa Maria 
della Vittoria at Rome. The head of S. Teresa Is that of a languishing nymph, 
the angel is a sort of Eros; the whole has been significantly described as "a 
parody of Divine love." The vehicle, white marble, — its place in a christian 
church, — enhance all its vileness. The least destructive, the least pnidish in 
matters of art, would here willingly throw the first stone.' — Mrs. Jameson's 
' Monastic Orders,' p. 421. 

' La sainte Therfese de Bernin est adorable ! couchc^e, evanouie d'amour, les 
mains, les pieds nus pendants, les yeux demi-clos, elle s'est laissee tomber de 
bonheur et d'extase. Son visage est maigri, mais combien noble ! C'est la vraie 
grande dame qui a sech6 dans les faux, dans les larmes, en attendant celui qu'elle 
aime. Jusqu'aux draperies tortill^es, jusqu'a I'alanguissement des mains 
defalllantes, jusqii'au soupir qui meurt sur sea lovres entr'ouvertes, il n'y a rien 
en elle ni autour d'elle qui n'exprime I'angoisse voluptueuse et le divin 61ance- 
ment de son transport. On ne peut pas rendre avec des mots une attitude si 
enivree et si touchante. Renvers6e sur le dos, elle pflme, tout son etre se dissout ; 
le moment poignant arrive, elle gemit ; c'est son dernier gemisseraent, la sensa- 
tion est trop forte. L'ange cependant, un jeune page de quatorze ans, en legfere 
tunique, la poitrine decouverte jusqu'au dessous du sein, arrive gracieux, ai- 
mable ; c'est le plus joli page de grand seigneiu- qui vient faire le bonheur d'une 
vassale trop tendre. Un sourire demi-complaisant, demi-malin, creuse des 
fossettes dans ses fraiches joues luisantes ; sa fieche d'or k la main indique le 
tressaillement delicieux et terrible dont il va secouer tous les nerfs de ce corps 
charmant, ardent, qui s'6tale devant sa main. On n'a jamais fait de ronian si 
seduisant et si tendre.' — Taine, ' Voyage en Italie.' 

Close by is the handsome Church of S. Susanna, rebuilt by Carlo 
Maderno for Sixtus V., on the site of an oratory founded by Pope 
Caius (A.D. 2X3), in the house of his brother Gabinus, who was 
martyred with his daughter Susanna because she refused to break 
her vow of virginity by a marriage with Maximianus Galerus, adopted 

S. Bernardo 31 

son of the Emperor Diocletian, to whom this family were related. 
The bodies of these martyrs are said to rest beneath the high altar. 
The side chapel of S. Laurence was presented by Camilla Peretti, 
the sister of Sixtus V., together with a dowry of fifty scudi, to be 
paid every year to the nine best girls in the parish, on the festival 
of S. Susanna. The frescoes of the story of Susanna and the Elders, 
painted here on the side walls, from the analogy of names, are by 
Baldassare Croce ; those in the tribune are by Cesare Nehbia. 

Opposite this is the Cistercian Church of S. Bernardo, a rotnnda 
of the Baths of Diocletian, turned into a church in 1598, by Caterina 
Sforza, Contessa di Santa Flora. 

Hence a continuance of the Via Yenti Settembre leads to the 
Quattro Fontane. On the left was the small Church of S. Caio, 
which enclosed the tomb of that pope, inscribed, ' Sancti Caii, 
Papae, martyris ossa.' Farther, on the left, were the great convent 
of the Carmelites and the Church of S. Teresa. Between S. Caio 
and S. Teresa was the Studio of Overbeck, the venerable German 
devotional painter, who died in 1869. All these have been destroyed 
since the Sardinian occupation. The right of the street was bor- 
dered by the orange-shaded wall of the once beautiful Barberini 
garden, partially destroyed for the site of a theatre in 1882, and 
since additionally curtailed. 

The War Office (Ministero della Guerra) covers an area of 15,000 
square metres, which formerly belonged to the monastery of the 
Barberiae nuns. During the excavations for its building the remains 
of the house of Vulcacius Rufinus, brother of Galla, and uncle of 
Gallus Caesar and Julian the Apostate, were discovered. On the 
left of the entrance hall, which was incrusted with rare marbles, an 
inscription was found dedicated to Vnlcacios Rufinus by the town- 
ship of Ravenna. 



Golden House of Nero— Baths of Titus and Trajan— S. Pietro in Vincoli— Fransii- 
pani Tower— House of Lucrezia Borgia— S. Martino al Monte— S. Lucia in 
Selce— S. I'lassede— Santissimo Redentore— Arch of Gallienus— Trophies of 
Marius— S. Bibiana— Temple of Minerva Medica — S. Eusebio- S. Antonio 
Abbate— S. Maria Maggiore. 

THE Esquiline, which is the largest of the so-called 'hills of 
Rome,' is not a distinct hill, but simply a projection of the 
Campagna. ' The Quirinal, Virainal, Esquiline, and Coelian stretch 
out towards the Tiber, like four fingers of a hand, of which the 
plain whence they detach themselves represents the vast palm. 
This hand has seized the world.' ^ 

Varro says that the name Esquiline was derived from the word 
excultus, because of the ornamental groves which were planted 
on this hill by Servius Tullius — such as the Lucus Querquetulanus, 
Fagutalis, and Esquilinus.^ The sacred wood of the Argiletum long 
remained on the lower slope of the hill, where the Via S. Maria del 
Monti now is. The name Esquiline, however, more probably has its 
origin in es-quil-iae, the dwellers outside.'* 

The Esquiline, which is still unhealthy, must have been so in 
ancient times, for among its temples were those dedicated to Fever, 
near S. Maria Maggiore — to Juno Mephitis,^ near a pool which 
emitted poisonous exhalations — and to Venus Libitina,^ for the 
registration of deaths and arrangement of funerals ; there was also 
an altar to the Evil Eye — Mala fortuna. For there were no hospitals 
in ancient times, and sick persons were compelled to trust to gods 
rather than men. As the hill was in the hands of the Sabines, its 
early divinities were Sabine. Besides those already mentioned, it 
had an altar of the Sabine sun-god Janus, dedicated together with 
an altar to Juno by the survivor of the Horatii," and a temple of 
Juno Lucina, the goddess of birth and light. 

' Monte sub Esquilio, multis incaeduus annis, 
Junonis magnae nomine locus erat.' 

Ovid, Fast. 11. 435. 

1 Amp6re, Ilist. Rom. i. 38. 2 Varro, Dc Ling. Lat. iv. 8. 

3 The root ' quil ' occurs in in-guil-iivtis, dweller witliin. 

* Fcst. V. 'Septimontio.' « Ampire, Uist. Horn. i. 65. <> Fcst. p. 207. 

story of the Esquiline 33 

This hill has two heights. That which is crowned by Santa 
Maria Maggiore was formerly called Cispius, where Servius Tullius 
had a palace ; that which is occupied by S. Pietro in Vincoli 
was formerly called Oppius, where Tarquinius Superbus lived. It 
was in returning to his palace on the former (and not on the 
latter height, as generally maintained) that Servius Tullius was 

The most important buildings of the Esquiline, in the later Re- 
publican and in Imperial times, were on the slope of the hill behind 
the Forum, and near the Coliseum, in the fashionable quarter called 
Carinae, — the ' rich Carinae,' — 

Passinique armenta videbant 
Komanoque Foro et lautls mugire Carinis. 

Virgil, Aen. viii. 360. 

The principal street of the Carinae probably occupied the site of the 
present Via del Colosseo. At the entrance of this suburb, where 
the fine mediaeval Torre dei Conti now stands, was the house of 
Spurius Cassius (Consul B.C. 493), which was confiscated and 
demolished, and the ground ordained to be always kept vacant, 
because he was suspected of aiming at regal power. Here, how- 
ever, or very nearly on this site, the Aedes Telluris, or Temple of 
Tellus, was erected c. B.C. 269,^ — a building of sufficient importance 
for the senate, summoned by Antony, to assemble in it. The 
quarter immediately surrounding this temple acquired the name 
of In Tellure, which is still retained by several of its modern 
churches.^ Near this temple — 'in tellure' — lived Pompey, in a 
famous though small historical house, which he adorned on the 
outside with rostra in memory of his naval victories, and which 
was painted within to look like a forest with trees and birds, much 
probably as the chambers are painted which were discovered a 
few years ago in the villa of Livia.^ Here Julia, the daughter of 
Julius Caesar, the wife of Pompey, died. After the death of 
Pompey this house was bought by the luxurious Antony. The 
difference between its two masters is portrayed by Cicero, who 
describes the severe comfort of the house of Pompey contrasted 
with the voluptuous luxury of its second master, and winds up his 
oration by exclaiming, ' I pity even the roofs and the walls under 
the change.' At a later period the same house was the favourite 
residence of Antoninus Pius. Hard by, in the Carinae, the popular 
residence of Roman knights, lived the father of Cicero, and hence 
the young Tullius went to listen in the Forum to the orators whom 
he was one day to surpass."* Also in the Carinae, but nearer the site 
of the Coliseum, was the magnificent house of the wealthy Vedius 

1 Cicero, Pro Doina Sua, 38 ; Dionysius, \iii. 79 ; Livy, ii. 41. 

2 See Dyer's City of Home, p. 65. The Acts of the Martyrs mention that several 
Christians siiffered in Tellure. 

3 See Ampfere, Hi^. Bom. iv. 421. 
* Ibid. iv. 431 

VOL. II. n 

34 Walks in Rome 

PoUio, which he bequeathed to Augustus, who pulled it down and 
built the portico of Livia on its site, — 

'Disce tamcn, veniens aetas, ubi Livia nunc est 

Porticus, ininieusae tecta fuisse donius. 
Urbis opus donius una fuit ; spatiumque tenebat 

Quo brevius muris oppida niulta teuent. 
Haec aequata solo est, nullo sub crimiue regni, 

Sed quia luxuria visa nocere sua. 
Sustinuit tantas operum subvertere moles, 
Totque suas hares perdere Caesai' opes.' 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 639. 

At its opposite extremity the Carinae was united to the un- 
fashionable and plebeian quarter of the Suhurra, occupying the 
valley formed by the convergence of the Esquiline, Quirinal, and 
Viminal — which is still teeming with a crowded population. In 
one of the small streets leading from the Vicus Cyprius (between 
the Esquiline and Viminal) towards the Carinae, was the TigcUum 
Soroi-is, which was extant — repaired at the public expense — till the 
fifth century. This, ' the Sister's Beam,' commemorated the well- 
known story of the last of the Horatii, who, returning from the 
slaughter of the Curiatii, and being met by his sister bewailing 
one of the dead to whom she was betrothed, stabbed her in his 
anger. He was condemned to death, but at the prayer of his 
father his crime was expiated by his passing under the yoke of ' the 
Sister's Beam.' On one side of the Tigellum Sororis was an altar 
to Juno Sororia ; on the other, an altar to Janus Curiatius.^ 

During the empire several poets had their residence on the 
Esquiline. Virgil lived there, near the gardens of Maecenas, which 
covered the slopes between the Esquiline and Viminal. Propertius 
had a house there, as we learn from himself— 

' I, puer, et citus haec aliqua propone columna 
Et dominum Esquiliis scribe habitai'e tuum.' ' 

Propert. Eleg. iv. 23. 

It is believed, but without certainty, that Horace also lived upon 
the Esquiline. He was constantly there in the villa of Maecenas, 
where he was buried, and which he has described in his poems both 
in its original state as a desecrated cemetery, and again after his 
friend had converted it into a beautiful garden. 

' Nunc licet Esquiliis habltare salul)nbus, at<iue 
Aggere in aprico spatiari, quo inodo tristes 
Alliis inforniem spectabant ossibus agrum. ' 

Sat. i. 8, 14. 

The house of Maecenas, the great patron of the poets of the 
Augustan age, probably occupied a site above the Carinae, where 
the Baths of Titus afterwards were. It was a lofty and magnificent 
edifice, and is described by Horace, who calls it — 

1 Liv. i. 26 ; Dionysius, iii. 22. 

Baths of Titus 35 

'Fastidiosam desere copiam, et 
Molem propinquam nubibus arduis : 
Omitte mirari beatae 
Fumum et opes, strepitumque Komae.' 

Od. iiL 29. 

Maecenas bequeathed his villa to Augustus, and Tiberius at one 
time resided in it. 

Another, though less well-known poet of this age, who lived upon 
the Esquiline, was Pedo Albinovanus, much extolled by Ovid, who 
lived at the summit of the Vicus Cyprius (probably the Via S. Maria 
Maggiore) in a little house : 

' Illic parva tni domus Pedonis 
Caelata est aqoilae minore penna.' 

Martial, x. Ep. 19. 

Near this was the Locus Orphei, a fountain, in the centre of which 
was a rock, &c., surmounted by a statue of Orpheus with the en- 
chanted beasts around him. The house of Pedo was afterwards 
inhabited by Pliny. On Septimius, as the farthest slope of the 
Esquiline towards the Viminal was called, lived Maximus — of whom 
Martial says — 

' Esqoiliis domus est, domus est tibi colle Dianae, 
Et tua patricius culmina vicus habet : 
Hinc viduae Cybeles, illinc sacraria Vestae, 
Inde novum, veterem prospicis inde Jovem.' 

Mart. viL Ep. 73. 

The Esquiline is being rapidly covered with ill-constructed build- 
ings of the most pitiful and mean character. Its interest may be 
considered to be a thing of the past. Only the southern portion is 
still partially clothed with vineyards and gardens, sprinkled over 
with titanic masses of ruin. But, till recently, there were many 
parts of the hill on which one might imagine oneself far away in 
the country. In the time of Niebuhr, the dweller amid the vines of 
the Esquiline, when he descended into the city, still said, ' I am 
going to Rome.' 

Nero (A.D. 54^68) purchased the site of the vUla of Maecenas, and 
covered the whole side of the hill towards the Carinae with the vast 
buildings of his Golden House, which also swallowed up the Coelian 
and a great part of the Palatine ; but he did not destroy the build- 
ings which already existed, and 'the Golden House was still the 
old mansion of Augustus and the villa of Maecenas connected by a 
long series of columns and arches.'^ Titus (a.d. 79-81) and Trajan 
(A.D. 98-117) used part of the same site for their baths, and the 
ruins of all these buUdings are now jumbled up together, and the 
varying whims of antiquaries have constantly changed the names 
of each fragment that has been discovered. 

The more interesting of the ruins are on the southern slope of the 

1 Merivale, Bomaru under the Empire, eh. liii. 

36 Walks in Borne 

Esquiline, and are now approached from the Via Labicana, turning 
to the left at the foot of the street leading to S. John Lateran from 
the Coliseum. They are shown as the Baths of Titus, or Camere 
Esquiline, and occupy the space of about 1150 feet by 850. They 
were erected by Vespasian and his sons on the private palace of 
Nero, after they had given back to the people all that part of the 
' Golden House ' which was outside the limits of the Palatine. (The 
authorities provide guides and lights at 1 fr. per head.) That the 
chambers which are now visible were to be seen in the time of 
Leo X. (1513-22) we learn from Vasari, who says that Eaffaelle 
and Giovanni da Udine were wont to study there and copy the 
arabesques to assist their work in the Vatican Loggie. After this, 
neglect and the falling in of the soil caused these treasures to be 
lost till 1774, when they were again partially unearthed ; but they 
were only completely brought to view by the French, who began to 
take the work in hand in 1811, and continued their excavations for 
three years. 

The principal remains, which are now exhibited by the dim torch 
of a solitary cicerone, are those of nine chambers of the house 
of Nero, extending for 300 feet, and having on the north a kind of 
corridor or cryptoporticus, whose vault is covered with paintings 
of birds, griffins, and flowers, &c. In two of these halls are alcoves 
for couches, and in one is a cavity for a fountain with a trench 
round it, like that in the nymphaeum of the Palace of the Caesars. 
In one of the halls is a group representing Venus attended by two 
Cupids, with doves hovering over her. Near this a niche is shown 
as that occupied by the Laocoon, though it was really found in the 
Vigna de' Fredis, between the Sette Sale and S. Maria Maggiore. 
A set of thirty engravings, published by Mirri, from drawings taken 
in 1776, show what the paintings were at that time, but very few 
now remain perfect. A group of Coriolanus and his mother, repre- 
sented in Mirri's work, is now inaccessible. All the paintings are 
Pompeian in character, and for some time were considered the best 
remains of ancient pictorial art in Rome ; but they are greatly faded, 
and are inferior to those which have since been discovered on the 
Latin Way and at the Baths of Livia. The chambers which open 
beyond the nine outer halls are also considered to be part of the 
Golden House, over which Titus built his baths. In one of these 
the Meleager of the Vatican was found. A small chapel, dedicated 
to S. Felicitas and her seven sons (evidently engrafted upon the 
pagan building in the sixth century), was discovered in 1813, It 
is like the chapels in the catacombs, and is decorated with the 
conventional frescoes of the Good Shepherd, Daniel in the lions' 
den, &c. There are also some faint remains of a fresco of the 
sainted patrons. 

'Tacitus, who in his boyhood must have seen the Golden House, says that 
"there one did not so much admire the gold and precious stones, for such 
things were then a usual and vulgar luxury, but fields and lakes, and the 
spaces and vistas that revealed themselves between the groves." Uix)n the 
fields browsed herds of choice cattle ; in the woods fluttered birds of varied 

S. Pietro in Vincoli 37 

splendour, and tamed wild beasts of the most different species roamed about. 
Gilded boats and structures representing cities mirrored themselves in the 
largest of lakes. In front of the palace, in a projecting forecourt, the triple 
colonnade of which measured a thousand feet, stood a statue in bronze, com- 
pounded of gold and silver, of Xero Apwllo, a hundred and twenty feet high, the 
work of Zenodorus the Greek, the gi-eatest sculptor of the time, according to 
Pliny, a master of the art of bronze-casting, then djing out. Tlie walls within 
the palace which were not covered with the finest frescoes and stuccoes were 
inlaid with gold, precious stones, and mother of pearl ; the floor with the 
costliest of mosaics, of which one can hardly give an idea without calling to 
mind that in a citizen's house in a country town on Vesuvius such a mosaic 
floor has l)een found as the so-caUed battle of Alexander. The ceilings of the 
banquet-halls were covered with plates of ivory, from between the crevices of 
which a shower of odours was spread over the guests. The largest l)anqueting- 
hall was a rotunda, the ceiling of which — probably adorned with pictures of the 
stars— moved day and night at an equal pace with the vaidt of heaven. Baths in 
the palace were fed by ducts that bi"ought in part sea-water, in part water from 
the sulphur springs between Rome and Tivoli. " Now I begin, finally, to live 
like a human being," said Nero, when the palace was inaugurated.' — Viktor 

Behind the Convent of S. Pietro in Vincoli are other ruins called 
the Sette Sale, being remains of the reservoirs (in reality nine in 
number) for the baths. In these vineyards also are three large 
circular ruins, adorned on the interior with rows of niches for 
statues. One of them is partly built into the Polveriera, or 
powder mj^azine. These have been referred alternately to the 
Baths of Titus and those of Trajan. Close to the Convent of the 
Cappnccine alle Sette Sale, now a workhouse, the remains of a 
Temple of IsU and Serapis have been discovered (1888), with in- 
numerable fragments of statues, including a representation of the 
sacred cow Hathor. 

Immediately behind the Forum of Nerva, now spoilt by huge 
modern houses, stands the colossal brick tower known as the Torre 
del Conti, and built by Innocent III. (1198-1216) as a retreat for 
his family, now extinct. Its architect was Marchione d'Arezzo, and 
it was so much admired by Petrarch that he declared it had ' no 
equal upon earth ' ; he must have meant in height. Four of the 
Conti have mounted the papal throne : Innocent III., Gregory IX., 
Alexander IV., and Innocent XIII. The last-named Pope (1721- 
1724) boasted of having 'nine uncles, eight brothers, four nephews, 
and seven great-nephews ; ' yet — a century after — and not a Conti 

If we turn to the left close to this, we shall find, in a commanding 
position, the famous church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, said to have 
been originally founded in A.D. 109 by Theodora, sister of Hermes, 
Prefect of Rome, both converts of the then Pope, who was the 
martyr S. Alexander of the basilica in the Campagna. A bolder 
legend attributes the foundation to S. Peter himself, who is believed 
to have dedicated this church to his Divine Master. History, 
however, does not even attempt to assign an earlier foundation than 
that in 442, by the Empress Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian III., from 
whom the church takes its name of the Eudoxian Basilita. and who 

38 Walks in Rome 

placed there one of the famous chains which now form its great 
attraction to Roman Catholic pilgrims. 

' The chains, left in the Mamertine Prisons after S. Peter's confinement there, 
are said to have been found by the martyr S. Balblua in 126, and by her given to 
Theodora, anotlier sainted martyr, sister to Hermes, Prefect of Rome, from 
whom they passed into the hands of S. Alexander, first Pope of that name, and 
were finally deposited by him in the chui'ch erected by Theodora, where they 
have since remained. Such is the legendary, but the historic origin of this 
basilica cannot be traced higher than about the middle of the fifth century, 
sul)sequent to the year 439, when Jtivenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, presented to 
the Empress Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius the younger, two chains, believed 
to be those of S. Peter, one of which was placed by her In the Basilica of the 
Apostles at Constantinople, and the other sent to Rome for her daughter 
Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian III., who caused this church, hence called Eudoxian, 
to be erected, as the special shrine of S. Peter's chains.' — Hemans. 

One chain had been sent to Rome by Eudoxia the elder, and the 
other remained at Constantinople, but the Romans could not rest 
satisfied with the possession of half the relic ; and within the walls 
of this very basilica, Leo I. beheld in a vision the miraculous and 
mystical uniting of the two chains, since which they have both been 
exhibited here, and the day of their being soldered together by 
invisible power, August 1st, has been kept sacred in the Latin 
Church ! 

The church is at present entered by an ugly atrium, which was 
the wprk of Fontana in 1705 ; but Baccio Pintelli had already done 
almost all that was possible to destroy the features of the old 
basilica, under the Cardinal Titular of the Church, Giulio della 
Rovere, the same who, as Pope Julius II., destroyed the old 
S. Peter's and eighty-seven tombs of his predecessors. By Pintelli 
the present capitals were added to the columns of marmor Hymet- 
tium in the nave, and the horizontal architrave above them was 
exchanged for a series of narrow round-headed arches. 

But, in spite of alterations, the interior is still imposing. Two 
long lines of ancient fluted doric columns (ten on each side), of 
marmor Hymettium, relics of the Baths of Titus or Trajan, which 
once covered this site, lead the eye to the high altar, supposed to 
cover the remains of the seven Maccabean brothers, and to the 
tribune, which contains an ancient episcopal throne, and is adorned 
with frescoes illustrative of the life of S. Peter, by Jacopo Coppi, a 
Florentine of the sixteenth century. Beneath these is the tomb of 
Giulio Clovio, the great miniature painter of the sixteenth century, 
who was a canon of this church. 

On the left of the entrance is the tomb of Antonio Pollajuolo, the 
famous worker in bronze, and his brother Pietro. The fresco above, 
which is ascribed to Pollajuolo, refers to the translation of the body 
of S. Sebastian, as 'Depulsor Pestilitatis,' from the catacombs to 
this church, — one of the most picturesque stories of the Middle 
Ages. The great plague of a.d. 680 was ushered in by an awful 
vision of the two angels of good and evil, who wandered through 
the streets by night, side by side, when the one smote upon the door 
where death was to enter, unless arrested by the other. The people 

S. Pietro in Vincoli 39 

continued to die by hundreds daily. At length a citizen dreamt 
that the sickness would cease when the body of S. Sebastian should 
be brought into the city, and when this was done the pestilence was 
stayed. In the fresco the whole story is told. In the background 
the citizen tells his dream to Pope Agatho, who is seated among 
his cardinals. On the right the angels of good and evil (the bad 
angel represented as a devil) are making their mysterious visitation, 
on the left a procession is bringing in the relics, and the foreground 
is strewn with the corpses of the dead. The general invocation of 
S. Sebastian in Italy, and the frequent introduction of his figure in 
art, have their origin in this story. 

At the entrance of the left aisle is a fine bas-relief of S. Peter 
throned, delivering his keys to an angel, who acknowledges the 
supremacy of the apostle by receiving them on his knees. This 
work was executed in 1465, and serves as a monument to the 
Cardinal de Cusa, Bishop of Brixen, whose incised gravestone lies 

Over the second altar is a most interesting mosaic of 680, repre- 
senting in old age the S. Sebastian whom we are accustomed to see 
as a beautiful youth, wounded with arrows — which he survived : — 

' A single figure in mosaic exists as an altar-piece in S. Pietro in Yincoli. It 
is intended for S. Sebastian, whose relics were removed to the church by Pope 
Agathon, on occasion of the plague in 680, and doubtless executed soon after 
this date. As a specimen of its kind it is very remarkable. There is no analogy 
between this figure and the usual youthful type of S. Sebastian which was 
subsetiuently adopted. On the contrary, the saint is represented here as an old 
man with whit* hair and beard, carrying the crown of martyrdom in his hand, 
and dressed from head to toot in true Byzantine style. In his countenance 
there is still some life and dignity. The more careful shadowing also of the 
drapery shows that, in a work intended to be so much exjwsed to the gaze of 
the pious, more pains were bestowed than usual ; nevertheless, the figure, upon 
the whole, is very inanimate ; the ground is blue.' — Kugler. 

The first altar in the right aisle has a picture of S. Augustine by 
Guercino; then come tombs of Cardinals Margotti and Agucci, 
from designs of Domenichino, who has introduced a portrait of the 
former in his monument. At the end of this aisle is a beautiful 
picture of S. Margaret and the dragon by G^iercino; the saint is 
inspired, and displaying no sign of fear — an earthly impulse only 
appearing in the motion of her hand, which seems pushing back 
the dragon. 

' S. Margaret was daughter of a priest of Antioch named Theodosius, and was 
brought up as a Christian by her nurse, whose sheep she watched upon the hUls, 
while meditating upon the mysteries of the gospel. The governor of Antioch 
fell in love with her and wished to marry her, but she refused, and declared 
herself a Christian. Her friends thereupon deserted her, and the governor tried 
to subdue her by submitting her to horrible tortures, amid which her faith did 
not fail. She was then dragged to a dungeon, where Satan, in the form of a 
terrible dragon, came upon her with his inflamed and hideous mouth wide open, 
and sought to terrify and confound her ; but she held up the cross of the 
Kedeemer, and he fled before it. She finally suffered death by decapitation. 
Her legend was certainly known in the fifth century : in the fourteenth century 
she was one of the favourite saints, and was specially invoked by women against 
the pains of childbirth. 

40 Walks in Borne 

' " Mild Margarete, that was God's maide ; 

Maid Margarete, that was so meeke and milde.'" 

See Jameson's 'Sacred and Legendary Art,' v. 1. 

Here is the glory of the church — the famous Moses of Michel- 
angelo, forming part of the decorations of the unfinished monu- 
ment of Julius II., of which the design is in the collections of the 

' This Pope, whom nature had intended for a conqueror, and destiny clothed 
with the robe of a priest, takes his place by the side of the great warriors of the 
sixteenth century, by the side of Charles V., of Francis I., of Gonsalvo, of Cortes, 
of Alba, of Bayard, and of Doria. It is difficult to imagine Julius II. murmuring 
prayers, or saying mass in pontifical robes, and performing, in the midst of all 
those unmanly functions and thousand passive fonns, the spirit-deadening part 
which is assigned to the popes, while his soul was on fire with great-hearted 
designs, and while in the music of the psalms he seemed to hear the thunder of 
cannon. He wished to be a prince of the Church ; and with the political instinct 
of a prince he founded his state in the midst of the most difficult wars against 
Trance, and unhesitatingly conquered and took possession of Bologna, Piacenza, 
Parma, Reggio, and Urbino. . . . 

'The greatest Pope since Innocent III., and the creator of a new political 
spirit in the Papacy, he wished, as a second Augustus, ^to glorify himself and his 
creation. He took up again the projects of Nicholas V. Rome should become 
his monument. To carry out his designs he found the genius of Braraante and 
Raffaelle, and above all, that of Michelangelo, who ))elonged to him like an 
organ of his being. S. Peter's, of which he laid the foundation-stone, the 
paintings of the Sistine, the loggie of Bramante, the stanze of Raffaelle, are 
memorials of Julius the Second.' — Gregorovius, ' Grahnuiler der Pdpste.' 

Most of all Julius II. sought immortality in his tomb, for which 
the original design was absolutely gigantic. Eighteen feet high, 
and twelve wide, it was intended to contain more than forty 
statues, which were to include Moses, S. Peter and S. Paul, Rachel 
and Leah, and chained figures of the Provinces, while those of the 
Heaven and the Earth were to support the sarcophagus of the Pope. 
This project was cut short by the death of Julius in 1513, when 
only four of the statues were finished, and eight designed.^ Of 
those which were finished, three statues, the Moses, the Rachel, 
and the Leah, were afterwards used for the existing memorial, 
which was put together under Paul III. by the Duke of Urbino, 
heir of Julius II. — in this church of which his uncle had been a 

_ ' The eye does not know where to rest in this the masterpiece of sculpture 
since the time of the Greeks. It seems to be as nnich an incarnation of the 
genius of Michelangelo as a suitable allegory of Pope Julius. Like Moses, he 
was at once lawgiver, priest, and warrior. The figure is seated in the central 
niche, with long-flowing beard descending to the waist, with homed head, and 

1 ' Des huit figures <;bauch6es il y en a deux aujourd'hui au music du Louvre 
(les deux esclaves). Lorsque Michel-Ange eut renonci ft son plan primitif 11 en 
fit don h Roberto Strozzi. Des mains de Strozzi clles passerent dans celles de 
Francois I", et puis dans celles du conn(;table de Montmorency, qui les plaQa i 
son chateau d'Ecoucn, d'oii elles sont venues au Louvre. Quatre autres prison- 
niers sont places dans la grotte de Buontalenti au jardin du Palais Pitti, k 
Florence. Un groupe, representant une figure virile en terrassant une seconde, 
se voit aujourd'hui dans la grande salle del Cinquecento, au Palais vieux de 
Florence, oil elle fut placee par Cosme l".'— ^. Sabatier. 

Monument of Julius 11. 41 

deep-sunk eyes, which blaze, as it were, with the light of the burning bush with 
a majesty of anger which makes one tremble, as of a passionate being, drunken 
with flre. All that is positive and all that is negative in him is equally dreadful. 
If he were to rise up, it seems as if he would shout forth laws which no human 
intellect could fathom, and which, instead of improving the world, would drive 
it back into chaos. His voice, like that of the gods of Homer, would thunder 
forth in tones too awful for the ear of man to support. Yes ! there is some- 
thing infinite which lies in the Moses of Michelangelo. Xor is his countenance 
softened by the twilight of sadness which is stealing from his forehead over his 
eyes. It is the same deep sadness which clouded the countenance of Michel- 
angelo himself. But here it is less touching than terrible. The Greeks could 
not have endured a glance from such as Moses, and the artist would certainly 
have been blamed, because he had thrown no softening touch over his gigantic 
picture. That which we have is the archetype of a terrific and quite unap- 
proachable sublimity. This statue might take its place in the cell of a colossal 
temple, as that of Jupiter Ammon ; but the tomb where it is placed is so little 
suited to it, that regarded even only as its frame it is too small.' — Gregorovius. 

On either side of the principal figure are niches containing 
Michelangelo's statues of Rachel and Leah, — emblematic of active 
and contemplative life. Those above, of the Prophet and the Sibyl, 
are by Raffaelle da Montelupo, his best pupil ; on the summit is 
the Madonna with the infant Jesus by Scherano da Settignano. 
The worst figure of the whole is that, by Maso dal Bosco, of the 
Pope himself, who seems quite overwhelmed by the grandeur of his 
companions, and who lies upon a pitiful sarcophagus, leaning his 
head upon his hand, and looking down upon the Moses. He is 
represented with the beard which he was the first pope to reintro- 
duce after an interval of many centuries, — and it is said to have 
been from his example that Francis I,, Charles V., and others, 
adopted it also. 

Aiter all, Julius II. was not buried here, and the tomb is merely 
commemorative. He was a popular pope, and his death filled Rome 
with unfeigned sorrow, but he rests beneath a plain marble slab 
near his uncle Sixtus IV., in the chapel of the Sacrament at 
S. Peter's. 

Close to the Moses is the entrance to the chapel in which the 
chains are preserved, behind a bronze screen — the work of PoUa- 
juolo. They are of unequal size, owing to many fragments of one 
of them (first whole links, then only filings) having been removed 
in the course of centuries by various popes and sent to christian 
princes who have been esteemed worthy of the favour!^ The 
longest is about five feet in length. At the end of one of them is 
a collar, which is said to have encircled the neck of S. Peter. They 
are exposed on the day of the ' station ' (the first Monday in Lent) 
in a reliquary presented by Pius IX., adorned with statuettes of 
S. Peter and the Angel — to whom he is represented as saying, 
' Ecce nunc scio vere.'- On the following day a priest gives the 
chains to be kissed by the pilgrims, and touches their foreheads 
with them, saying, ' By the intercession of the blessed Apostle Peter, 
may God preserve you from evil. Amen.' 

1 The wife of Oswy. king of Northumberland, received a golden key containing 
filings of the chains from Pope Vitalianus, in the sisth century. 
- Acts xii. 11. 

42 Walks in Rome 

' Peter, therefore, was kept in prison ; but prayer was made without ceasing of 
tlie churcli unto God for him. And when Herod would have Ijrought him forth, 
the same night Peter was sleeping l^etween two soldiers ))ound with two chains ; 
and the keepers before the door kept the prison. And, behold, the angel of the 
Lord came upon him, and a light shined in the prison ; and he smote Peter on 
the side, and raised hini up, saying, Arise up quickly. And his cliains fell off 
from his hands.'— vlc<« xii. 5-7. 

Other relics preserved here are portions of the crosses of S. Peter 
and S. Andrew, and the body of S. Costanza. 

The sacristy, opening out of this chapel, contains a number of 
pictures, including, very appropriately, the Deliverance of S. Peter 
from Prison, by Bomenickino. Here, till a few years ago, was pre- 
served the famous and beautiful small picture known as the Speranza 
of Guido. In the last j'ears of their possession it was sold by the 
monks to an Englishman, and is replaced by a copy. 

In this church Hildebrand was crowned Pope as Gregory VII. 
(1073). Stephen IX. was also proclaimed here in 939. The ad- 
joining convent, turned into a College of Engineers by the new 
government, was built from designs of Giuliano San Gallo. Its 
courtyard contains a picturesque well (with columns), bearing the 
arms of Julius II., by Simone Mosea. The arcades were decorated 
in the present century with frescoes by Pietro Camosci, as a votive 
offering for his recovery from cholera, to S. Sebastian, 'depulsori 

Opposite S. Pietro in Vincoli is a convent of Maronite monks, in 
whose garden is a tall palm-tree, perhaps the finest in Rome. In 
the view from the portico of the church (somewhat spoilt by build- 
ing of late years) it forms a conspicuous feature, and the combina- 
tion of the old tower, the palm-tree, and the distant Capitol, 
standing out against the golden sky of sunset, is one very familiar 
to Roman artists. 

The tall machicolated Tower on the right w;as once a fortress 
of the Frangipani family, who obtained their glorious surname of 
' bread-breakers ' from the generosity which they showed in the 
distribution of food to the poor during a famine in the thirteenth 
century. The tower is now used as a belfry to the adjoining church 
of S. Francesco di Faola, being the only mediaeval fortress tower 
applied to this purpose. The adjoining building is known as the 
House of Lucrezia Borgia, and the balcony over the gateway on the 
other side is pointed out as that in which she used to stand medi- 
tating on her crimes. Here Caesar Borgia and his unhappy brother, 
the Duke of Gandia, supped with Lucrezia and their mother Vanozza, 
the evening before the murder of the duke, of which Caesar was 
accused by popular belief. It used to be well worth while to 
descend imder the low-browed arch from the church piazza, and 
look back upon this lofty house, with its deep, dark, winding stair- 
case, — a most picturesque bit of street architecture, which looked 
better the farther you descended ; but, with the usual want of taste 
which has characterised all recent municipal changes, the stair- 
case, after a short distance, has been aimlessly destroyed. This flight 
of steps led from the ancient Carinae into the ancient Suburra. The 

S. Martino al Monte 43 

Via S. Francesco di Paola is considered by Ampere ^ to have been 
the place where the house of the Horatii and the Tigellum Sororis 
once stood. 

Following the narrow lane behind S. Pietro, we reach, on the left, 
S. Martino al Monte, the great church of the Carmelites, which, 
though of uninviting exterior, is of the highest interest. It was 
built in A,D. 500 by S. Symmachus, and dedicated to the saints 
Silvestro and Martino, on the site of an older church founded by 
S. Sylvester in the time of Constantino.^ After repeated alterations, 
it was modernised in 1650 by Filippini, General of the Carmelites. 
The nave is separated from the aisles by twenty-four ancient 
Corinthian columns. The aisles are painted with landscapes by 
Gaspar Poussin, having figures introduced by his brother Nicholas. 
The roof is an addition by S. Carlo Borromeo. 

The pillars, of different marbles, are magnificent, and the effect 
of the raised choir, with winding staircases to the crypt below, is 
highly picturesque. On the walls are frescoes by Cavaluccio (ob. 
1795), who is buried in the left aisle. The collection of incised 
gravestones deserves attention : they comprise those of a knight in 
mail armour of 1349 ; Cardinal Diomede Caraffa, with a curious 
epitaph ; and various generals and remarkable monks of the Car- 
melite order. Beneath the high altar rest the bodies of Popes 
Sergius, Sylvester, Martin I., Fabian, Stephen I., Soter, Ciriacus, 
Anastasius, and Innocent I., with several saints not papal, removed 
hither from the catacombs. In the curious crypt, part of the Baths 
of Titus, the early council of Sylvester and Constantine was held, 
as represented in the fresco in the left aisle of the upper church. 
The soldiers, placed in the monastery by the present government, 
have, however, danced on its floors till they have fallen, and the 
crypt is now (1896) open to the air. The back of the ancient chair 
of Sylvester still remains, green with age and damp. In the chapel 
on the left, where S. Sylvester used to celebrate mass, is an ancient 
mosaic of the Madonna. In front of the papal chair is the grand 
sepulchral figure of a Carmelite, who was General of the Order in 
the time of S. Teresa. An urn contains the intestines of the ' Beato ' 
Cardinal Giuseppe-Maria de Tommasis, who died in 1713. His body 
is preserved beneath an altar in the left aisle of the upper church, 
and is dressed in his cardinal's robes. 

'In 1650 was reopened, beneath SS. Martino e Silvestro, the long-forgotten 
oratory formed (according to Anastasius) by Sylvester among the halls of Trajan's 
Thermae — or, more probably, in an antique palace adjacent to those imperial 
baths — and called by christian writers '•Titulus Equitii," from the name of a 
Roman priest then proprietor of the ground. Kow a gloomy, time-worn, and 
sepulchral subterranean, this structure is in form an extensive quadrangle, under 
a high-hung vault, dinded into four aisles by massive square piers ; the central 

1 Iliit. Rom. L 4C4. 

■•2 As in his other institutions, Pope Symmachus founded a bath here which 
bore an inscription ending in the lines : 

' Sou nostris nocet ofliciis nee culpa labacri 
Quod subimet general lubrica vita malum est.' 

44 Walks in Rome 

bay of one aisle adorned with a large red cross, painted as if studded with gems ; 
and ranged round this, four books, each within a nimljus, earliest symbolism to 
represent the Evangelists. Among the much-faded and dimly-seen frescoes on 
these dusky walls are figures of the Saviour between SS. Peter and Paul, besides 
other saints, each crowned by a large nimbus.' — Uemans' 'Ancient Sacred Art.' 

Here is preserved a mitre, probably the most ancient extant, and 
said to be that of S. Sylvester, who lived in the fourth century, and 
who was the first Latin bishop to wear the mitre originally worn by 
the priests of pagan temples. This ancient mitre is so low as to rise 
only just above the crown of the head. 

This church was dedicated to S. Martin, the holy Bishop of Tours, 
within a hundred years after his death, showing the very early 
veneration with which that saint was regarded. Close to the 
church was the site of the Baths of Trajan/ being nothing more 
than a restoration of part of the Baths of Titus, intended for 
women only. 

Near the north-east corner of S. Martino, very interesting remains 
of a private house were discovered in 1883, containing not only a 
Lararium, where the statue of Fortune still occupied the central 
position, with seventeen statuettes and busts of domestic deities 
around it ; but a Mithraeum, or underground cell, for the secret 
mysteries of Mithras, with a remnant of the seven torches (sticks 
of firewood coated with tar) which were kept burning before the 
image of Mithras Tauroktonos. A hall, beautifully decorated in 
stucco, had evidently been used as a library.^ 

Leaving S. Martino by the other door, near the tribune, we emerge 
at the top of the steep street called S. Lucia in Selci— ^so named from 
being paved — selciata — with polygonal blocks of basalt. The street 
is the same as that described by Martial in going to visit the younger 
Pliny as — 

' Altum vincere tramitem Suburrae.' 

Lib. X. Ep. 19, 5. 

And again — 

' Alta Suburrani vincenda est semita clivi.' 

Lib. v. Ep. 23, 5. 

The work of destruction is constantly going on in this quarter, but 
here is, or was, a whole group of convents — in the hollow the convent 
of S. Francesco di Paola, with several others ; just above (in the Via 
Quattro Cantoni) the convent of the Oratorians, or S. Filippo Neri. 
At this point also are two mediaeval towers, one till recently en- 
closed within the convent walls of S. Lucia in Selci, the other on 
the opposite side of the street, supposed by some to be the tower of 
Maecenas, celebrated by Horace. 

On the left, as we mount the street, is the House of Domenichino 
(Domenico Zampieri), whose residence here is commemorated by an 
inscription. A little farther we reach, on the right, the picturesque 
tenth-century west gate (a high narrow arch upon ionic columns, 

1 Anastasius, Vita Pont. Symmachi. 

2 See Lanciani, Ancient Rome. 

S. Prassede 45 

sadly spoilt and its ancient brickwork beplastered of late years) 
of the Church of S. Prassede, which leads into the atrium of the 
chnrch. This is seldom open, but we can enter by a door in the 
north aisle. 

S. Prassede was sister of S. Pudentiana, and daughter of Pudens 
and his wife Claudia, with whom S. Paul lodged, and who were 
among his first converts (see Chap. X. ). She gave shelter in her 
house to a number of persecuted Christians, twenty-three of whom 
were discovered and martyred in her presence. She then buried 
their bodies in the catacombs of her grandmother, S. PriscUla, but 
collecting their blood in a sponge, placed it in a well in her own 
house, where she was eventually buried herself. An oratory is said 
to have been erected on this site by Pius I., a.d. 499, when it is 
mentioned in the acts of a Council. In A.D. 822 the original chnrch 
was destroyed, and the present church erected by Paschal I., of 
whose time are the low tower, the porch, the terra-cotta cornices, 
and the mosaics. During the absence of the popes at Avignon, S. 
Prassede was one of the many churches which fell almost into ruin, 
and it has since suffered terribly from injudicious modernisations, 
first in the fifteenth century from Rosellini under Nicholas V., and 
afterwards under S. Carlo Borromeo in 1564. 

The interior is a basUica, the nave being separated from the aisles 
by sixteen granite columns, many of which have been boxed up in 
hideous stucco pilasters, decorated with frescoes of apostles ; but 
their corinthian capitals are visible, carved with figures of birds 
(the eagle, cock, and dove) in strong relief against the acanthus 
leaves. The nave is divided into four compartments by arches rising 
from the square pilasters ; the roof is coffered. 

In the right aisle is the entrance to the famous chapel, called, 
from its unusual and mysterious splendour, the Orto del Paradise — 
originally dedicated to S. Zeno, then to the Virgin, and finally to the 
great relic which it contains. Females are never allowed to enter 
this shrine except upon Sundays in Lent, but can see the relic 
through a grating. Males are admitted by the door which is 
flank^ by two columns of rare black and white marble, supporting 
a richly-sculptured marble cornice, above which are two lines of 
mosaic heads in circlets — in the outer, the Saviour and the twelve 
apostles ; in the inner, the Virgin between S. Stephen and S. Lau- 
rence, with eight female saints ; at the angles S. Pudens and S. 
Pastor. In the interior of the chapel four granite columns support 
a lofty groined vault, which, together with the upper part of the 
walls, is entirely covered with mosaic figures, standing oat distinctly 
from a gold ground. 

' Here are SS. Peter and Paul before a throne, on which is the cross, but no 
seated figure, the former apostle holding a single gold key,i the latter a scroll ; 
S. John the Evangelist, with a richly-bound volume ; SS. James and Andrew, the 

1 ' Ciami)ini gives an engraving of this figure without the key ; a detail, there- 
fore, to be ascribed to restorers :— surely neither justifiable nor judicious.'— 

46 Walks in Rome 

two daughters of Pudens, and S. Agnes, all in rich vestments, and holding 
crowns ; the Virgin Mary (a veiled matronly figure), and S. John the Baptist 
standing beside her ; under the arch of a window, another half-flgui'e of Mary, 
with three other females all having the nimljus, one crowned, one with a square 
halo to indicate a person still living ; above these, the Divine Lamb on a hill, 
from which the four rivers issue, with stags drinking of their waters, above the 
altar, the Saviour, between four other saints, — figures in part barbarously sacri- 
ficed to a modern tabernacle that conceals them. On the vault a colossal half- 
figure of the Saviour, youthful but severe in aspect, with cruciform nimbus, 
appears in a large circular halo supported by four archangels, solemn forms in 
long white vestments, that stand finely distinct in the dim light. Within a 
niche over the altar is another mosaic of the Virgin and Child, with the two 
daughters of Pudens, in which Rumohr (Italienische Forsche) observes ruder 
execution, indicating origin later than the ninth century.' — Uemans' 'Ancient 
Christian Art.' 

The relic preserved here ^ (one of the principal objects of pilgrim- 
age in Eome) is the column to which our Saviour is reputed to have 
been bound, said to have been given by the Saracens to Giovanni 
Colonna, cardinal of this church, and legate of the Crusade, because, 
when he had fallen into their hands and was about to be put to 
death, he was rescued by a marvellous intervention of celestial 
light. Its being of the rarest blood jasper is a reason against its 
authenticity ; the peculiarity of its formation having even given 
rise to the mineralogical term, ' Granito della Colonna.' A disk 
of porphyry in the pavement marks the grave of forty martyrs 
collected by Paschal I. The mother of that Pope is also buried 
here, and the inscription commemorating her observes an ancient 
ecclesiastical usage in allowing her the title of ' episcopa ' : ' Uhi 
utique henignissimae suae genitricis, scilicet Dominac Theodorae, Epis- 
copae corpus quicscit.' In this chapel Paschal I. saw the spirit of his 
nephew dragged to heaven by an angel, through the little window, 
while he was saying a mass for his soul. 

The high altar covers the entrance to a small crypt, in which are 
two ancient sarcophagi, containing the remains of the sainted 
sisters Prassede and Pudentiana. An altar here, richly decorated 
with mosaic, is shown as that which existed in the house of 
Prassede. Above is a fresco, referred to the twelfth century, 
representing the Madonna between the sainted sisters. At the 
end of the left aisle is a large slab of granite (nero-bianco), upon 
which S. Prassede is said to have slept, and above it a picture 
of her asleep. In the centre of the nave is the well where she 
collected the blood, with a hideous statue of her squeezing it out 
of a sponge. 

The chapel at the end of the left aisle is that of S. Carlo Borromeo, 
who was cardinal of this church, and contains his episcopal throne 
(a wooden chair) and a table, at which, like S. Gregory, he used to 
feed and wait upon twelve poor men daily. The pictures in this 
chapel, by Louis Stern, represent S. Carlo in prayer, and in ecstasy 
before the Sacrament. In the cloister is an old orange-tree which 
was planted by him, and which is still flourishing. 

1 Temporarily (?) removed to the crypt beneath the high altar in 1892. 

S. Prassede 47 

Opposite the side entrance of the Orto del Paradiso is the tomb 
of Cardinal Cetive (14:74), with his sleeping figure and statuettes 
of SS. Peter and Paul, S. Prassede, and S. Pudentiana. This will 
recall Browning's quaint forcible poem of ' The Bishop who orders 
his tomb at S. Praxed's Church ' — 

' Saint Praxed's ever was the church for peace. 

And there how I shall lie through centuries, 
And hear the blessed mutter of the mass. 
And see God made and eaten all day long, 
And feel the steady candle flame, and taste 
Grood strong thiclc stupefying incense-smoke I ' 

Other tombs of interest are those of Cardinal Ancherus, who was 
assassinated outside the Porta S. Giovanni in 1286— a most noble 
altar-tomb, designed bj one of the Cosmati, in a chapel close to the 
side entrance ; and Monsignor Santoni, a bust said to have been 
executed by Bernini when only ten years old. 

Two pictures in side chapels are interesting in a Vallombrosan 
church, as connected with saints of that order, — one representing 
S. Pietro Aldobrandini passing through the furnace at Settimo ; 
and another the martyrdom of Cardinal Beccaria, put to death at 
Florence (whither he was sent by Alexander IV. to make peace be- 
tween the GueLfs and Ghibellines)— and consigned to hell by Dante — 

-Quel di Beccaria, 

Di cui seg6 Fiorenza la gorgiera.' 

Inferno, xxxii. 

Steps of magnificent rosso-antico lead to the tribune, which is 
covered with mosaics of a.d. 817-824. Those on the arch represent 
the heavenly Jerusalem ; within is the Saviour with a cruciform 
halo — the hand of the First Person of the Trinity holding a crown 
over His head — and S. Peter and S. Paul bringing in the sainted 
sisters of the Church ; on the right, Pope Paschal I.,^ with a model 
of his church ; on the left, S. Zeno (?). Above these figures is the 
Adoration of the spotless Lamb, and beneath their feet the Jordan ; 
below all, is the Lamb again, with the twelve sheep issuing from 
the mystic cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, and verses recording 
the work of Paschal I. 

'The arrangement of saints at S. Prassede (817) is altogether different from 
that at Ravenna, but equally striking. Over the grand arch which separates the 
choir from the nave is a mosaic representing the New Jerusalem, as described 
in the Revelations. It is a walled enclosure with a gate at each end, guarded by 
angels. Within is seen the Sa\'ioiu- of the World, holding in His hand the orb of 
sovereignty, and a company of the blessed seated on thrones : outside, the noble 
army of martyi-s is seen approaching, conducted and received by angels. They 
are all arrayed in white, and carry crowns in their hands. Lower down, on each 
side, a host of martyrs press forward with palms and crowns, to do homage to 
the Lamb, throned in the midst. None of the martyrs are distinguished by 
name, except those to whom the chui-ch is dedicated — S. Prassede and her sister 
Pudentiana.'— Jfrs. Jameson. 

1 With a square nimbus, denoting execution in his lifetime, as at S. Cecilia 
and S. Maria in Xavicella. 

48 Walks in Borne 

While Pope Gelasius II. was celebrating mass in this church, he 
was attacked by armed bands of the inimical houses of Leone and 
Frangipani, and was only rescued by the assistance of his nephew 
Gaetano, after a conflict of some hours. Hence, in 1630, Moriandi, 
abbot of S. Prassede, was suddenly carried off and put to fearful 
tortures, which resulted in his death, ostensibly on account of 
irregularities in his convent, but really because he had been heard 
to speak against Urban VIII.^ 

In the sacristy is preserved a fine picture by Oiulio Romano of 
the Flagellation — especially appropriate in the church of the 

Hence the curious campanile of the old church (built 1110 and 
adorned with rude frescoes) may be entered, and a loggia whence 
the great relics of the church are exhibited at Easter, including 
portions of the crown of thorns, of the sponge, of the Virgin's hair, 
and a miniature portrait of our Saviour, said to have belonged 
to S. Peter, and to have been left by him with the daughters of 

The Monastery attached to the church, founded by Paschal I., 
was first occupied by Basilian, but since 1198 has belonged to 
Vallombrosan monks. Nothing remains of the mosaic-covered 
chapel of S. Agnes, built by the founder within its walls. 

Where the Via S. Prassede crosses the road leading from S. 
Maria Maggiore to the Lateran, is the modern gothic church of 
II Santissimo Redentore, belonging to the Redemptorists. 

A little beyond this, swamped by frightful modern buildings, and 
attached to the Church of S. Vito, from which it has sometimes 
been named, is the Arch of Gallienus (occupying the site of the 
Porta Esquilina in the wall of Servius), dedicated to Gallienus 
(a.d. 253-260) and his Empress Salonina, by Marcus Aurelius Victor, 
evidently a court-flatterer of the period, who was prefect of Rome, 
and possessed gardens on this spot. The original plan had three 
arches ; only that in the centre remains, but traces of another may 
be seen on the side next the church. Gallienus, who was famous 
for the extravagance of his architectural projects, had intended to 
erect a statue of himself as the sun, 219 feet high, on the top of the 
Esquiline. He was a cruel and self-indulgent emperor, who excited 
the indignation of the Romans by leaving his old father, Valerian, 
to die a captive in the hands of the Persians, so that the inscrip- 
tion, ' Clementissimo principi cuius invicta virtus sola pictate superata 
est,' is singularly false, even for the time. 

' II arrivait a Gallien de faire tuer trois ou quatre niille soldats en uu jour, et 
il ecrivait des lettres corame celle-ci, adressce 6, un de ses pdueraux : " Tu n'auras 
pas fait assez pour nioi, si tu ne niets ^ mort (lue des homines ann6s, car le sort 
de la guerre aurait pu les faire j>6nr. II faut tuer (luicoiuiue a eu une intention 
mauvaise, quiconque a nial parle de moi. Dechire, tue, extermine : laccra, occide, 
concide." Entr6 dans Byzance en promettant leur jiardon aux troupes qui 
avaient conil)attu centre lui, il les fit 6gorger, et les soldats ravag^rent la ville 
au point qu'il n'y resta pas un habitant. Voilil poiu- la cl6mence. Tandls que 

See Henians' Catholic Italy. 

Via Maggiore 49 

Valerien, son pJsre, etait prisonnier du roi des Perses Sapor, qui poiir monter ^ 
cheval se servait du dos du vieil empereur comme d'lui marche-pied, en atten- 
dant qu'il le fit empailler, I'indigne flls de Valerien vivait au sein des plus 
honteuses voluptes, et ne tentait pas un seul effort pour le delivrer. Voila pour 
la vaillance et la piete.' — Ampere, Emp. ii. 334. 

Close to this, Gallienus had ordered a statue of himself to be 
erected, which was to be double the height of the colossus of Nero, 
but it was unfinished at the time of his death, and destroyed by 
his successor. From the centre of the arch hung, from the thir- 
teenth century, the chain and keys of the gates of Viterbo, removed 
at the same time as the great bell of the Capitol. These interesting 
memorials of Middle-Age warfare were taken down in 1825. 

Remains of a large necropolis were found near this in 1874, with 
tombs of Etruscan character, proving the existence of a large 
settlement on the site before the so-called regal period. Among 
the vases found here were the rare and early aryhalloi. 

Passing under the arch, we enter upon the Via Maggiore, the 
main artery leading to Santa Croce. Here, till 1876, stood the 
humble convent of the Monache Polacche, where the long-suffering 
Madre Makrena, the sole survivor of the terrible persecution of the 
nuns of Minsk, lived in the closest retirement after her escape in 

The story of the cruel sufferings of the Polish-Basilian nuns of Minsk reminds 
one of the worst persecutions of the early Christians under Nero and Diocletian. 
Makrena Miaczylslawska was abliess of a convent of thirty-eight nuns, whom the 
apostate bishop Siemasko first tried to compel to the Greek faith in the summer 
of 1838. Their refusal led to their being driven, laden with chains, to Witepsk, 
in Silieria, where they were forced to hard labour, many of them being l^eaten to 
death, one roasted alive in a hot stove, and another having her brains beaten out 
with a stake by the abbess of the Czemice (apostate nuns), on their persisting in 
their refusal to change their religion. In 1840 the surviving nuns were removed 
to Potock, where they were forced to work at building a palace for the bishop 
Siemasko, and where nine of them perished by a falling scaffold, and many others 
expired under the heavy weights they were compelled to cany, or imder the 
lash. In 1842 their tortures were increased tenfold, eight of the sisters having 
their eyes torn out, and others being trodden to death. In 1S43 those who still 
survived were removed to Miadzioly, where the ' protopope Skrykin ' said that 
he would 'drown them like puppies,' and where they were dragged by boats 
through the shallows of the half-frozen Dwina, up to their necks in water, till 
many died of the cold. In the spring of 1845, ilakrena, with the only three nuns 
who survived with the use of their limbs (Eusebia Wawrzecka, Clotilda Konarska, 
and Irene Pomamacka), scaled the walls of their prison, while the priests and 
nuns who guarded them were lying drunk after an orgie, and, after wandering 
for three months in the forests of Lithuania, made good their escape. The nuns 
remained in Vienna ; the abbess, after a series of extraordinary adventures, 
arrived in Rome, where she was at first lodged in the convent of the Trinitii de' 
Monti. The story of the nuns of Minsk was taken down from her dictation at 
the same time by a number of eminent ecclesiastics authorised by the Pope, and 
the authenticity of her statements verified ; after which she retired into complete 
seclusion in the Polish convent on the Esfjuiline, where she long filled the 
humble office of portress. Her legs were eaten into the I)one by the chains she 
wore in her prison life. The story of the persecution ■ at Minsk may be read in 
'Le Recit de Makrena Miaczylslawska,' published at Paris, by Lecoffre, in 1846 ; 
in a paper by Charles Dickens in the Household Words for May 1854; and in 
' Pictures of Christian Heroism,' 1855. 

Nearly opposite the site of this convent, retained as the ornament 
of a hideous modern square, is the ruin erroneously called The 

50 Walks in Rome 

Trophies of Marius, from the trophies, now on the terrace in 
front of the Capitol, which were found here. This ruin is a frag- 
ment of the castellum or reservoir of the Aqua Julia, built by 
Severus. It was a most picturesque and beautiful object before 
the change of government, but now stands in a square of unspeak- 
able hideousness. 

Though the existing ruin is misnamed, the trophies erected in 
honour of the victories which Marius gained over the Cimbri were 
really set up near this ; and, curiously enough, on this site also 
Marius was defeated at the ' Forum Esquilinum ' by Sulla, who 
suddenly descended upon Rome from Nola with six legions, and 
entering by the Porta Esquilina, met his adversary here, and forced 
him to fly to Ostia. 

Beyond this, on the right, was the entrance of the Villa Palom- 
hara, occupying a great part of the site of the Baths of Titus. Here 
the Marchese Massimiliano Palombara built a room for Francesco 
Giuseppe Bona, the forerunner of Cagliostro, to make gold in. Till 
1 874 the Porta Ma/jica remained, adorned with cabalistic signs and 
Latin and Hebrew verses, having led to the hall where those who 
believed in the lapis philosophorum held their secret meetings.^ 

Modern alterations have recently destroyed nearly all the old 
landmarks in this district. On the left, close to the trophies of 
Marius, is a flight of steps leading to the entrance to the courtyard 
of the Church (now parochial) and former Monastery of S. Eusebio, 
built upon the site of the house of the saint, a priest of noble family, 
martyred by starvation under Constantius, A.D. 357. His body rests 
under the high altar, with that of S. Orosus, a Spanish priest, who 
suffered at the same time. The ceiling of the church is painted by 
Mencjs, and represents the apotheosis of the patron saint. The cam- 
panile dates from 1220. In this convent (which was conceded to 
the Jesuits in 1825 by Leo XII.) English clergymen about to join 
the Roman Catholic Church used frequently to ' make a retreat ' 
before their reception. 

Close to the city wall, at some distance on the left, is the long- 
desolate Church of S. Bibiana. 

In the time of Julian the Apostate, there dwelt in Rome a christian family, 
consisting of Flavian, his wife Dalfrosa, and his two daughters, Bibiana and 
Denietria. All these died for their faith. Flavian was exiled, and died of 
starvation ; Dalfrosa was beheaded ; the sisters were imprisoned (A.D. 3C2) and 
scourged, and Denietria died at once under the torture. Bibiana glorified God 
1),V longer sufferings. Apronius, the prefect of the city, astonished by her 
beauty, conceived a guilty passion for her, and placed her under the care of 
one of his creatures named Riifina, who was gradually to bend her to his will. 
But Bibiana repelled his proposals witli horror, and her firnuiess excited him to 
such fury, that he conmianded her to be bound to a column and scourged to 
compliance. ' I'he order was executed with all imaginable cruelty ; rivers of 
bloo<l flowed from each wound, and morsels of flesh were torn away, till even 
the most barbarous spectators were stricken with horror. Tlie saint alone con- 
tinued immovable, with her eyes fixed upon heaven, and her countenance radiant 

See Silvagni, La Cortc e la Societa Romana nei Secoli, xviii. and xix. 

S. Bibiana 51 

with celestial peace — until her body being torn to pieces, her soul escaped to her 
heavenly Bridegroom, to receive the double crown of virginity and martyrdom.' i 
After the death of Bibiana, her body was exposed to dogs for three days in the 
Forum Boai-ium, but remained unmolested ; after which it was stolen at night by 
John the priest, who buried it here. 

The church, founded in the fifth century by Olympia, a Roman 
matron, was modernised by Bernini for Urban VIII., and has no 
external appearance of antiquity. The interior is adorned with 
frescoes ; those on the right are by Agostino Ciampelli, those on 
the left are considered by Lanzi as the best works of Pietro du 
Cortona. They portray in detail the story of the saint : — 

1. Bibiana refuses to sacrifice to idols. 

2. The death of Demetria. 

3. Bibiana is scourged at the column. 

4. The Ixxly of Bibiana is watched over by a d<^. 

5. Olympia founds the church, which is dedicated by Pope Simplicius. 

The statue of the saint at the high altar is considered the master- 
piece of Bernini. It is dignified and graceful, and would hardly be 
recognised as his work. 

' This statue is one of his earliest works ; and it is said that when Bernini, in 
advaneeii life, returned from I'rance, he uttered, on seeing it, an involuntary 
expression of admiration. " But," added he, " had I always worked in this style, 
I should have been a beggar." This would lead us to conclude that his own taste 
led him to prefer simplicity and truth, but that he was obliged to conform to 
the corrupted predilection of the age.' — Eaton's ' Borne.' 

The remains of the saint are preserved beneath the altar, in a 
splendid sarcophagus of Oriental alabaster, adorned with a leopard's 
head. A column of rosso-antico is shown as that to which S. Bibiana 
was bound during her flagellation. The fete of the martyred sisters 
is observed with great solemnity on December 2nd. S. Bibiana is 
the S. Swithin, the rain-bringer of Italy. 

' II est touchant de voir, le jour de la fete, le Chapitre entier de la grande et 
somptueuse basilique de Sainte-Marie-Majeiu'e venir processionnellement :"i cette 
modeste eglise et celebrer de solennelles et pompeuses ceremonies en Thonneur 
de ces deux vierges et leiur mere : c'est que si ces trois femmes etaient faibles 
et ignorees selon le monde, elles sont devenues, par leur foi, fortes et sublimes : 
et I'Eglise ne croit pouvoir trop faire pour glorifler one pareille grandeur.' — 
Jixpre^sions d'une Catholique a Rome. 

On or near this site were the Horti Lamiani, in which the Emperor 
Caligula was hastily buried after his assassination, A.D. 41, though 
his remains were shortly afterwards disinterred by his sisters and 
burnt. These gardens were probably the property of Aelius Lamia, 
to whom Horace addressed one of his odes.'- At an earlier period 
Aelius Tubero lived here, celebrated for his virtue, his poverty, and 
his little house, where sixteen members of the Aelian Gens dwelt 
harmoniously together.^ He married the daughter of L. Aemilius 
Paulus, 'who,' says Plutarch, 'though the daughter of one who 

1 Croiret, Vie des Saints. 

2 I. 26. 

S Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 177. 

52 Walks in Rome 

had twice been consul and twice triumphed, did not bhish for the 
poverty of her husband, but admired the virtue which had made 
him poor.' 

Around and beyond the Trophies of Marius a frightful new town 
lias arisen since 1880. Instead of having Eoman names, the streets 
here are for the most part called after former kings of Sardinia, 
utterly without interest at Rome. Many ancient fragments have 
been destroyed, but here and there an old building has been 
allowed to remain, the most conspicuous being that generally 
known as the Temple of Minerva Medica, from a false impres- 
sion that the Giustiniani Minerva, now in the Vatican, was found 

The earlier topographers give this building the name of Terme 
di Galluccie, which has been interpreted to refer to baths in the 
Gardens of Gallienus. The ruin, which formerly stood in a vine- 
yard of exquisite beauty, and was painted by every artist who came 
to Rome, is a decagon, with a vaulted brick roof and nine niches 
for statues ; those of Aesculapius, Antinous, Hercules, Adonis, 
Pomona, and (the Farnese) Faun have been found on the site. Until 
the making of the railway amid its vineyards and gardens, this 
ruin was one of the most desolate in Rome, and its crown of len- 
tiscus and other shrubs made it indescribably picturesque. Now it 
is not worth a visit. 

Near this is, or was, a curious Columbarium of the Arruntia Family, 
and a brick-lined hollow, supposed to be part of the Naumachia 
which Dion Cassius says that Augustus constructed ' in the grove of 
Caius and Lucius.' 

The Columharium of the servants of the Statilian family (con- 
nected with the imperial house by the marriage of Statilia Messalina 
to Claudius) was discovered near this in 1875. No less than 5(56 
inscriptions, and a vast number of objects in terra-cotta, marble, and 
precious metals, were found. 

Between S. Maria Maggiore and S. Eusebio is a peculiar round- 
arched doorway — unique in Rome, formerly on the level of the 
street, but reached by steps since the lowering of the street in 
1876. Crouching sphinxes support it, which probably found their 
models (1269) in the Temple of Isis and Serapis. It forms the 
entrance to the Church of S. Antonio Abbate, said to occupy the 
site of a temple of Diana. The interior is decorated with very 
coarsely executed frescoes of the life of the saint — his birth, his 
confirmation by a bishop who predicted his future saintship, and 
his temptation by the devil in various forms. 

'S. Antonio, called "the patriarch of monks," became a liermit in liis twen- 
tieth year, and lived alone in the Egyptian desert till his flfty-flfth year, when 
he founded his monastei-y of Phaim, where he died at the age f)f Xd."), liavinR 
passed his life in perpetual prayer, and often having tasted no food for three 
days at a time. In the desert Satan was permitted to assault him in a visii)le 
manner, to terrify him with dismal noises ; and once he so grievously heat liini 
that he lay almost dead, covered with bruises and wounds. At other times the 

1 It was foiuid in the gardens of the Convent of S. Maria sopra Minerva. 

S. Antonio Abbate 53 

fiends attacked him with terrible clamours, and a variety of spectres, in hideous 
shapes of the most frightful wild beasts, which they assumed to dismay and 
t«rTi^ him ; till a ray of heavenly lifrht breaking in uxxjn him, chased them 
away, and caused him to cry out, "VSTiere wast Thou, my Lord and Master? 
Why wast Thou not with me?" And a voice answered, "Anthony, I was here 
the whole time; I stood by thee, and beheld thy combat; and Ijecause thoa 
hast manfully withstood thy enemies I will always protect thee, and will render 
thy name famous throughout the earth." ' — Butler's ' Lives of the Saints.' 

' Surely the imagery painted on the inner walls of Egyptian tombs, and pro- 
Ijably believed by Anthony and his comi)eers to be connected with devil-worship, 
explains his visions. In the "Words of the Elders " a monk complains of being 
troubled with " pictiu-es old and new." Pi-obably, again, the pain which Anthony 
felt was the agony of a fever, and the visions which he saw its delirium." — 
Kingsley's 'Hermits' 

In the chapel of S. Antonio is a very ancient mosaic, representing 
a tiger tearing a bull, being a relic of the Basilica of Junius Bassus, 
which occupied the site of the monastic cloisters. 

' Pope Simplicius (468-483) transformed the BasUica of Junius Bassns into the 
Church of S. Andrea. The faithful, raising their eyes towards the tribune, could 
see the figures of Clirist and His apostles in mosaic ; turning to the side walls, 
they could see Xero, Galba, and six other Roman emperors, Diana hunting the 
stag, Hylas stolen by the nymphs, Cyl>ele in the chariot drawn by lions, a lion 
attacking a centaur, the chai-iot of Apollo, figures i)erforming mysterious 
Egyptian rites, and other such profanities, represented in apius sextHe martnoreum, 
a sort of Florentine mosaic. This unique set of intarsios was destroyed in the 
sixteenth centiuTr by the lYench Antouian monks for a reason worth relating. 
They believed that the glutinous substance by which the layers of marble or 
mother-of-pearl was kept fast was an excellent remedy against the ague ; hence 
every time one of them was attacked by fever, a portion of these marvellous 
works was sacrificed.' — Laneiani. 

' Letigre en mosaique conserve dans I'eglise de S. Antoine, patron des aniniaux, 
est, selon toute apparence, le portrait d'lm actenr renomme.' — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. iv. 28. 

Hither, as long as the Papal rule lasted, in the week following the 
feast of S. Anthony (January 17th), horses, mules, and cows were 
brought to be blessed as a preservative against accidents for the 
year to come. On the 23rd the horses of the Pope, Prince Borghese, 
and other Eoman grandees (about 2.30 P.M.), were sent for this pur- 
pose. All the animals were sprinkled with holy water by a priest, 
who received a gift in proportion to the wealth of their master, and 
recited over each group the formula — 

' Per intercessionem beati Antonu Abbatis, haec animalia liberentur a malis, in 
nomine Patris et FUii et Spiritus SanctL Amen I ' 

' Les bergers remains faisaient la lustration de leurs taureaux ; ils pvuifiaient 
leurs brebis a la fete de Pales (pour ecarter d'eux toute influence funeste), comme 
ils les font encore asi)erger d'eau benite a la fete de Saint- Antoine.' — Ampere 
HisU Rom. u. 329.1 

1 This pagan benediction of the animals is represented in a bas-relief in the 
Vatican (Museo Pio-Clementino, 157). A peasant, l>earing two ducks as his 
offering, brings his cow to be blessed by a priest at the door of a chapel, and the 
priest delaying to come forth, a calf drniks up the holy water. Ovid describes 
how he took part in the feast of Pales, and sprinkled the cattle with a laurel bough 
{Fasti, iv. 728X 

54 Walks in Rome 

' " Long live S. Anthony," wiites Mabillon (in the 17th century), as he describes 
the horses, asses, and mules all going on the saint's festival to be sprinkled with 
holy water and receive the benediction of a reverend father. " All would go to 
ruin," say the Romans, " if this act of piety were omitted." So nobody escapes 
payuig toll on this occasion, not even Nostro Signore himself.'— StepAen's ' Fretich 

' 8. Anthony the abbot is the patron of the four-footed creation, and his feast 
is a saturnalia for the usually hard-worked beasts and for their attendants and 
drivers. Gentlefolk must be content to-day to stay at home or go on foot, for 
there are not wanting solemn stories of how unbelievers who have obliged their 
coachman to drive out on this day have been pmiislied by great misfortunes. 
The Church of S. Anthony stands in a large piazza, which usually looks like a 
desert, but to-day it was enlivened by a varied throng : horses and mules, their 
tails and manes splendidly interlaced with ribbons, are brought to the small 
chapel standing somewhat apart from the church, where a priest armed with a 
large asperge plentifully besprinkles the animals with the holy water, which is 
placed before him in tubs and pails, sometimes apparently with a sly wish to 
excite them to gambol. Devout coachmen bring larger or smaller wa.\ tapers, 
and their masters send gifts and alms in order to secure to tlieir valualde and 
useful animals a year's e.xemption from disease and accident. Homed cattle and 
donkeys, equally precious and serviceable to the owners, have their share in the 
blessing. ' — Goethe. 

'At the blessing of the anin)als, an adventure happened which afforded us 
some amusement. A countryman, having got a blessing ou his beast, putting 
his whole trust in its power, set off from the clmrch door at a grand gallop, and 
had scarcely cleared a hundred yards Ijefore the ungainly animal tumbled down 
with him, and over its head he rolled into the dirt. He soon got up, however, 
and shook himself, and so did the horse, without either seeming to he much the 
woree. The priest seemed not a whit out of countenance at this ; and some of 
the standers-by exclaimed, with laudable steadfastness of faith, "That but for 
the blessing, they might have broken their necks." ' — Eaton's ' Rome.'. 

' Un postilion italien, qui voyait mourir son cheval, priait pour lui, et s'ecriait : 
" O Sant' Antonio, abbiate pieta dell' anima sua ! " '—Madame de Staiil. 

'The hog was the representative of the demon of sensuality and gluttony, 
which Anthony is supposed to have vantpiished by the exercise of piety and by 
the divine aid. The ancient custom of placing in all his effigies a black pig 
at his feet or under his feet, gave rise to the superstition that this unclean 
animal was especially dedicated to him and under his protection. The monks 
of the Order of S. Anthony kept herds of consecrated pigs, which were allowed 
to feed at the puljlic charge, and which it was a profanation to steal or kill ; 
hence the proverb about the fatness of a " Tsmtony pig." '—Jameson's 'Sacred 
Art,' p. 750. 

The convent has been expropriated by the Sardinian Govern- 
ment, and is now a workhouse, and its church is closed to the 
public. Some curious inscriptions have been recently found near 
tliis relating to a lawsuit of A.D. 226, instituted by the coUeyium 
fullonuvi, or corporation of washerwomen, against the curator 
aquarum, or superintendent of public aqueducts, on account of a 
supply of water to which the washerwomen claimed to be entitled 

We now enter the Piazza of S. Maria Maggiore, in front of which 
stands a beautiful corinthian column, now called Colonna della 
Vergine. This is the last remaining column of the Basilica of 
Constantino, and is forty-seven feet high without its base and 
capital. It was brought hither by Paul V. in 1(513. The figure of 
the Virgin on the to^D is by Bertelot, and was placed here by 
Paul v., who, to provide 10,000 pounds of metal required for it, 

S. Maria Maggiore 55 

melted down the dome, four dolphins, and two peacocks, which 
belonged to the precious fountain of Symmachus in the atrium of 
the old S. Peter's ! 

The Basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, frequently named from its 
founder the Liberian Basilica, was founded A.D. 352, by Pope 
Liberius, and John,i a Roman patrician, to commemorate a miracu- 
lous fall of snow, which covered this spot of ground and no other, 
on the 5th of August, when the Virgin, appearing in a vision, 
showed them that she had thus appropriated the site of a new 
temple."^ This legend is commemorated every year on the 5th of 
August, the festa of La Madonna della Neve, when, during a 
solemn high mass in the Borghese Chapel, showers of white rose- 
leaves are thrown down constantly through two holes in the ceiling, 
' like a leafy mist between the priests and worshippers.' 

This church, in spite of many alterations, is in some respects 
internally the most beautiful and harmonious building in Rome, 
and retains much of the character which it received when rebuilt 
between 432 and 440 by Sixtus III., who thus commemorated the 
Council of Ephesus, at which the heresy of the Nestorians was 
condemned, who refused the solemn title of ' Deipara ' to the 
Virgin. Sixtus dedicated the church to S. Maria Mater Dei, and 
established it as one of the four patriarchal basilicas, whence it is 
provided with the 'porta santa,' only opened by the Pope, with 
great solemnity, four times in a century. 

On the little terrace on the right of the church is (removed from 
the piazza and now ill seen) a Cross on a pedestal formed by a 
culverin reversed, and inscribed ' In hoc signo vinces ' — a memorial 
of the absolution given by Clement VIII. in 1595 to Henry IV. of 
France, on his being received into the Roman Catholic Church. 

'It was erected by Charles d'Anisson, Prior of the French Antonines. . . . 
Though apparently erected by private enterprise, the kings of France regarded 
it as an insult of the Ciu-ia, an official Iwast of their submission to the Vope, 
and they lost no opportunity of showing their dissatisfaction in consequence. 
Louis XIV. found an occasion for revenge. The gendarmes who had escorted his 
ambassador, the Due de Crequi, to Kome, had a street brawl with the Poi)e's 
Corsican Ixxly-guards ; and although it was doubtful which side was to blame, 
Louis obliged Poi)e Alexander VII. to raise a pyramid on the spot where the 
affi-ay had taken place, with a humiliating inscription. 

' The revenge could not have been more complete : so bitter was it, that 
Alexander VII. drew up a violent protest against it, to be read and published 
only after his death. His successor, Clement IX., a favourite with Louis XIV., 
obtained leave that the pyramid should be demolished, which was done in June 
16C8, with the consent of the French ambassador, the Due de Ghaidnes. 
Svhether by stipulation or by the good-will of the Pope, the inscription of the 
column of iBenry IV. was made to disappear at the same time. We have found 
it concealed in a remote corner of the convent of S. Antonio. The column 
itself, and the canopy which sheltered it, fell to the ground, Febraary 15, 1744 ; 
and when Benedict XIV. restored the monument in the following year, he 
severed for ever its connection with these remarkable historical events by 
dedicating it Deiparae Vii'gini.' — Lanciani. 

1 His flat tombstone is in the centre of the nave. 

■- Tliis story is the subject of two of ilurillo's most lieautiful pictures in the 
Academy at Madrid. The first represents the vision of the Vii-gin to John and 
his wife ; in the second they tell what they have seen to Pope Liljerius. 

56 Walks in Bome 

The great western campanile was erected by Gregory XI. in 
1376, on his return from Avignon, and is the highest tower in 
Rome. The west front was added under Benedict XIV. (Lambertini) 
in 1741 by Ferdinando Fuga, destroying a portico of the time of 
Eugenius III., of which the only remnant is an architrave, inserted 
into which is an inscription, quoted by its defenders in proof of the 
existence of Mariolatry in the twelfth century : — 

' Tertius Eugenius Romanus Papa benignus 

Obtulit hoc munus, Virgo Maria, tibi. 
Quae Mater Christi fieri merito meruisti, 

Salva perpetua Virginitate tibi. 
Es Via, Vita, Salus, totius Gloria Mundi, 

Da veniam culpis, Virgiuitatis Honos.' 

In this portico is a statue by Lucenti, of Philip IV. of Spain, 
who gave great treasures to the church. In the upper story are 
preserved the mosaics which once decorated the old fagade, some 
of them representing the miracle which led to the foundation of 
the building. 

'To 1300 belong the mosaics on the upper part of the fagade of S. Maria 
Maggiore (now inserted in the loggia), in which, in two rows, framed in arclii- 
tectural decorations, may be seen Chi'ist in the act of benediction, and several 
saints above, and the legend of the founding of the church below — both well- 
arranged compositions. An inscription gives the name of the otherwise un- 
known master, "Philippus Rusuti." This work was formerly attributed to the 
Florentine mosaicist Gaddo Gaddi, who died 1312.'— Kugler. 

Five doors, if we exclude the walled-up Porta Santa, lead into 
the magnificent nave (280 feet long, 60 broad), lined by an avenue 
of forty-two columns of marmor Hymettium (from the mountain 
above Athens), surmounted by a frieze of mosaic pictures from the 
Old Testament of A.D. 440 — unbroken, except where six of the 
subjects have been cut away to make room for arches in front 
of the two great side chapels. The mosaics increase in splendour 
as they approach the tribune, in front of which is a grand bal- 
dacchino by Fuga, erected by Benedict XIV., supported by four 
porphyry columns wreathed with gilt leaves, and surmounted by 
four marble angels by Pietro Bracci. The pavement is of tiie most 
glorious opus alexandrinum, and its crimson and violet liues temper 
the white and gold of the walls. The fiat roof (by Sangallo), 
panelled and carved, is gilt with the first gold brought to Spain 
from South America, and presented to Alexander VI. by Ferdinand 
and Isabella, 

' The mosaics above the chancel arch are valuable for the illustration of 
christian doctrine : the throne of the Lamb as described in the Apocalypse, 
SS. Peter and Paul beside it (the earliest instance of theii- being tluis repre- 
sented) ; and the four symbols of the Evangelists above ; the Aniuuiciation ; the 
Angel appearing to Zechariah ; the Massacre of the Innocents ; the Presentation 
in the Temple ; the Adoration of the Magi ; Herod receiving the Head of S. .John 
the Baptist ; atid, below these groups, a flock of sheep, type of the faithful, 
issuing from the mystic cities, Bethlehem and .leriisalem. We see here one 
curious example of the nimbus, round the head of Herod, as a symbol of jwwer, 
apart from sanctity. In certain details these mosaics have l)een altered, with a 
view to adapting them to modern devotional bias, in a maimer that deserves 

S. Maria Maggiore 57 

reprobation ; but Ciampini (Monumenta Vetera) shows us in engraving what the 
originals were before this alteration, effected under Benedict XIV. In the 
group of the Adoration the Child alone occupied the throne, while opposite (in 
the original work) was seated, on another chair-, an elderly person in a long blue 
mantle veiling the head— concluded by Ciampini to l>e the senior among the 
Magi; the two others, younger, and both in the usual Oriental dress, with 
trousei-s and Phrygian caps, being seen to approach at the same side, whilst 
the mother stood beside the throne of the Child— her figure recognisable from its 
resemblance to others in scenes where she appeare in the same series. As this 
group is now before us, the erect figure is left out ; the seated one is converted 
into that of ilary, with a halo round the head, though in the original even such 
attribute (alike given to the Savioui- and to all the angels introduced) is not 
assigned to her.' — Ilemans' 'Ancient Christian Art.' 

The vault of the tribune is covered with mosaics by Jacopo da 
Turrita, the same who executed those at the Lateran basilica. 

' A general affinity with the style of Cimabue is observable in some mosaics 
executed by contemporary artists. Those in S. Maria Maggiore are inscribed 
with the name of Jacobus Torriti, and executed between 1287 and 1292. They 
are surpassed by no contemporary work in dignity, grace, and decorative l^eauty 
of aiTangement. In a blue, gold-starred circle is seen Christ enthroned with the 
Virgin ; on each side are adoring angels, kneeling and flying, on a gold ground, 
with S. Peter and S. Paul, the two S. Johns, S. lYancis and S. Anthony (the same 
in size and position as at S. J. Lateran), advancing devoutly along. The upi^er 
I)art is filled with graceful vine-branches, with symbolical animals among them. 
Below is Jordan, with small river gods, lx>ats, and figures of men and animals. 
Farther below are scenes from the life of Clvrist in animated an-angement. ITie 
group in the centre of the circle, of Christ enthroned with the Virgin, is especi- 
ally fine : while the Saviour is placing the crown on His mother's head, she lifts 
up her hands with the expression both of admiration and of modest remon- 
strance, i The forms are very pure and noble ; the execution careful, and very 
different from the Roman mosaics of the twelfth century.' — Kxigler. 

Built into the wall of the apse are some magnificent reliefs by 
Mino da Fiesole, which with others, now in the sacristy, once formed 
part of a reredos behind the high altar. 

In front of and beneath the high altar Pius IX. prepared a monu- 
ment for himself, by constructing a splendid chamber approached 
by staircases, and lined with the most precious alabaster and 
marbles ; but, as his death approached, his wishes changed, and 
he desired to be buried ' with the poor ' at S. Lorenzo. A fine 
statue of Kus IX. has, however, been placed here, directly in front 
of the altar. 

On the right of the western entrance is the tomb of the Rospig- 
liosi Pope, Clement IX. (1667-69), the work of Ercole Ferrata, 
a pupil of Bernini. His body rests before the high altar, sur- 
rounded by a number of the members of his family. Left of 
the entrance is the tomb of Nicholas IV., Masci (1288-92), erected 
to his memory three hundred years after his death by Sixtus V. 
while still a cardinal. He is represented giving benediction, 
between two allegorical figures of Justice and Religion — a fine 
work of Leonardo da Sarzana. 

1 This mosaic will bring to mind the beautiful lines of Dante : — 

• L' amor che mosse giii 1' etemo padre 
Per flglia aver di sua Deitii trina 
Costei che fu del flgliosuo i>oi madre 
Deir miiverso qui fa la regiua.' 

58 Walks in Rome 

' It is well to know that this pope, a mere upstart from the dust, sought to 
support himself through the mighty family of Colonna, by raising them too high. 
His friend, the Cardinal Giacomo Colonna, contributed with him to the renewal 
of the mosaics which are in the tribune of S. Maria Maggiore, and one can see 
their two figures there to this day. It was in this reign that Ptolemais, the 
last possession of the Christians in Asia, fell into the hands of the Mohammedans ; 
thus ending the era of the Crusades.'— Cfrejroromtts. 

Behind this tomb, near the walled-up Porta Santa, is a good 
tomb of two bishops, brothers, of the fifteenth century ; and in the 
same aisle are many other monuments of the sixteenth century, 
some of them fine in their way. 

Nearly on a line with the baldacchino is the entrance of the 
Borghese Chapel, built by Flaminio Ponzio for Paul V. in 1608, 
gorgeous with precious marbles and alabasters, plundered from the 
Temple of Minerva in the Forum Transitorium. Over its magni- 
ficent altar of jasper and lapis-lazuli is preserved one of the 
pictures attributed to S. Luke (and announced to be such in a 
Papal bull attached to the walls !), much revered from the belief 
that it stayed the plague which decimated the city during the 
reign of Pelagius II., and that (after its intercession had been 
sought by a procession by order of Innocent VIII.) it brought about 
the overthrow of the Moorish dominion in Spain. 

' On conserve a Sainte-Marie-Majeure une des images de la Madonne peintes 
par S. Luc, et plusieurs fois on a trouve les anges chantant les litanies autoiu- de 
ce tableau.' — Stendal, 

The 'scheme of decorations in this gorgeous chapel is so remarkable, as 
testifying to the development which the theological idea of the Virgin, as the 
Sposa or personified Church, had attained in the time of Paul V.— the same 
pope who in 1615 ])romulgated the famous bull relative to the Immaculate 
Conceptitm ' — that the insertion of the whole passage of Mrs. Jameson on this 
subject will not be considered too much. 

'i'irst, and elevated above all, we have the "Madonna della Concezione," 
"Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception," in a gloi-y of light, sustained and 
surrounded by iingels, having the crescent under her feet, according to the 
approved treatment. Beneath, round the dome, we read in conspicuous letters 
the text from the Revelation :—SlGNUM . magnum . AI'PAUCIT . IN . COELO . 


EJUS . CORONA . STELLAKUM . DUOBECIM. Lower dowu is a second inscription 
expressing the dedication :—MARlAE . CHRISTI . MATRI . SEMPER . virgin! . 
PAULUS . QUINTUS . P.M. The decorations beneath the cornice consist of 
eighteen large frescoes, and six statues in marble, above life size. We have 
the subjects arranged in the following order : — 

' 1. The four great prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, in their 
usual place in the four pcndentives of the dome. 

'2. Two large frescoes. In the first the Vision of S. Gregory Tliaumaturgus, 
and Heretics l>itten by Serpents. In the second, S. John Damascene and S. 
Ildefonso miracuIo\isly rewarded for defending the majesty of the Virgin. 

' 3. A large fresco, representing the four Doctors of the Church who had espe- 
cially written in honour of the Virgin : viz., Irenaeus and Cyprian, Ignatius and 
Theophilus, grouped two and two. 

'4. S. Luke, who pahited the Virgin, and whose Gospel contains the best 
account of her. 

'5. As spiritual conquerors in the name of the Virgin, S. Dominic and 
S. Francis, each attended Ijy two companions of his Order. 

'6. As military comiuerors in the name of the Virgin, the Emperor Heraclius 
and Narses, the general against the Arians. 

'7. A group of three female figiues, representing the three famous saintly 
princesses, who in n)arriagc preserved their virginity— I'ukheria, Edeltruda (our 
famous Queen Etheldreda), and Cunegunda. 

The Borghese Cliapel 59 

'8. A group of three learned Bishops, who had esi)ecially defended the 
immaculate purity of the Virgin — S. Cyril, S. Auselm, and S. Denis (7). 

' 9. Tlie miserable ends of those who were opiwsed to the honoiir of the Virjrin. 
1. The death of Julian the Aiwstate, very otldly represented ; he lies on an altar, 
transfixed by an arrow, as a victim ; S. Mercurius in the air. 2. The death of 
Leo IV., who destroyed the effigies of the Virgin. 3. The death of Constantine 
rv., also a famous iconoclast. 

' The statues which are placed in niches are — • 

' 1-2. S. Joseph, as the nominal husband, and S. John the Evangelist, as the 
nominal son, of the Virgin ; the latt-er, also, as prophet and poet, with reference 
to the passage in the Revelation xii. 1. 

' 3-4. Aaron, as priestly ancestor (because his wand blossomed), and David, as 
kingly ancestor, of the Virgin. 

' 5-6. S. Dionysius the Areopagite, who was present at the death of the Virgin, 
and S. Bernard, who composed the famous "Salve Begma" in her honour. 

'Such is this grand systematic scheme of decoration, which, to those who 
regard it cursorily, is merely a sumptuous confusion of colours and forms, or at 
Ijest a " fine example of the Guido school and Bernini." It is altogether a very 
complete and magnificent specimen of the prevalent style of art, and a very com- 
prehensive and suggestive expression of the prevalent tendency of thought in the 
Roman Catholic Church from the beginning of the seventeenth century. In no 
description of this chapel have I seen the names and subjects acciuately given : 
the style of art belongs to the decadence, and the taste being worse than question- 
able, the prevailing doetriiial idea has been neglected, or never understood.' — 
Legends of the Madonna, Ixxi. 

On the right is the tomb of Clement VIII. (1592-1605), the 
Florentine Ippolito Aldobrandini, the builder of the new palace of 
the Vatican, and the cruel torturer and executioner of the Cenci. 
He is represented in the act of benediction. The bas-reliefs on his 
monument commemorate the principal events of his reign — the con- 
clusion of peace between France and Spain, and the taking of 
Ferrara, which he seized from the heirs of Alphonso II. 

On the left is the tomb of Paul V. (1605-21), Camillo Borghese, 
in whose reign S. Peter's was finished, as every traveller learns 
from the gigantic inscription over its portico — who founded the 
great Borghese family, and left to his nephew, Cardinal Scipio 
Borghese, a fortune which enabled him to buy the Borghese Palace 
and to build the Borghese Villa. 

' It is a truly herculean figure, with a grandly developed head, while in his thick 
neck, pride, violence, and sensuality seem to be united. He is the first poi)e who 
wore the beard of a cavalier, like that of Henry IV., which recalls the ITiirty Years' 
War, which he lived through, as far as the battle of the ^^^lite iloxmtain. In 
this round, domineering, pride-swollen countenance appears the violent, impe- 
rious spirit of Paul, which aimed at an absolute power, ^^"ho does uot rememlier 
his famous quan-el with Venice, and the role which his far sui)erior adversary 
Paolo Sarpi played with such inrincible com-age ? The bas-reliefs of his tomb 
represent the reception given by the Pope to the envoys of Congo and Japan, the 
building of the citadel of Ferrara, the sending of auxiliary troops to Hungary to 
the assistance of Rudolph II., and the canonisation of S. Francesca Romana and 
S. Carlo Borromeo.' — Gregorovius. 

The frescoes in the cupola are by Cigdi ; those around the altar 
by the Cav. d'Arpino ; those above the tombs and on the arches by 
Guido, except the Madonna, which is by Lanfranco. The beloved 
Princess Borghese, nee Lady Gwendoline Talbot, was buried in front 
of the altar, Oct. 30, 1839, aU Rome following her to the grave. 

60 Walks in Rome 

The funeral of Princess Borghese proved the feeling with which she was re- 
garded. Her body lay upon a car wliich was drawn by forty young Romans, and 
was followed ))y all the jwor of Home, the procession swelling like a river in 
every street and piazza it passed through, while from all the windows as it passed 
Uowers were showered down. In funeral ceremonies of great personages at Rome 
an ancient custom is observed, by which, when the body is lowered into the gi'ave, 
a chamberlain, coming out to the church door, announces to the coachman, who 
is waiting with the family carriage, that his master or mistress has no longer need 
of his services ; and the coachman thereupon breaks his staff of office and drives 
mournfully away. When this formality was fulfilled at the funeral of Princess 
Borghese, the whole of the vast crowd waiting outside the basilica broke into 
tears and sobs, and kneeling by a common impulse, prayed aloud for the soul of 
their benefactress. 

The chapel has lately been the scene of a miraculous story, with 
reference to a visionary appearance of the Princess Borghese, which 
has obtained great credit among the people, by whom she is already 
looked upon as a saint. 

Q'he first chapel in the right aisle is that of the Patrizi family, and 
close by is the sepulchral stone of their noble ancestor, Giovanni 
Patricino, whose bones were found beneath the high altar, and de- 
posited here in 1700. A little farther is the chapel of the Santa 
Croce, with ten porphyry columns. Then comes the Chapel of the 
Holy Sacrament, built by Fontana for Sixtus V. while still Cardinal 
of Montalto, and one of the most perfect gems of renaissance archi- 
tecture anywhere existing. Gregory XIII., who was then on the 
throne, visited this gorgeous chapel when it was nearly completed, 
and immediately decided that one who could build such a splendid 
temple was sufliciently rich, and suppressed the cardinal's pension. 
Fontana advanced a thousand scudi for the completion of the work, 
and had the delicacy never to allow the cardinal to imagine that he 
was indebted to him. The chapel, restored 1870, is adorned with 
statues by Giobattista Pozzo, Cesare Nebbia, and others. Under the 
altar is a presepio — one of the best works of Bernini ; and opposite 
to it, in the confession, a beautiful statue of S. Gaetano (founder of 
the Theatines, who died 1547^), with two little children. On the 
right is the splendid tomb of Pius V., Michele Ghislieri (1566-72), 
the bare-footed, bare-headed Dominican monk of S. Sabina, who in 
his short six years' reign beheld, amongst other events, the victory of 
Lepanto, the fall of the Huguenots in France, and the massacre of S. 
Bartholomew, events which were celebrated at Rome with festas and 
thanksgivings. The figure of the Pope, a monk wasted to a skeleton 
(by Leonardo da Sarzana), sits in the central niche, between statues 
of S. Dominic and S. Peter Martyr. A number of bas-reliefs by 
different sculptors represent the events of his life. Some are by the 
Flemish artists Nicolas d' Arras and Egidius. 

On the left is the tomb of Sixtus V. (1585-90), Felice Perretti, 
who as a boy kept his father's pigs at Montalto ; who as a young man 
was a Franciscan monk preaching in the Apostoli, and attracting 
crowds by his eloquence ; and who then rose to be Bishop of Fermo, 
soon after to be cardinal, and was lastly raised to the Papal throne, 

1 Sec S. Dorutea, ch. -wii. 

Chapel of the Sacrament 61 

which he occnpied only five years, a time which sufficed for the 
prince of the Church who loved building the most to renew Rome 

' If anything can still the spectator to silence and awaken him to great recol- 
lections, it is the monument of this astonishing man, who, as child, hei-ded swine, 
and as an old man commanded people and kings, and who filled Rome with so 
many works, that from every side his name, like an echo, rings in the traveller's 
ear. We never cease to be amazed at the wonderful luck which raised Napoleon 
from the dust to the throne of the world, as if it were a romance or a fair)' story. 
But if in the history of kings these astonishing changes are extraordinary acci- 
dents, they seem quite natural in the history of the popes, they l>elong to the 
very essence of Christendom, which does not appeal to the person, but to the 
spirit ; and while the one history is full of ordinary men, who, without the pre- 
rogative of their ci-own, would have sunk into eternal oblivion, the other is rich 
in gi'eat men, who, placed in a different sphere, would have been equally worthy 
of renown.'— (rregorovitis. 

The famous pope Honorius III. (Cencius Savelli, 1216-29), who 
founded the Dominican and confirmed the Franciscan order, is 
buried, without a monument, before the altar of the Presepio. 

In a little chapel on the left of the entrance of this — which is, as 
it were, a transept of the church — is a fine picture of S. Jerome by 
Spagndetto, and in the chapel opposite a sarcophagus of two early 
christian consuls, richly wrought in the Roman Imperial style, but 
with christian subjects — Daniel in the den of lions, Zaccheus in the 
sycamore tree, Martha at the raising of Lazarus, &c. 

At the end of the right aisle, near the door, is perhaps the finest 
gothic monument in Rome, the work of Giovanni Cosmati, the 
sculptor of the great mosaicist family, being the tomb of Cardinal 
Rodrigo Consalvi, Archbishop of Toledo and Bishop of Albano, c. 

' A recumbent statue, in pontifical vestments, rests on a sarcophagus, and two 
angels draw aside curtains as if to show us the dead ; in the background is a 
mosaic of Mary enthi-oned, with the Child, the ajwstle Matthias, S. .Jerome, and 
a smaller kneeling figure of Consalvi, in pontifical robes ; at the apex is a 
tabernacle with cusped arch, and below the epitaph, "Hoc opus fecit Joannes 
Magister Cosmae civis Romanus," the artist's record of himself. In the hands 
of S. Matthias and S. Jerome are scrolls ; on that held by the apostle the words, 
"Me tenet ara prior;" on S. Jerome's, "Recubo presepis ad antrum," these epi- 
taphs confirming the tradition that the bodies of S. Matthias and S. Jerome 
repose in this church, while indicating the sites of their tombs. Populai' regards 
have distinguished this tomb ; no doul)t in intended honour to the Blessed Virgin, 
lamps are kept ever burning, and vases of flowers ranged, before her mosaic 
image.' — Hemans' ' Mediaeval Christian Art.' 

Near the other end of the right aisle, entered through the chapel 
of the Patrizi, is the Baptistery, which has a vast porphyry vase, 
found underground in the Forum, as a font. Hence we reach the 
Sacristia, in the inner chamber of which are some exceedingly 
beautiful bas-reliefs by Mino da Piesole, belonging to the original 
high altar. One of them is signed by Mine. 

1 There are two other known works of Giovanni Cosmati — the tomb of 
Guglielmo Duranti at S. Maria sopra Minerva, and that of Don Stefano Stiirdi 
at S. Balbina. 

62 Walks in Rome 

One of the greatest of the Christmas ceremonies is the procession 
at 5 A.M., in honour of the great relic of the church — the Santa Culla 
— i.e. the cradle in which our Saviour was carried into Egypt ; not, 
as is frequently imagined, the manger, which is allowed to have 
been of stone, and of which a single stone only is supposed to have 
found its way into Kome, and to be preserved in the altar of the 
Blessed Sacrament. The ' Santa Culla ' is preserved in a magnificent 
reliquary, six feet high, adorned with bas-reliefs and statuettes in 
silver. On the afternoon of Christmas Eve the public can visit the 
relic at an altar in a little chapel near the sacristy. On the after- 
noon of Christmas Day it is also exposed, but upon the high altar, 
where it is less easily seen. 

'Le Seigneur Jesus a voulu naitre dans una etable ; mais les honimes ont 
apport<5 precieusement le petit berceau qui a rcQU le salut du monde dans la 
reine des cites, et ils I'ont enchass^ dans I'or. 

' C'est bien ici que nous devons accourir avec joie et redire ce chant triomphant 
de I'Eglise : Adeste, fideles, laeti trium2>hante>! ; venite, venite in Bethlehem.' — 
line Chretienne u Home. 

Among the many other relics preserved here are two little bags 
of the brains of S. Thomas h, Becket. 

It was in this church that Pope S. Martin I. was celebrating mass 
in the seventh century, when a guard sent by the Exarch Olympius 
appeared on the threshold with orders to seize and put him to death. 
At the sight of the pontiff the soldier was stricken with blindness, 
a miracle which led to the conversion of Olympius and many other 

Platina, the historian of the popes and ' sacerdos academiae 
Romanae,' was buried here, with the epitaph : ' Quisquis es, si plus, 
Platynam et sua ne vexes, anguste jacent et soli volunt esse.' 

S. Maria Maggiore was the scene of the seizure of Hildebrand by 

' On Christmas Eve, 1075, the city of Rome was visited by a dreadful tempest. 
Darkness brooded over the land, and the trembling spectators believed that the 
day of final judgment was about to dawn. In this war of the elements, however, 
two processions were seen advancing to the church of S. Maria Maggiore. At the 
head of one was the aged Hildebrand, conducting a few priests to worship at the 
shrine of the Virgo Deipara. The other was preceded by Cencius, a Konian noble. 
At each pause in the tempest might be heard the hallelujas of the worshipjiers, 
or the voice of the pontiff, potn'ing out benedictions on the little flock which 
knelt before him, when Cencius grasped his person, and some yet more daring 
rulHan inflicted a wound on his forehead. Bound with cords, strippeil of his 
sacred vestments, beaten, and subjected to the basest indignities, the venerable 
minister of Christ was carried to a fortified mansion within the walls of the city, 
again to be removed at daybreak to exile or deatli. Women were there, with 
women's sympathy and kindly offices, but they were rudely put aside ; and a 
drawn sword was already aimed at the pontiff's bosom, when the cries of a fierce 
multitude, threatening to burn or batter down the house, arrested the aim of the 
assassin. An arrow, discharged from below, reached and slew him. The walls 
rocked beneath the strokes of the maddened popidace, and Cencius, falling at 
his prisoner's feet, became himself a suppliant for pardon and for life. ... In 
profound silence, and with undisturbed serenity, Hildebrand had thus far sub- 
mitted to these atrocious indignities. Tlie occasional raising of his eyes towards 
heaven alone indicated his consciousness of them. But to the siipplication of 
his prostrate enemy he returned an instant and a calm assurance of forgiveness. 

Villa of Maecenas 63 

He rescued Cencius from the exasperated I>esieger8, dismissed him in safety and 
in peace, and returned, amidst the acclamations of the whole Koman jieople, to 
complete the interrupted solemnities of S. Maria Maggiore.'— St«pA«n'« ^Lectures 
on Eecleg. Hist.' 

Leaving the church by the door behind the tribune, we find our- 
selves at the top of the slope of the Esquiline (till recently very 
steep) and in front of an Obelisk erected here by Fontana for 
Sixtus v., brought from Egypt by Claudius, and one" of two which 
were used to guard the entrance to the mausoleum of Augustus. 
The inscriptions on three of its sides are worth notice : ' Christi 
Dei in aeternum viventis cunabula laetissime colo, qui mortui 
sepulchre Augusti tristis serviebam.' — ' Quem Augustus de virgine 
nascitnrum vivens adoravit, sed deinceps dominum dici noluit 
adoro.' — ' Christus per invictam crucem popnlo pacem praebeat, qui 
Augusti pace in praesepe nasci voluit.' 

On the road which leads from S. Maria Maggiore to the Lateran 
are roofed in some remains of what is called the Villa of Maecenas, 
built close against the Servian wall. The portion preserved is a 
large chamber, ending in an apse. The walls, vaulting, and six 
recesses on either side of the hall, are decorated with paintings of 
trees and flowers. 

Facing this is the vast Palazzo Reld, by far the largest and most 
sumptuous private residence erected since the change of government. 
Its exquisitely beautiful gardens cover a large part of the Esquiline 
and most of the site of the Baths of Titus. They enclose several 
picturesque ruins, and have lovely views over theColiseum and to 
the old churches of the Coelian. " Amid the universal destruction 
of beauty and picturesqueness at Rome, the good taste and wealth 
of an American lady have made the old vineyards of the Esquiline 
far more beautiful than they were before. 



Via S. Giovanni— The Obelisk and Baptistery— Basilica and Cloisters— Mosaic of 
the Triclininm — Scala Santa — Palace of the Lateran — Villa Massimo Arsoli-- 
SS. Pietro e Marcellino — Villa Wolkonski— (Porta Fiirba — Tonil)s of the Via 
Latina — Basilica of S. Stefano) — S. Croce in Geriisalemnie — Amphitheatrnm 
Castrense — Porta Maggiore — (Tomb of S. Helena — Torre dei Schiavi — Oerva- 
letto — Cervara}— Porta and Basilica of S. Lorenzo— Catacomb of S. Hippolytus. 

BEHIND the Coliseum the Via S. Giovanni ascends the slope of 
the Coelian. In mediaeval times this road was always avoided 
by the popes, on account (as most authorities state) of the scandal 
attaching to the more than doubtful legend of Joan, the famous 
papessa, who is said to have horrified her attendants by giving birth 
to a child on this spot, during a procession from the Lateran, and to 
have died of shame and terror immediately afterwards. Joan is 
stated to have been educated at Athens, to have skilfully obtained 
her election to the Papal throne, disguised as a man, between the 
reign of Leo IV. and that of Benedict III. (855), and to have taken 
the name of John VIII., and reigned more than two years. The 
legend first appears in the thirteenth century, and was generally 
believed till the fifteenth. In the Cathedral of Siena the heads of 
all the popes in terra-cotta (down to Alexander III.) decorate the 
frieze above the arches of the nave, and among them was that of 
Pope Joan, inscribed, ' Johannes VIII., Femina de Anglia,' till KIOO, 
when it was changed into a head of Pope Zacharias by the Grand 
Duke, at the request of Pope Clement VIII. 

On the left of this street is S. Clemente (described Chap. VII.). 
On the right, a long wall flooded by a cascade of Banksia roses in 
spring, and a villa inlaid with terra-cotta ornaments, belonged to 
the favourite residence of the well-known Marchese Campana, the 
learned archaeologist of Etruria, and the chief benefactor of the 
Etruscan museum at the Vatican, cruelly imprisoned and exiled by 
the Papal Government in 1858,'upon an accusation of having tampered 
with the revenues of the Monte di Pieth,. This beautiful villa was 
* improved away ' in 1889. 

Beyond the turn of the road leading to S. Stefano Rotondo 
(Chap. VII.), bas-reliefs of our Saviour's head (from the Acheiro- 


Baptistery of the Lateran 65 

poeton in the Sancta Sanctorum) between two candelabra, upon 
the different buildings, announce the property of the Lateran 

The Piazza di San Giovamii is surrounded by a remarkable group 
of buildings. In front are the Baptistery and Basilica of the 
Lateran. On the right a hospital for women, capable of containing 
600 patients ; on the left, beyond the modern palace, are seen the 
buildings which enclose the Santa Scala, and some broken arches of 
the Aqua Marcia. In the centre of the piazza is the Obelisk of the 
Lateran, 150 feet high, the oldest object in Rome, being referred by 
translators of hieroglyphics to the year 1740 B.C., when it was raised 
in memory of the Pharaoh Thothmes IV. It was brought from the 
Temple of the Sun at Heliopolis to Alexandria by Constantino, and 
removed thence by his son Constantius to Rome, where it was used, 
together with the obelisk now in the Piazza del Popolo, to ornament 
the Circus Maximus. Hence it was moved to its present site in 
1588 by Fontana for Sixtus V. The obelisk was then broken into 
three pieces, and in order to piece them together, some part had to 
be cut off ; but it is still the tallest in the city. One of the inscrip- 
tions on the base is false, as it narrates that Constantino received 
at the Lateran the baptism which he did not receive till he was dying 
at Nicomedia. 

An octagonal building of mean and miserable exterior is the 
Baptistery of the Lateran, sometimes called S. Giovanni in Fonte, 
built not by Constantine, to whom it is falsely ascribed, but by 
Sixtus III. (430-440). Of his time are the two porphyry columns at 
the entrance on the side nearest the church, and the eight which 
form a colonnade round the interior, supporting a cornice from 
which rise the eight small columns of white marble which sustain 
the dome. In the centre is the font of green basalt in which 
Rienzi bathed on the night of August 1, 1.347, before his public 
appearance as a knight, when he summoned Clement VI. and other 
sovereigns of Europe to appear before him for judgment. The 
cupola is decorated with scenes from the life of John the Baptist 
by Andrea Sacchi. On the walls are frescoes portraying the life of 
Constantine by Geminiano, Carlo Maratta, and Andrea Camassei. 
This building served as the model of all the many ancient baptis- 
teries which exist in Italy. 

On the right is the Chapel of S. John the Baptist, built by Pope 
Hilary (461-467). Between two serpentine columns is a figure of S. 
John Baptist by L. Valadico after DonateUo. 

On the left is the Chapel of S. John the Evangelist, also built by 
Hilary, who presented its bronze doors (said to have once belonged 
to the Baths of Caracalla) in remembrance of his delivery from the 
fury of fanatical monks at the Second Council of Ephesus, where 
he appeared as the legate of Leo I. — a fact commemorated by the 
inscription : ' Liberatori suo B. Joanni Evangelistae Hilarius Epis- 
copus famulus Christi.' The vault is covered with mosaics repre- 
senting the spotless Lamb in Paradise. Here is a statue of S. Jolm 
by Landini. 


66 Walks in Rome 

Close by is the entrance to the Oratory of S. Venanzio,^ built in 
G40 by John IV., and dedicated to S. Venantius from a filial feeling 
to his father, who bore the same name. Nothing, however, remains 
of this time but the mosaics. Those in the apse represent the 
Saviour in the act of benediction with angels, and below Him the 
Virgin (an aged woman) in adoration,^ with S. Peter and S. John 
Baptist, S. Paul and S. John the Evangelist, S. Venantius and S. 
Domnus — and another figure unnamed, probably John IV., holding 
the model of a church. Outside the chancel arch are eight saints, 
with their names (Palmianus, Julius, Asterius, Anastasius, Maurus, 
Septimius, Antiochianus, Cajanus), the symbols of the evangelists, 
and the cities Bethlehem and Jerusalem ; also the verses — 

' Martyribus Christi Bomini pia vota Johannes 

Reddidit antistes, sanctiflcante Deo. 
At sacri fontis similis fulgente nietallo, 

Providus instanter hoc copulavit opus : 
[Quo quisquis gradiens et Christum pronus adorans, 

Effusasque preces impetrat ille suas.' 

The next chapel, called the Cappella Borgia, and used as the 
burial-place of that family, was once an open portico, but this 
character was destroyed by the building up of the intercolumnia- 
tions. On its facade are a number of fragments of ancient friezes, 
&c. Over the inner door is a bas-relief of the Crucifixion of 1494. 

The piteous modernisation of this ancient group of chapels is 
chiefly due to the folly of Urban VIII. The baptistery is used on 
Easter Eve for the ceremony of adult baptism, the recipients being 
called Jews. A still countrified lane (189C), Via della Ferratella, 
leads hence to the Baths of Caracalla. 

The Lateran derives its name from a rich patrician family, whose 
estates were confiscated by Nero, when their head, Plautius 
Lateranus, was put to death for taking part in the conspiracy of 
Piso.^ Eemains of their villa were discovered near the apse of the 
church in 1870. It became an imperial residence, and a portion of 
it being given by Maximianus to his daughter Fausta, second wife 
of Constantino, became, under the name of ' Domus Faustae,' her 
usual residence. It was this which was given by Constantine to 
Pope Melchiades in 312 — a donation which was confirmed to S. 
Sylvester, in whose reign the first basilica was built here, and con- 
secrated on November 9th, 324, Constantine having laboured with 
his own hands at the work. This basilica was overthrown by an 
earthquake in 896, but was rebuilt by Sergius III. (904-911), being 

1 S. Venantius was a child martyred at Cameriuo under Decius in 250. Pope 
Qement X., who had been Bishop of Camerino, had a peculiar veneration for 
this saint. 

2 This figure of the Virgin is of great interest, as introducing the Greek 
classical type under which she is so often afterwards represented in Latin art. 

3 It was near the Latoran, on the site of tlie gardens of Plautius Lateranus, 
that the famous statues of the Niobides, attributed to Scopas, now at Florence, 
were found. The fine tomb of the Plautii is a striking object on the road to 

S. John Lateran 67 

then dedicated to S. John the Baptist. This second basilica, whose 
glories are alluded to by Dante — 

. . . . ' Quando Laterano 

Alle cose mortali ando di sopra. — Paradiso, xxxi. 

was of the greatest interest, but was almost entirely destroyed by 
fire in 1308. It was rebuilt, only to be again burnt down in 1360, 
when it remained for four years in utter ruin, in which state it was 
seen and mourned over by Petrarch. The fourth restoration of the 
basilica was due to Urban Y. (1362-70), but it has since undergone 
a series of mutilations and modernisations which have deplorably 
injured it. The west front still retains the inscription ' Sacrosancta 
Lateranensis ecclesia. Omnium urbis et orbis Ecclesiarum Mater et 
Caput ; ' the Chapter of the Lateran still takes precedence even over 
that of S. Peter's ; and every newly elected pope comes hither for 
his coronation. 

' S. J. Lateran est regarde comme le si^e du i>atriarcat romain. A S. Pierre 
le pape est souverain pontife. A S. J. Lateran il est eveque de Home. Quand le 
pape est elu, il vient ii S. J. Lateran prendre possession de son siege comme 
eveque de Kome.' — A Du Pays. 

' In the Lateran is the true Pontifical throne, on the platform of which are 
written the words Haec eat papalU nedes et pontijicalu. Over its front is 
inscribed the decree, Papal and Imperial, declaring it to be the mother and 
mistress of all churches.' — A. P. Stanley, ' Christian InstittUiong.' 

The east end of the church — Basilica Salvatoris — till lately a 
remnant of the building of the tenth century, has two quaint towers 
(rebuilt by Sixtus IV.) at the end of the transept, and a rich frieze 
of terra-cotta. The church is entered from the transept by a portico, 
ending in a gloomy chapel which contains a statue of Henry IV. by 
Niccolo Cordieri. The transept — rich in colour from its basement 
of varied marbles, and its upper frescoes of the legendary history 
of Constantine — is by far the finest part of the basilica, which, 
as a whole, is infinitely inferior to S. Maria Maggiore. In the 
chapel nearest the entrance, a very curious kneeling statue of 
Nicholas IV. — Masci (1287-92) — has been removed from the Portico 
Leonino. Over the next door is the fine monument of Innocent III. 
(1216) by Giuseppe Lucchetti, 1891, a graceful tribute of Leo XIII. 
to his great predecessor. The nave, consisting of five aisles, is 
of grand proportions, but has been hideously modernised under 
Borromini, who has enclosed all its ancient columns of verde 
antico (lapis Atracius), except two near the tribune, in tawdry 
plaster piers, in front of which are huge statues of the apostles ; 
the roof is gilt and gaudy, the tabernacle ugly and ill-proportioned 
— only the ancient pavement of opus-alexandrinum is fine. Con- 
fessionals for different languages are placed here, as in S. Peter's. 
The tabernacle was erected by Urban V. in the fourteenth century. 
Four granite columns support a gothic canopy, decorated at its 
angles with canopied statuettes. Between these, on either side, 
are three much restored frescoes by Bemi da Siena, those in central 
panels representing the Annunciation, the Crucifixion, the Corona- 

68 Walks in Rome 

tion of the Virgin, and the Safiour as a shepherd (very beautifully 
treated) feeding His flock with corn. The skulls of SS. Peter and 
Paul are said to be preserved here. , The altar encloses the greater 
part of the famous wooden table, saved at great risk of life from 
the conflagration of 1308, upon which S. Peter is supposed to have 
celebrated mass in the house of Pudens.^ 

In the confession, in front of the altar, is the bronze tomb of 
Martin V., Oddone Colonna (1417-24), the wise and just Pope who 
was elected at the Council of Constance to put an end to the schism 
which had long divided the Papacy, and which had almost reduced 
the capital of the Church to ruins. He restored the prestige of the 
Papacy, and his reign marks the opening of an era of architectural 
adornment of the citj^ A bronze slab bears his figure in low relief, 
and is a fine work of Simone di Ghini (who worked with Antonio 
Filarete), and was one of the authors of the bronze doors at 
S. Peter's. It bears the appropriate surname which was given to 
this justly loved Pope — 'Temporum suoriim felicitas.' This is the 
first of a splendid series of Papal tombs. 

The tribune, which, till late years, was of the time of Nicholas IV. 
(1287-92), has been enlarged, and its famous mosaic — now scarcely 
more than a reproduction — much injured by removal. Above the 
arch is a grand mosaic head of the Saviour, attributed to the time 
of Constantino, and evidently of the fourth century — of great 
interest on this spot, as commemorating the vision of the Eedeemer, 
who is said to have appeared here on the day of the consecration 
of the church by Sjdvester and Constantino, looking down upon the 
people, and solemnly hallowing the work with His visible presence. 
The head, which is grand and sad in expression, is surrounded by 
six-winged seraphim. Below is an ornamented cross, above which 
hovers a dove— from whose beak, running down the cross, flow the 
waters which supply the four rivers of Paradise. The disciples, as 
harts (panting for the water-brooks) and sheep, flock to drink of 
the waters of life. In the distance is the New Jerusalem, within 
which the Phoenix, the bird of eternity, is seated upon the Tree of 
Life, guarded by an angel with a two-edged sword. Beside the 
cross, stand on the left, the Virgin with her hand resting on the 
head of the kneeling Pope, Nicholas IV. ; S. Peter with a scroll 
inscribed, ' Tu es Christus Alius Dei vivi ; ' S. Paul with a scroll 
inscribed, ' Salvatorem expectamus Dominum Jesum.' On the right 
S. John the Baptist, S. John the Evangelist, S. Andrew (all with 
their names). Between the first and second of these figures are 
others, on a smaller scale, of S. Francis and S. Anthony of Padua. 
All these persons are represented as walking in a flowery Paradise, 
in which the souls of the blessed are disporting, and in front of 
which flows the Jordan. Below, between the windows, are figures 
of prophets, and (very small) of two Franciscans, who were the 
artists of the lower portion of the mosaic, as is shown by the 

1 See <S. Pudentiana, ch. x. 

S. John Lateran 69 

inscriptions, ' Jacobus Turriti, pictor, hoc opns fecit ; ' — ' Fra Jacobus 
de Camerino socius magistri.' 

The steps of the throne in which the popes were installed hare 
a rich enamelled border. On each st«p are the emblems of an asp, 
a dragon, a lion, and basilisk, in reference to the 91st Psalm. 

Behind the tribune was, till the death of Pius IX., all that 
remained internally of the architecture of the tenth century, in the 
vaulted passage called 'Portico Leonino,' from its founder, Leo I. 
It was supported on low marble and granite columns with ionic 
and Corinthian capitals. Here were collected a variety of relics of 
the ancient basilica. On either side of the entrance were mosaic 
tablets, which relate to the building of the church. Then, on the 
right, was the kneeling statue of Nicholas IV. On the left, in the 
centre, was an altar, above which is an ancient crucifix, and on 
either side tenth-century statues of SS. Peter and Paul. But, 
beyond the tribune, Leo XIII. has annihilated all that was ancient 
or interesting, and constructed a commonplace three-sided cloister, 
in which a few monuments have been symmetrically arranged. 
The statues of SS. Peter and Paul are placed against one of the 
eastern walls. The monument of Andrea Sacchi is in the northern 

On the right is the entrance to the sacristy (whose inner bronze 
doors date from 1196), which contains an Annunciation by Sebastian 
del Piomho, and a sketch by Raffaelle for the Madonna, caUed * Delia 
Casa d'Alba,' now at S. Petersburg ; also an ancient bas-relief, 
which represents the old and humble basilica of Pope Sergius. 
On the left, at the end of the passage, is a very handsome cinque- 
cento ciborium, and near it the ' Tabula Magna Lateranensis,' 
containing the list of relics belonging to the church. The most 
interesting and authentic of these is the little scourge with which 
S. Gregory the Great used to whip his choristers. 

Near this, opening from the transept, is the Cappella del Core, 
with handsome wooden stallwork. It contains a portrait of Martin 
v., by Scipione Gaetani. 

The altar of the Sacrament, which closes the transept, has four 
fluted bronze columns, said to have been brought from Jerusalem 
by Titus, and to be hollow and filled with earth from Palestine.^ 
The last chapel in the left aisle is the Cappella Corsini, erected in 
1729 in honour of S. Andrea Corsini, from designs of Alessandro 
Galilei. It is m the form of a Greek cross, and ranks next to 
the Borghese Chapel in the richness of its marble decoration. A 
great portion of the walls is lined with the rare red and white 
marble called fior di Persico. The mosaic altar-piece, representing 
S. Andrea Corsini, is a copy from Cruido. The founder of the 
chapel, Clement XII., Lorenzo Corsini (1730-40), is buried in a 
splendid porphyry sarcophagus which he plundered from the 

1 These columns are mentioned in the thirteenth-century list of Literan relics, 
which says that aU the relics of the Temple at Jerusalem brought by Titns 
were preserved at the Lateran. 

70 Walks in Rome 

Pantheon. Above it is a bronze statue of the Pope.^ Opposite is 
the tomb of Cardinal Neri Corsini, with a number of statues of the 
Bernini school. 

Beneath tiie chapel is a vault lined with sarcophagi of the 
Corsini. Its altar is surmounted by a magnificent Pieth, — in wliose 
beautiful and expressive figures it is difficult to recognise a work of 
the usually coarse and theatrical artist Bernini. 

In the next chapel (the last on left) is the grave of Sylvester II. 

Of the many tombs of mediaeval popes which formerly existed in this basilica,2 
none remain except the memorial slab and epitaph of Sylvester II. (Gerbert, 
999-1003). This Pope is said (l)y the chronicler Martin Polonus de Corenza) to 
have been a kind of magician, who obtained first the archliishopric of Rheims, 
then that of Ravenna, and then the Papacy, by the aid of tlie devil, to whom, in 
return, he promised to belong after death. When he ascended the throne, he 
asked the devil how long he could reign, and the devil, as is his custom, answered 
by a doul>le-entendre, ' If you never enter Jerusalem, you will reign along time.' 
He occupied the throne for four years one month and ten days, when, one day, 
as he was officiating in the basilica of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, he saw that he 
had passed the fatal threshold, and that his death was Impending. Overwhelmed 
with repentance, he confessed his backslidings before the people, and exhorted 
them to lay aside pride, to resist the temptations of the devil, and to lead a good 
life. After this he begged of his attendants to cut his body in pieces after he 
was dead, as he deserved, and to place it on a common cart, and bury it wher- 
ever the horses stopped of their own accord. Then was manifested the will of 
the Divine Providence, that repentant sinners should learn that their God pre- 
serves for them a place of pardon even in this life— for the horses went of their 
own accord to S. John Lateran, where he was buried. ' Since then,' says Platina, 
'the rattling of his bones, and the sweat, or rather the damp with which his 
tomb becomes covered, has always been the infallible sign and forerunner of the 
death of a pope ! ' 

Against the second pillar of the right aisle, counting from the 
west door, is a very interesting fresco by Giotto, originally one of 
many paintings which he executed for the loggia of the adjoining 
Papal palace, whence the benediction and 'plenary indulgence' 
were given in the jubilee year. It represents Boniface VIII. 
(Benedetto Caetani, 1294-1303), the founder of the Jubilee, between 
two priests. 

' On y voit Boniface annongant au peuple le jubil6. Le portrait du pape doit 
6tre ressenil)lant. J'ai reconini dans cctte physionomie, o\\ il y a plus de finesse 
que de force, la statvie que j'avais vue couchtie sur le tombeau de ce pape, dans 
les souterrains du Vatican.' — Ampere, ' Voyage Dantcsque.' 

The monument of Pope Alexander III., the enemy of Barbarossa 
(1159-81), was executed by the Chigi Pope, Alexander VII. Opening 
from this aisle are several chapels. The second is that of the newly 
established and rich family of Torlonia, and contains a marble 
Pieth. by Tenerani, with some handsome modern ornaments. The 

1 There is a curious mosaic portrait of Clement XII. in the Palazzo Corsini at 

2 Sergius III. ob. 911 ; Agapetus II. ob. 956 ; John XII. ob. 964 ; Sylvester II. 
oh. 1003; John XVIII. ol). 1009; Alexander II. ol). 1073; Paschal II. ob. 1118; 
Calixtus II. ob. 1124 ; Honorius II. ob. 1140 ; Celcstine II. ob. 1143 ; Lucius II. 
ob. 1145 ; Anastasius IV. ob. 1154 ; Alexander III. ob. 1159 ; Clement III. ob. 
1191 ; Celestine III. ob. 1198 ; Innocent V. ob. 1276— were buried at S. John 
Lateran, besides those later popes whose tombs still exist. 

Cloister of the Lateran 71 

third is that of the Massimi (designed by Giacomo della Porta), 
which has the Crucifixion by Scrmoncta as an altar-piece. Beyond 
this, in the right aisle, are several remarkable tombs of cardinals, 
among which is the monument of Cardinal Guissano, who died in 
1287. The painters Cav. d'Arpino and Andrea Sacchi are buried 
in this church. In the left aisle is the effigy of Cardinal Riccardo 
Annibaldi, the friend of S. Thomas Aquinas, a renowned leader of 
the Guelphs. 

Entered from the last chapel in the left aisle (by a door which 
the sacristan will open) is the once -beautiful twelfth -century 
Cloister of the Monastery, recently well restored by Leo XIII., 
designed by one Pietro Vassalletto and his son.^ It is surrounded 
by low arches supported on exquisite inlaid and twisted columns, 
above which is a lovely frieze of coloured marbles. The court thus 
enclosed was, till 1888, a garden of roses ; in the centre is a well 
(adorned with crosses) of the tenth century, called the ' "Well of the 
Woman of Samaria.' In the cloister is a collection of architectural 
and traditional relics, including an old white marble throne, inlaid 
with mosaics, a candelabrum resting on a lion, and several other 
exquisitely wrought details from the old basilica ; also a porphyry 
slab upon which the soldiers are said to have cast lots for the seam- 
less robe ; columns which were rent by the earthquake of the 
Crucifixion ; a slab resting on pillars, shown as a measure of the 
height of our Saviour,- and a smaller slab, also on pillars, of which 
it is said that it was once an altar, at which the officiating priest 
doubted of the Real Presence, when the wafer fell from his hand 
through the stone, leaving a round hole, which still remains. 

Five General Councils have been held at the Lateran, viz. : — 

L— March 19, 1123, under CalLxtus 11., with regard to the Investiture. 

IL— April 18, 1139, under Innocent 11., to condemn the doctrines of Arnold of 
Brescia and Peter de Bruys, and to oppose the anti-pope Anacletus U. 

III.— March 5, 1179, under Alexander II., to condemn the doctrines of Waldenses 
and Albigenses, and to end the schism caused by Frederick Barbarossa. 

rv. — Nov. 11, 1215, at which 400 bishops assembled under Innocent III., to 

condemn the Albigenses, and the heresies of the Abbot Joachim. 
v.— May 3, 1512, under Julius II. and Leo X., at which the Pragmatic .Sanc- 
tion was alx)lished, and a Concordat concluded between the Pope and 
Francis I. for the destruction of the liberties of the Gallican Church. 

It is in the basilica of the Lateran that the Church places the 
first meeting between S. Francis and S. Dominic. 

' Fne nuit, pendant que Dominique dormait, il lui sembla voir J^sus-Christ 
se pr^parant a esterminer les superbes, les voluptueux, les avares, lorsque 
tout i coup la Vierge I'apaisa en lui presentant deux hommes : I'un d'eux etait 
lui-m^me ; quant k 1' autre, U ne le connaissait pas ; mais le lendemain, la pre- 

1 The school of the Vassalletti lasted for four generations, and produced the 
episcopal throne at .\nagni, 126:J ; a screen at Segni, 1185 ; the lion of the Apostoli, 
the canopy of SS. Cosmo and Damiano, 1153, ifec. 

2 ' Ces monmnents, consacres par la ti-adition, n'ont i>as ete juges cei)endant 
assez authentiques pour etre solennellement exiK>ses a la veneration des fldeles.' 
— Goumerie. 

72 Walks in Rome 

mi^re personne qu'il aperc^ut, en entrant au Lateran, fut I'inconnn qui Ini otait 
apparu en songe. II dtait convert de haillons et priait avec ferveur. Dominiijue 
se pr^clpita dans ses bras, et I'enibrassant avec effusion : " Tu es mon compa- 
gnon," lui dit-11 ; "nous courons la memo caniire, demeurons ensenil)le, et aucini 
ennemi ne pr6vaudra contre nous." Et, a pr.rtlr de ce moment, dit la legende, 
lis n'eurent plus qu'un coeur et qu'une ame dans le Seigneur. Ce pauvre, ce 
mendiant, 6tait saint Franjois d'Assise.' — Goiirnerie, 'Home Chretienne.' 

Issuing from the west door of the basilica, we find ourselves in a 
wide portico, one of whose five doors is a Porta Santa. At the end 
is appropriately placed an ancient marble statue of Constantino, 
who is in the dress of a Roman warrior, bearing the labarum, or 
standard of the cross, which is here represented as a lance sur- 
mounted by the monogram of Christ. Recent changes have swept 
away the picturesqueness, ploughed up the exquisite green lawns, 
cut down the ancient avenues, and fringed what was the most 
beautiful open space in Rome with the most hideous and con- 
temptible of its modern buildings. Till late years we looked down 
from this portico upon one of the most beautiful and characteristic 
views in Rome. On one side were the Alban Hills, blue in morning, 
or purple in evening light, sprinkled with white villages of historic 
interest — Albano, Rocca di Papa, Marino, Frascati, Colonna ; on the 
other side were the Sabine Mountains, tipped with snow ; in the 
middle distance the long, golden-hued lines of aqueducts stretched 
away over the plain, till they were lost in the pink haze. Nearer 
still, beautiful avenues of trees led, till lately, across green lawns 
to the desolate basilica of Santa Croce, and on the left were the 
fruit gardens of the Villa Wolkonski, interspersed with rugged 
fragments of massive brickwork ; on the right, the glorious old 
walls of the city itself. The road at our feet is the Via Appia 
Nuova, which leads to Naples, and which immediately passes 
through the modern gate of Rome known as the Porta San 
Giovanni (built in the sixteenth century by Gregory XIII.). Nearer 
to us, on the right, is an ancient gateway, the finest on the Aurelian 
Wall, bricked up by Ladislaus, king of Naples, in 1408. By this 
gate, known as the Porta Asinaria, from the family of the Asinarii, 
Belisarius entered Rome in 505, and Totila, through the treachery 
of the Isaurian Guard, in 546. Here also, in 1084, Henry IV. entered 
Rome against Hildebrand with his anti-pope Guibert ; and, a few 
years after, the name of the gate itself was changed to Porta 
Perusta, in consequence of the injuries it received from Robert 
Guiscard, who came to the rescue of the lawful pontiff. Beyond 
the Porta Asinaria, on the outside of the wall, may be seen some 
remains of the third century, belonging to the Domus Laterana or 
ancient Lateran villa. 

The broad open space which we see beneath the steps was the 
favourite walk of the mediaeval popes. 

' The splendid Palace of the Lateran reflected the rays of the evening sun, as 
Francis of Assisi with two or three of his disciples approached it to olitain the 
Papal sanction for the rules of his new Order. A group of chiu'chmen in sunip- 
tiious apparel wei-e traversing with slow and measured steps its lofty teiTace, then 
called " the Min-or," as if afraid to overtake him who preceded them, in a dress 

Palace of the Lateran 73 

studiously simple, and with a count€nance rapt in earnest meditation. Unruffled 
by passion, and yet elate with conscious power, that eagle eye and those capacious 
brows announced him the lord of a dominion which might have satisfied the pride 
of Diogenes and the ambition of Alexander. Since the Tugurium was built on 
the Capitoline, no greater monarch had ever called the seven hills his own. But, 
in his pontificate, no era had occurred more arduous than that in which Innocent 
III. saw the mendicants of Assisi prostrate at his feet. The interruption was as 
unwelcome as it was abrupt ; as he gazed at the squalid di-ess and faces of his 
suitors, and observed their bare and unwashed feet, his lip curled with disdain, 
and sternly commanding them to withdraw, he seemed again to retire from the 
outer world into some of the deep recesses of that capacious mind. Francis and 
his comijanions betook themselves to prayer ; Innocent to his couch. There (says 
the legend) he dreamed that a palm tree sprouted up from the ground beneath 
his feet, and, swiftly shooting up into the heavens, cast her boughs on every side, 
a shelter from the heat and a refreshment to the weary. The vision of the night 
dictated the policy of the morning, and assured Innocent that, under his fostering 
care, the Franciscan palm would strike deep her roots, and expand her foliage on 
every side, in the vineyard of the Church.' — Stephen's ' S. Francis of Assist.' 

The western facade of the basilica, built by Alessandro Galilei in 
1734, has a fine effect at a distance, but the statues of Christ and the 
apostles which line its parapet are too large for its proportions. 

The ancient Palace of the Lateran was the residence of the popes 
for nearly 1000 years. Almost all the events affecting the private 
lives of a vast line of ecclesiastical sovereigns happened within its 
walls. Plundered in each successive invasion, stricken with malaria 
during the autumn months, and often partially burnt, it was finally 
destroyed by the great enemy of Roman antiquities, Sixtus V, 
Among the scenes which occurred within its walls, perhaps the 
most terrible was that when John X., the completer of the Lateran 
basilica, was invaded here by Marozia, who was beginning to seize 
the chief power in Rome, and who carried the Pope off prisoner to 
S. Angelo, after he had seen his brother Peter murdered before his 
eyes in the hall of the pontifical palace. Dante, speaking of a 
war between the Pope and the Colonna, calls it 'the War of the 
Lateran.' ^ 

The only remnants preserved of this famous building are the 
private chapel of the popes, and the end wall of their dining-hall, 
known as the Triclinimn, which contains a copy, erected by Bene- 
dict XIV., of the ancient mosaic of the time of Leo III., which 
formerly existed here, and the remains of which are preserved in 
the Vatican. 

' In this mosaic, Hallam (" Middle Ages ") sees proof that the authority of the 
Greek Emperor was not entirely abrogated at Rome till long after the i)eriod of 
Papal aggrandisement by Pepin and his son, but he is warranted by no probabili- 
ties in concluding that Constantine V., whose reign 1)egan a.d. 780, is intendetl 
by the emi)eror kneeling with S. Peter or Pope Sylvester.' — Hemans' ' Ancunt 
Christian Art.' 

Professor Bryce considers that the theory of the mediaeval 
empire is unmistakably set forth in two paintings, one of them in 
Rome, the other in Florence (a fresco in the chapter-house of S. 
M. Novella). 

1 Tnf. xxviii. 8. » 

74 Walks in Rome 

' The first of these is the famous mosaic of the Laterau triclinium, constructed 
by Pope Leo III. about A.D. 800, and an exact copy of which may still be seen 
over against the fagade of S. John Lateran. Originally meant to adorn the state 
banqueting-hall of the popes, it is now placed in the open air, in the finest 
situation in Rome, looking from the brow of a hill across the green ridges of the 
Campagna to the olive groves of Tivoli and the glistering crags and snow-capped 
summits of the Umbrian and Sabine Apennine. It represents in the centre 
Christ surrounded by the apostles, whom He is sending forth to preach the 
gospel ; one hand is extended to bless, the other holds a book with the words 
"Pax vobis." Below and to the right Christ is depicted again, and this time 
sitting : on His right hand kneels Pope Sylvester, on His left the Emperor Con- 
stantine ; to the one He gives the keys of heaven and hell, to the other a banner 
surmounted by a cross. In the group on the opposite, that is, on the left side 
of the arch, we see the Apostle Peter seated, before whom in like manner kneel 
Pope Leo III. and Charles the Emperor, the latter wearing, like Constantine, his 
crown. Peter, himself grasping the keys, gives to Leo the pallium of an arch- 
bishop, to Charles the banner of the Christian army. The inscription is " Beatus 
Petrus dona vitam Leoni PP. et victoriam Carulo regi dona ; " while round the 
arch is written, "Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax omnibus l)onae volun- 

' The order and nature of the ideas here symbolised are sufficiently clear. 
First comes the revelation of the gospel, and the divine commission to gather all 
men into its fold. Next, the institution, at the memorable era of Constantine's 
conversion, of the two powers by which the Christian people is to be respectively 
taught and governed. Thirdly, we are shown the permanent Vicar of God, the 
apostle who keeps the keys of heaven and hell, re-establishing these same jiowers 
on a new and firmer basis. The badge of ecclesiastical supremacy he gives to 
Leo as the spiritual head of the faithful on earth ; the banner of the Church mili- 
tant to Charles, who is to maintain her cause against heretics and infidels.' — 
Holy Roman Empire, ch. vii. 

In the building behind the Triclinium, attached to a convent of 
Passionist monks, and erected by Fontana for Sixtus V., is pre- 
served the Scala Santa. This famous staircase, supposed to be that 
of the house of Pilate, ascended and descended by our Saviour, is 
said to have been brought from Jerusalem by Helena, mother of 
Constantine the Great, and has been regarded vpith especial reve- 
rence by the Roman Church for 1500 years. In 879 it was injured 
and partially thrown down by an earthquake, but was re-erected in 
the old Lateran palace, whence it was removed to its present site 
on the demolition of that venerable building. Clement XII. caused 
the steps to be covered by a wooden casing, which has since been 
repeatedly worn out by the knees of ascending pilgrims. Apertures 
are left, through which the marble steps can be seen ; two of them 
are said to be stained with the blood of the Saviour I 

At the foot of the stairs, within the atrium, are fine sculptures of 
Giacomctti, representing the ' Ecce Homo,' — and the 'Kiss of Judas,' 
purchased and placed here by Pius IX. 

On the left is a statue of Christ by Meli ; on the right a beautiful 
kneeling statue of Pius IX. — a striking and touching likeness by 

Between these statues the pilgrims kneel to commence the ascent 
of the Scala Santa. The effect of the staircase (especially on 
Fridays in Lent, and most of all on Good Friday), with the figures 
ascending on their knees in the dim light, and the dark vaulted 
cei^ngs covered with faded frescoes, is exceedingly picturesque. 

The Sancta Sanctonun 75 

'Reason may condemn, but feeling cannot resist the claim to reyerential 
sympathy in the spectacle daily presented by the Scala Santa. Xunierous 
indulgences have l)een granted by dififerent popes to those who ascend it with 
prayer at each step. Whilst kneeling upon these stairs, public penance used to 
be performed in the days of the Church's more rigorous discipline ; thus the 
saintly matron Fabiola there appeared a penitent before the public gaze, in 
sackcloth and ashes, AD. 390. . . . There is no day on which worshippers 
may not be seen slowly ascending those stairs ; but it is during Holy Week the 
concourse is at its height ; and on Good Friday I have seen this structure com- 
pletely covered by the multitude, like a swarm of bees settling on flowers ! ' — 
Hemans' ' Ancient Sacred Art' 

' Brother Martin Luther went to accomplish the ascent of the Scala Santa — 
the Holy Staircase — which once, they say, formed part of Pilate's house. He 
slowly mounted step after step of the hard stone, worn into hollows by the knees 
of penitents and pilgrims. An indulgence for a thousand years — indulgence from 
penance — is attached to this act of devotion. Patiently he crept half-way up the 
staircase, when he suddenly stood erect, lifted his face heavenward, and, in 
another moment, turned and walked slowly down again. 

' He said that, as he was toUing up, a voice, as if from heaven, seemed to 
whisper to him the old, well-known words, which had been his battle-ciy in so 
many a victorious combat, — " The just shall live by faith." 

' He seemed awakened, as if from a nightmare, and restored to himself. He 
dared not creep up another step ; but, rising from his knees, he stood upright, 
like a man suddenly loosed from bonds and fetters, and, with the firm step of a 
free man, he descended tiie staircase, and walked from the place.' — Sehottberg- 
Cotta Chronicler. 

'Did the feet of the Saviour actually tread these steps? Are these reliques 
really portions of His cross, crown of thorns, <tc., or is all this fictitious? To 
me it is aU one. 

' "-He is not here ; He is risen 1" said the angel at the tomb. The worship of 
the bodily covering which the spirit has cast off belongs to the soul still in the 
larva condition ; and the ascending of the Scala Santa on the knees is too con- 
venient a mode for obtaining the forgiveness of sins, and at the same time a 
hindrance upon the only true way.' — Frederika Bremer. 

Ascending one of the lateral staircases — no foot must touch the 
Scala Santa^we reach the outside of the Sancta Sanctonun, a 
chapel held so intensely sacred that none but the Pope can officiate 
at its altar, and that it is never open to others, except on the morn- 
ing before Palm Sunday, when the canons of the Lateran come 
hither to worship, in solemn procession, with torches and a veiled 
crucifix, and, even then, none but the clergy are allowed to pass its 
threshold. The origin of the sanctuary is lost in antiquity, but it 
was the private chapel of mediaeval popes in the old palace, and is 
known to have existed already, dedicated to S. Laurence, in the 
time of Pelagius I. (578-590), who deposited here some relics of 
S. Andrew and S. Luke. It was restored by Honorius III. in 1216, 
and almost rebuilt by Nicholas III. in 1277. 

It is permitted to gaze through a grating upon the picturesque 
glories of the interior, which are chiefly of the thirteenth century. 
The altar is in a recess, supported by two porphyry columns. 
Above it is a beautiful silver tabernacle, presented by Innocent III. 
(1198-1216), to contain the great relic which invests the chapel 
with its peculiar sanctity — a portrait of our Saviour (placed here by 
Stephen III. in 752), held by the Roman Church as authentic — to have 
been b^un by S. Luke and finished by an angel, whence the name 

76 Walks in Rome 

by which it is known, ' Acheiropooton,' or the 'picture made with- 
out hands.' 

' The different theories as to the acheiropoiiton picture and the manner in which 
it reached this city, are stated with naivet6 by Maroni— i.e., 'that the apostles and 
tlie Madonna, meeting after tlie Ascension, resolved to order a portrait of the 
Crucified, for satisfying the desire of the faithful, and commissioned S. Luke to 
execute the task ; that after three days' prayer and fasting, such a portrait was 
drawn in outline by that artist, but, before he had begun to colour, the tints were 
found to have been filled in by invisil)le hands ; that this picture was brought 
from Jerusiilem to E.onie, either by S. Peter or by Titus (together with the sacred 
spoils of the Temple), or else expedited hither in a miraculous voyage of only 
twenty-four hours by S. Germanus, patriarch of Constantinople, who desired thus 
to save such a treasure from the outrages of the Iconoclasts ; and that, al)Out 
A.D. 726, Pope Gregory II., apprised of its arrival at the mouth of the Tiber by 
revelation, proceeded to carry it thence, with due escort, to Rome ; since which 
advent it has remained in the Sancta Sanctorum.'— /?e?wans' 'Mediaeval Chris- 
tian Art' 

Above the altar is, in gilt letters, the inscription, ' Non est in tota 
sanctior urbe locus.' Higher up, under gothic arches, and between 
twisted columns, are pictures of sainted popes and martyrs, but 
these have been so much retouched as to have lost their interest. 
The gratings here are those of the relic chamber, which contains 
the reputed sandals of our Saviour, fragments of the true cross, 
&c. On the ceiling is a grand mosaic — a head of our Saviour 
within a nimbus, sustained by six- winged seraphim — ascribed to the 
eighth century. The sill in front of the screen is covered with 
money, thrown in as offerings by the pilgrims. 

The chapel was once much larger. Its architect was probably 
Deodatus Cosmati. An inscription near the door tells us, ' Magister 
Cosmatus fecit hoc opus.' 

Here, in the time when the Lateran palace was inhabited, the 
feet of twelve sub-deacons were annually washed by the Pope on 
Holy Thursday. On the Feast of the Assumption the sacred 
picture used to be borne in triumph through the city, halting in 
the Forum, where the feet of the Pope were washed in perfumed 
waters on the steps of S. Maria Nuova, and the 'Kyrie Eleison' 
was chanted a hundred times. This cu.stom was abolished by 
Pius V. in 1566. 

The Modem Palace of the Lateran was built from designs of 
Fontana by Sixtus V., and is a feeble copy of the Borghese. In 
169a Innocent XII. turned it into a hospital— in 1843 Gregory XVI. 
appropriated it as a museum. The present entrance is in the 
centre of the western front. Parts of the palace are shown daily, 
except Sundays, from 10 to 3 (entrance 1 fr.), but the terrible cold 
which pervades it makes it a dangerous place, and a visit to it is 
often productive of fever. The best time to choose for visiting 
this museum is one of the coldest days of mid-winter, as the 
transition from the outer air is then less felt. 

The ground-lioor is the principal receptacle for antiquities found 
in Rome in the last few years of the Papal power ; it contains a 
number of very beautiful sarcophagi and bas-reliefs. Entering the 

Galleries of the Lateran 77 

corridor, on the opposite side of the court, in a room on the right, 
the most remarkable objects are : — 

Ist Boom (once a Council Hall) — 

Riffht Wall. Relief of the Alxluction of Helen. 

Left Wall. High relief of two pugilists, ' Dares and Entellus.' 

* Grand relief of Trajan followed by senators, from the Fonun of Tn^an. 

The sacred oak of Jupiter. 

Bust of Marcus Aurelius. 

Mosaic pavement— of pugilists. 

2nd Room — 

Beautiful architectural fragments, chiefly from the Forum of Trajan. 

3rd Room — 

Entrance Wall. Statue of Aesculapius, found at TivoU. 

*Right WalL *Statue of Antinous, called the Braschi, found at Falestrina. 

Bought from the Bi-aschi famUy by Gregory XVI. for 12,000 scudL 

Antinous is represented as a god of flowers. 
Wall of Eyregs, Sarcophagus of a child, with a relief representing pugilists. 

4iA Room — 

Entrance Wall. Greek relief of Medea and the daughters of Peleus. 

' Tlie wicked enchantress is seen approaching with solemn step, wearing the 
Pluygian cap and the Asiatic sleeved jacket, and is prepaiing to cast the magic 
charm from her mysterious casket into the caldron, which she assm-es tlie un- 
suspecting maidens will restore youth to their aged father, when he has l>een 
thrown piecemeal into the cakb-on. In contrast to her, tlie two daughters 
appear in the light garments of Greek maidens, lovely and graceful, Uke the most 
refined figures of Attic art. One, quickly deluded, is lieuding forwai-d to adjust 
the caldron, while the other, who in the composition forms a contrast, and at 
the same time the symmetrical balance to Medea, is thoughtfully resting her 
right hand with a dagger against her cheek, as though a doubt were arising in 
her mind as to the gootl result of such a horrible design.' — Liibke. 

Above (one of a numlier of busts), 762. Beautiful head of a Bacchante. 

Statue of Germanicus. All the family of the Snisi may be rect^nised by 
the hair growing so low in the neck. 
Biyht Wall. Statue of Mars. 
Wall of Egress. Copy of the Faun of Praxiteles. 
In the Centre. A fine vase of Lumachella. 

A passage is crossed to the 5th Room — 

In the Centre. 1. Sacrifice of Mithras. 2. A stag of basalt, found in the 

garden of Caesar at Porta Portese. 3. A cow. 
night Wall. Sepulchral urn, with a curious relief representing childreo 

and cock-fighting. 

6th Room — 

A noble bust of Tiberius. 

An interesting collection of statues from Cervetri (Caere), including grand 
imperfect (seated) statues of Tiberius i and Claudius ; between them 
Agrippina, sixth wife of Claudius — and others less certain. 

Between the Windoics. DrusiUa, sister of Claudius, and, on the wall, part 
of her epitaph. 

1 Can the likeness of Tiberius to Augustas be ttie accidental likeness of a 
stepson ? 

78 Walks in Rome 

'Jth Room — 

Right Wall. Statue found near S. Lucia in Selce, restored as a Faun 
dancing ; really Marsyas stepping back in a contest with Athene about 
a flute, as is shown by a bronze found at Patras. 

Facing the Entratice. *A grand statue of Sophocles (the gem of the col- 
lection), found at Terracina, 1838. Given by the Antonelli family. 

' Sophocle, dans une pose ais6e et flere, un pied en avant, un bras enveloppe dans 
son manteau qu'il sen'e contre son corps, contemple avec une majestueuse serenity 
la nature humaine et la domiue d'un regard sur et tranquille.' — Ampe're, Hist. 
Mom. ill. 573. 

Sth Room — 

Statue of Neptune, found at Porto in 1824— the legs and arms restored. 

9iA. Room — 

Architectural fragments from the Via Appia and Forum. In the centre a 
triangular altar found near the pillar of Phocas. Pillars from which 
Raffaelle took designs. 

\Qth Room — 

A series of interesting reliefs, found 1848, at the tomb of the Aterii at 
Centocellae, representing the preparations for the fxmeral solemnities 
of a great Roman lady — probably wife of a physician. 

Entrance Wall. The building of the sepulchre. A curious machine for 
raising heavy stones is introduced — a wheel worked by men treading. 

Right Wall. The body of the dead surrounded by burning torches, the 
mourners tearing their hau' and beating their breasts. 

Wall of Egress. Showing several Romarf buildings which the funeral pro- 
cession would pass— among them the Coliseum and the Arch of Titus — 
inscribed, ' Arcus in sacra via summa.' 
This last relief is considered of great importance, as indicating by the different 
monuments the route which a well-ordered funeral procession ought to pm-sue. 

A second passage is crossed to the \lth Room — 

Contiiining several fine sarcophagi. In the centre is a Roman version of 
the Ephesian Diana, whose worship greatly increased after the attack 
of S. Paul, an enormous endowment being bequeathed for it. The 
turreted head-dress is a sign of empire, the bees of fertility. 

\2th Room- 
Entrance Wall. Sarcophagus, with the story of Orestes. Alecto is a pro- 
minent figure ; in one corner rises the ghost of Agamemnon. 
Right Wall. Sarcophagus decorated with Cupids bearing garlands, and 

supporting a head of Augustus. 
Wall of Egress. Sarcophagus representing the destruction of the children 
of Niobe. 

\2>th Room — 

Entrance Wall. Statue of C. Caelius Saturninus. 

In the Centre. Sarcophagus of P. Caecilius Vallianus, representing a funeral 

banquet ; the wife, according to the established rule, is seated at the 

feet of the corpse. 

lith Room — 

Left Wall. Unfinished statue of a captive barbarian, with sculptor's marks 
remaining, intended to guide the workman's chisel. This stiitue is 
identified by the Ugui'es on the column of 'Trajan. Curious mosaics of 
Roman food. 

The Christian Museum 79 

loth lioom- 

This and the next room are devoted to objects found in the excavations at 
Ostia. We may notice especially the mosaic in a niche on the left 

16th Room — 

In the Centre. Reclining statue of Atys. 

Right Wall. Fi-escoes of the story of Orpheus and Eiuydice, from a tomb 
at Ostia. 

The Cliristian Museum is one of the most precious of the countless 
services which Pius IX. rendered to Rome, and one of its richest 
mines of instruction. It was arranged by Padre Marchi and the 
Cavaliere Rossi. In the first hall is a feeble statue of Christ by 
Sosnoicsky, and in the wall behind it three mosaics, two from the 
catacombs, that in the centre — of Christ with SS. Peter and Paul — - 
from the old S. Peter's. Hence we ascend a staircase lined with 
christian sarcophagi. At the foot are two statues of the Good 

' Une des compositions de Calamis ne doit pas etre oubli^e k Rome, car ce sujet 
paien a ete adopte par I'artchrutien des premiere temps. Les representations du 
Bon-Panteur rapportant la brebis, expression touchante de la misericorde divine, 
ont leur origine dans le Mereure porte-bilier (Criophore). Quelquefois c'est un 
berger qui porte un biilier, une brebis ou un agneau ; I'on se rapproche ainsi a I'idee 
du bon-pasteur. En general, le Iwn-pasteur, dans les monuments Chretiens, porte 
une brebis, la brebis egaree de I'Evangile ; mais quelquefois aussi il porte un better, 
et alors le souvenu- de I'original paien dans la composition clu-etienne est mani- 
feste.' — Ampere, Hist. Rom. ill. 256. 

The sarcophagus on the left of the stairs which tells the story of 
Jonah is especially fine. The noble corridor above is also lined with 
sarcophagi. The best are on the left ; of these the most remarkable 
are, the 1st, the marriage at Cana ; 7th, a sarcophagus with a canopy 
supported by two pavonazzetto columns, and, on the wall behind, 
frescoes of the Good Shepherd, &c ; 8th, a sarcophagus with the 
christian monogram in detached relief ; in the middle of gallery, 
the Good Shepherd repeated several times among vines, with cherubs 
gathering the grapes. At the raised end of the corridor is the 
seated statue of Hippolytus, Bishop of Porto in the third century 
(the upper part a restoration), found in the Catacomb of S. Ciriaca, 
and moved hither from the Vatican Library ; upon the chair is 
engraved the celebrated Paschal Calendar, which is supposed to 
settle the unorthodoxy of those early Christians who kept Easter at 
the same time as the Jews. The form of the letters in this inscrip- 
tion marks the statue as a work of the sixth century. 

Hence a door on the right of a corridor leads to 

The 1st Hall, containing the huge and hideous mosaic pavement 
— with portraits of twenty-eight athletes — found in the Baths of 
Caracalla in 1822. 

' Les gladiateui-s de la mosaique Saint Jean de Lateran ont regu la forte ali- 
mentation qu'on donnait a leurs pareils ; ils ont bien cet air de resolution brutale 
que devaient avoir ceux qui pronon(;aient ce feroce serment que nous a conserve 
Petrone : "Nous jurons d'oWir a notre maitre Eumolpe, qu'il nous ordoune de 

80 Walks in Rome 

nous laisser briiler, ciichaTner, frapper, tiier par le fer on autremeiit ; et comnie 
vrais gladiatem-s, nous dovouons a notre malfre nos corps et uos vies." ' — Ampere, 
Hist. iiom. iv. 33. 

The 2nd Ball has a collection of ancient frescoes. 
The 3rd Hall contains — 

Entrance Wall. *Carlo Crivelli, 1482 : Madonna, very highly finished. 
*Carlo Crivelli : Madonna and Saints— an altar-piece. 
Antonio da Mttrano : Aladonna and Saints. 
Left Wall. Benozzo Gozzoli : Madonna with Angels, and a predella of the 

history of the Virgin. 

Filippo Lippi. A Ti'iptych : The Coronation of the Virgin. On the right 

the donor. Carlo Marsuppini of Arezzo, is presented by two Olivetan 

monks ; on the left another is presented. Brought to Rome from 


Wall of Eijress. Giovanni Sanzio, father of Bajfaelle : S. Jerome in tempera. 

Lnca Srgnorelli : SS. Laurence and Benedict — very peculiar, as scarcely 

showing their faces, but magnittcent in colour. 
Cola dell' Amatrice: The Assumption. 
Liica Signorelli : SS. Agnes and Emerentiana. 
Lo Spagna : Madonna and Child, with Saints. 

Uk Hall— 

Entrance Wall. *Marco Paimezzano di Forli : Madonna with SS. J. Baptist 
and Jerome— a vei-y gi'and picture. 
*iIarco J'almezzano, 1537 : Madonna with SS. Peter, Dominic, and 
Anthony of Tadua on the right, and SS. J. Baptist, Laurence, and 
Krancis on the left. 
Wall of Egress. Ce^arc da Sesto: The Baptism of Christ. 

Venetian School: The Entombment. 
Window Wall. Giulio Roumno : Cai-toon for the stoning of Stephen. 

Uh Hall— 

Entrance Wall. Sassoferrato : Sixtus V. as Cardinal. 

Cavaliere d' Arpino : The Annunciation. 
Left Wall. Domenichino (?) : Si.xtus V. as Pope. 
Wall of Egress. Lawrence: George IV. of England— most strangely out 

of place. 
Window Wall. Vandyke : Male Portrait. 

Several other halls are filled v?ith modern pictures of recent 
martyrdoms, &c., chiefly presents to Leo XIII. 

The 10th Hall, called the Hall of Council, is surrounded by fresco 
portraits of popes and pictures allegorical of their arms, &c. 

At the end of a corridor, a custode will admit to two rooms filled 
with a beautiful set of terra-cotta reliefs, busts, and statues by 
Pcttrich, illustrative of North American Indian life. Some of the 
busts are marvellous in vigour and character. 

The walls of the open galleries on this floor of the palace have 
been covered with early christian inscriptions from the catacombs, 
which have been thus arranged in arches, — 

1-3. Epitaphs of martyrs and others of temp. Damasus I. (366 to 384). 

4-7. Dated inscriptions from 238 to 557. 

8-9. Inscriptit)ns relating to doctrine. 

10. Inscriptions relating to popes, presbyters, and deacons. 

11-12. Inscriptions relating to simple ecclesiastics. 

13. Inscriptions of atfection to relations and friends. 

14-16. Symbolical. 

17. Simple epitaphs from different catacombs. 


!iut iRdi^y ^^g^g,^ ij^ 2,^, 


82 Walks in Rome 

Charlemagne they were venerated as martyrs throughout Italy and Gaul ; and 
Eginhard, the secretary of Charlemagne, who married his daughter Emma, is 
said to have held them in particular honour. Every one, I believe, knows the 
beautiful story of Eginhard and Emma, — and the connection of these saints with 
them, as their chosen protectors, lends an interest to their solitary deserted 
church. In the "Roma Sotterranea" of Bosio there is an ancient fragment, found 
in the catacombs, which represents S. Peter Exorcista, S. Marcellinus, and 
Paulina standing together.' — Mrs. Jameson. 

Opposite this is the Capuchin Church of S. Antonio, inaugurated 
December 1887, built entirely by the Franciscan friars of Italy, who 
each gave the price of two masses weekly. There are 13,000 friars, 
and about 26,000 francs was paid weekly. 

A narrow lane behind the Scala Santa till recently formed the 
approach to the Villa Wolkonski (open Wednesday and Saturday), 
now a mere rag of a once lovely garden running along the edge of 
the hill, intersected by the broken arches of the Aqua Claudia, and 
possessing exquisite views over the Campagna, with its lines of 
aqueducts, to the Alban and Sabine mountains. All this beauty 
has been swept away since the change of government. 

' The villa itself is not a palace, but a dwelling-house built in the delightfully 
irregular style of Italian architecture. The staircase is quite open, and can be 
seen from the outside. Through the garden lengthways run the ruins of an 
aqueduct, which they have turned to account in various ways, building steps 
outside the arches, putting seats at the top, and filling the vacant places in the 
ivy-mantled walls with statues and busts. Roses climb up as high as they can 
find support, and aloes, Indian fig-trees, and palms run wild among capitals of 
cohmins, ancient vases, and fragments of all kinds. As for the roses, there are 
millions of them, in bushes and trees, arboui's and hedges, all flourishing 
luxuriantly ; but never more lovely and poetic than when clinging to the dark 
cypress-trees. The beauty here is of a serious and touching type, with nothing 
small and "pretty." ' — Letter from Fanny Ilensel, nee Mendelssohn. 

In the Villa was the Columbarium of an architect called Tiberius 
Claudius Vitalis, built by another architect named Eutychius. 

Those who are in Rome in the summer may be amused by the 
scene outside Porta S. Giovanni. Long tables with cloths upon 
them are arranged along the wall, with basins of water and little 
looking-glasses, and by another table are barbers with their shaving 
materials. Here the workmen coming in from the country make an 
al fresco toilette, and, thus beautified, breakfast at the Osteria di 
Paccia Fresca. 

About a mile beyond the Porta S. Giovanni, a road branches off 
on the left to the Porta Furba, an arch of the Aqua Felice, founded 
on the line of the Claudian and Marcian aqueducts. Artists may 
find a picturesque subject here in a pretty fountain with a portion 
of the decaying aqueduct. Beyond the arch is the mound called 
Monte del Grano, believed to be the burial-place of Alexander 
Severus and his wife and mother, and in which the Capitoline Sar- 
cophagus and the Portland Vase were found. Beyond this, the 
road (to Frascati) passes on the left the vast ruins called Sette 

Via Latina 83 

The direct road leads to Albano. At about two miles from the 
gate, a field track turns left to the Via Latina, of which a certain 
portion paved with huge polygonal blocks of lava is now laid bare. 
This, like several of the other great roads, was a burial-place of the 
great national heroes : — 

' Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina." 

Jutenal, Sat. i. 171. 

The tomb of the Pancatii has a frieze and vaulting covered with 
low reliefs of the utmost beauty, with winged figures of Victory in 
very high relief at the springing of the vault. The stucco reliefs 
are white upon a coloured ground. Several other tombs are 
exceedingly interesting and well preserved, richly ornamented 
with painting and stucco. The view, looking back upon Rome, 
or forward to the long line of broken arches of the Claudian aque- 
duct, seen between these ruined sepulchres, is most striking and 

Close by have been discovered remains of a villa of the Servilii, 
which afterwards belonged to the Asinarii. Here also, in 1858 (on 
the left of the Via Latina), Signer Fortunati discovered the long 
buried and forgotten Basilica of S. Stefano. It is recorded by Anas- 
tasiusthat this basilica was founded in the time of Leo I. (440—161) 
by Demetria, a lady who escaped from the siege by the Goths with 
her mother to Carthage, where she became a nun. It was restored 
by Leo III. at the end of the eighth century. The remains are 
interesting, though they do little more than show perfectly the 
substruction and plan of the ancient building. An inscription 
relating to the foundation of the church by Demetria has been 
found among the ruins. 

Not far from this is the Catacomb of the Santi-Quattro. 

Three and a half miles from Rome is the Osteria of Tavolato, near 
which is one of the most striking and picturesque portions of the 
Claudian Aqueduct, much frequented by artists. The arches are 
interrupted by the picturesque mediaeval Torre Fiscale. The 
Claudian here intersects the aqueduct of the Anio Vetus, and that 
of the Marcia Tepula and Julia. 

' The Campagna holds the memory of Claudius in her embrace, and she and 
that memory make each other beautiful. The mehincholy aud grandeur in 
decay, which one perceives in the features of the unfortunate emperor, are found 
again in this group formed by nature and art. The arches of Aqua Claudia 
traverse the Koman waste, as a firm resolution sometimes traversed the cloudy 
spaces of this Caesar's soul' — Viktor Rydberg. 

Fourteen aqueducts, of an aggregate length amounting to above 
350 miles, were employed to bring pure water to Rome. Of these 
304 miles are under ground, 55 above ground, often carried upon 
arches of great height. The best waters were the Marcia, Claudia, 
and Virgo ; the worst, the Anio Vetus and Alsietina, which were 
only employed for washing or gardens. 

It is on the rising ground between the Claudian Aqueduct and 
the road that the Temple of Fortuna Moliebris is believed to have 

84 Walks in Rome 

stood. This was tlie temple which Valeria, the sister of Publicola, 
and Volumnia, the mother of Coriolanus, claimed to erect at their 
own expense, when the senate asked them to choose their recom- 
pense for having preserved Rome by their entreaties. 

'As Valeria, sister of Publicola, was sitting in the temple as a suppliant 
before the image of Jupiter, Jupiter himself seemed to inspire her with a sudden 
thought, and she Immediately rose, and called upon all the other noble ladies 
who were with her to arise also, and she led them to the house of Volumnia, the 
mother of Caius (Coriolanus). There she found Vli^ilia, the wife of Caius, with 
his mother, and also his little children. Valeria then addressed Volumnia and 
Virgilia, and said, " Our coming here to you is our own doing ; neither the senate 
nor any mortal man has sent us ; but the god in whose temple we were sitting 
as suppliants put it into our liearts that we should come and ask you to join 
with us, women with women, without any aid of men, to win for our country a 
great deliverance, and for ourselves a name glorious above all women, even 
above those Sabine wives in the old time who stopped the battle between their 
husbands and their fathers. Come, then, with us to the camp of Caius, and let 
us pray to him to show us mercy." Volumnia said, " We will go with you ; " and 
Virgilia took her young children with her, and they all went to the camp of the 

' It was a sad and solemn sight to see this train of noble ladies, and the very 
Volscian soldiers stood in silence as they passed by, and pitied them and honoured 
them. They found Caius sitting on the general's seat in the midst of the camp, 
and the Volscian chiefs were standing round him. Wlien he first saw them he 
wondered what it could be ; but presently he knew his mother, who was walking 
at the head of the train, and then he could not contain himself, but leapt down 
from his seat and ran to meet her, and was going to kiss her. But she stopped 
him and said, "Ere thou kiss me, let me know whether I am speaking to an 
enemy or to my son ; whether I stand in thy camp as thy prisoner or thy 
mother?" Caius could not answer her ; and then she went on and said, "Must 
it be, then, that had I never borne a son, Rome never would liave seen the camp 
of an enemy ; that had I remained childless, I should have died a free woman in 
a free city? But I am too old to bear much longer either thy shame or my 
misery. Rather look to thy wife and children, whom, if thou persistest, thou 
art dooming to an untimely death or a long life of bondage." Then Virgilia and 
his children came up to him and kissed him, and all the noble ladies wept, and 
l)emoaned their own fate and the fate of their country. At last Caius cried out, 
" mother, what hast tliou done to me? " and he wrung her hand vehemently, 
and said, " Mother, thine is the victoiy — a happy victory for thee and for Rome, 
but shame and ruin to thy son." Then he fell on her neck aiuf eml)raced her, 
and he embraced his wife and his children, and sent them back to Rome ; and 
led away the array of the Volscians, and never afterwards attacked Rome any 
more. The Romans, as was right, honoured Volumnia and Valeria for their 
deed, and a temple was Ijuiltand dedicated to " Woman's Fortune," just on the 
spot where Caius had yielded to his mother's words ; and the first priestess of 
the temple was Valeria, into whose heart Jupiter had first put the thouglit to go 
to Volumnia, and to call upon her to go out to the enemy's camp and entreat 
her son.' — Arnold's 'Hist, of Home,' vol. i. 

' II y a pen de scenes dans I'histoire plus (Jmouvantes que celle-li\, et elle ne 
perd rien k la decoration du thtSatre ; en se plaijant sur un tertre :i quatre milles 
de Rome, pr6s de la voie Latine, dans un lieu on il n'y a aujourd'hui que des 
tombeaux et des mines, on pent se figurer le camp des Volsques, dont les annes 
et les tentes dtincellent au soleil. Les montagnes s'(516vent i I'horizon. A travers 
la plaine ardente et poudreuse diiflle une foule voilee dont les gcmissements 
retentissent dans le silence de la campagne romaine. Bientot Coriolan est 
entour6 de cette multitude suppliante dont les plaintes, les cris, devaient avoir 
la vivacite des demonstrations passionndes des Romaines de nos jours. Coriolan 
eftt risisto a tout ce bruit, il eut peut-etre r6sist<5 aux larmes de sa ferame et aux 
caresses de ses enfants ; il ne rosista pas k la severity de sa mere. 

'Le soir, par un glorieux couchcr du soleil de Il<mie qui cclaire leur joie, la 
procession triomphante s'liloigne en adressant un chant de reconnaissance aux 

The Aqueducts 85 

dieiix, et lui se retire dans sa tente, 6tonne d'avoir pu coder.'— Ampire, Hist. 
Rom. iL 402. 

In the sixth century the Goths entrenched themselves here 
between the aqueducts in a camp which they only abandoned in 
consequence of the fever which attacked their troops. 

' In the account of the Gothic war, Procopius describes a camp established by 
the barbarians amongst the arcades of the great aqueducts, at the sixth mile- 
stone of the Via Latiua, between the picturesque tower known by the name of 
Torre I'iscale and the modem racecourse at the Capannelle. Here the two main 
aqueducts of the Claudia and of the Martia cross each other twice, leaving, 
between the first and second crossing, an oval space, two thousand feet long by 
six hundred wide, encircled by lofty arches, and presenting the aspect of an 
amphitheatre. This enclosure the Gauls fortified by walling up the arches with 
huge stones ; and they established themselves within with all jwssible comfort. 
They numbered seven thousand men, not including the outposts. Here they 
remained many months, waiting for the proper occasion to storm the city. In 
the meantime they spent their leisure hours in setting fire to neighbouring 
villas, in uprooting trees, in violating tombs, and in destroying farms, until an 
outbreak of pestilence obliged them to leave their fortified camp and disperse.'— 
Lanciani, ' Ancient Home.' 

A sarcophagus of the fourth century (now in the Lateran) was 
found near this, containing the body of a woman wrapped in golden 
vestments, and supposed to be a martyr, from the sponge filled with 
coagulated blood placed beneath her fractured head. 

Artists will certainly paint the grand mass of arches near the 
tall Torre Fiscale. 

The return drive to Rome may be varied by turning to the right 
about a mile beyond this, into a lane which leads past the so-called 
Temple of Bacchus to the Via Appia Vecchia. 

The open space in front of S. John Lateran, which is a continua- 
tion of the ancient Papal promenade of 'The Mirror,' leads to 
S. Croce. It is stripped of the exquisite green lawns and beautiful 
avenues, down which the sister basilicas looked at each other, and 
at S. Maria Maggiore, till 1880, and has been lined on the right by 
houses in the worst style of Chicago. On the left are the walls of 
Rome, upon which run the arches of the Aqua Marcia, but the 
following description only applies to the past. 

' Few Roman churches are set within so impressive a picture as Santa Croce, 
approached on every side through these solitudes of vineyards and gardens, quiet 
roads, and loug avenues of trees, that occupy such immense extent within the 
walls of Rome. ITie scene from the Lateran, looking towards this basilica across 
the level common, between lines of trees, with the distance of Canipagna and 
mountains, the castellated walls, the arcades of the Claudian aqueduct, amid 
gardens and groves, is more than beautiful, full of memory and association. 
ITie other approach, by the unfrequented Via di S. Croce, presents the finest 
distances, seen through a foliage beyond the dusky towers of the Honorian 
walls, and a wide extent of slopes covered with vineyards, amid which stand 
at intervals some of those forlorn cottage farms, grey and dilapidated, that 
fonn characteristic features in Roman scenery. The majestic ruins of Minerva 
ilediea, the so-called temple of Venus and Cupid, the fragments of the baths of 
S. Helena, the Castrense Amphitheatre, the arches of the aqueiluct, half con- 
cealed in cypress and ivy, are objects which must increase the attractions of a 
walk to this sanctuary of the cross. But the exterior of the church is disappoint- 

86 Walks in Rome 

ing and inappropriate, retaining nothing antique except the square Lombardic 
tower of the twelfth century, in storeys of narrow-arched windows, Its briclcworlc 
ornamented with disks of coloured marble, and a canopy, with columns, near the 
summit, for a statue no longer in its place.'— //ewa?is' ' Catholic Italy,' vol. i. 

The site of the Basilica of S. Croce in Gerusalemme was once 
occupied by the gardens of Heliogabalus, and afterwards by the 
palace of the Empress Helena, mother of Constantine, whose resi- 
dence here was known as the Palatium Sessorianum, whence the 
name of Sessorian, sometimes given to the basilica. 

The church was probably once a hall in the palace of Helena, 
to which an apse was added by Constantine, in whose reign it was 
consecrated by Pope Sylvester. It was repaired by Gregory II. early 
in the eighth century ; the monastery was added by Benedict VII. 
about 975, and the whole was rebuilt by Lucius II. in 1144. The 
church was completely modernised by Passalacqua and Gregorini 
under Benedict XIV. in 1744, and scarcely anything, except the 
tower, now remains externally which is even as old as the twelfth 
century. The fine columns of granite and bigio-lumachellato, which 
now adorn the facade, were plundered from the neighbouring temple 
in 1744. 

The interior of the church is devoid of beauty, owing to moderni- 
sations. E^our out of twelve fine granite columns, which divided 
its nave and aisles, are boxed up in senseless plaster piers. The 
high altar is adorned with an urn of green basalt, sculptured with 
lions' heads, which contains the bodies of SS. Anastasius and 
Caesarius. Two of the pillars of the baldacchino are of breccia- 
corallina. The fine frescoes of the tribune by Pinturicchio have 
been much retouched. They were executed under Alexander VI., 
on a commission from Cardinal Carvajal, who is himself repre- 
sented as kneeling before the cross, which is held by the Empress 

' The very important frescoes of the choir apsis of S. Croce (now much over- 
painted) are of Pinturicchio's better time. They represent the finding of the 
Cross, with a colossal Christ in a nimbus among angels above— a flgiu-e full of 
wild grandeur.' — Kugler. 

' Near the entrance of the church is a valuable monument of the Papal history 
of the ten til century, in a metrical epitapli to Benedict VII., recording his 
foundation of the adjoining monastery for monks, who were to sing day and 
night the praises of the Deity ; his charities to the poor ; and the deeds of the 
anti-pope Franco, called by Baronius (with play upon his assumed name Boni- 
face) Malefacius, who usurped the Holy See, imprisoned and strangled the lawful 
Pope, Benedict VI., and pillaged the treasury of S. Peter's, but in one month was 
turned out and excommunicated, when he fled to Constantinople. The chron- 
ology of this epitaph is by the ancient system of Indictions, the death of the pope 
dated XII. Indiction, corresponding to the year 984 ; and the Latin style of the 
tenth century is curiously exemplified in lines relating to the anti-iwpe : 

" Hie primus repulit Franconis spurca superbi 
Culmina qui invasit sedis apostolicae 
Qui dominumque suum captum in castro habebat 
Carceris interea auctis constrictus in uno 
Strangulatus ubi exuerat hominem." ' 

Hcmans' ' Catholic Italy.' 

S. Croce in Gremsaleinme 87 

The consecration of the Golden Rose, formerly sent to foreign 
princes, nsed to take place in this church. The principal observ- 
ances here now are connected with the exhibition of the relics, of 
which the principal is the Title of the True Cross. 

' In 1492, when some repairs were ordered by Cardinal Mendoza, a niche was 
discovered near the summit of the apse, enclosed by a brick front, inscribed 
"Titulus Crucis." In it was a leaden coffer, containing an imperfect plank of 
wood, 2 inches thick, IJ i)alm long, 1 palm broad. On this, in letters more or 
less perfect, was the inscription in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, Jems Nazarene 
King. It was venerated by Innocent VIII., with the College of Cardinals, and 
enclosed by Mendoza in the silver shrine, where it is exposed three times a year 
from the balcony. The relics are exposed on the 4th Sunday in Lent. On Grood 
Friday the rites are more impressive here than in any other church ; the proces- 
sion of white-robed monks, and the deep toll of the bell announcing the display 
of the relics by the mitred abbot, are very solemn, and it is surprising that while 
crowds of strangers submit to be crushed in the Sistine, scarcely one visits this 
ancient basilica on that day.' — Hemans' ' Catholic Italy.' 

' The list of relics on the right of the apsis of S. Croce includes the finger of 
S. Thomas Apostle, with which he touched the most holy side of our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; one of the pieces of money with which the .Tews paid the treachery of 
Judas ; great part of the veil and of the hair of the most blessed Virgin ; a mass 
of cinders and charcoal united in the form of a loaf, with the fat of S. Laurence, 
martjT ; one bottle of the most precious blood of our Lord .Jesus Christ ; another 
of the milk of the most blessed Vii-gin ; a little piece of the stone where Christ 
was bom ; a little piece of the stone where our Lord sate when He pardoned 
Mary Magdalene ; of the stone where our Lord wrote the law given to Moses 
on Mount Sinai ; of the stone where reposed SS. Peter and Paul ; of the cotton 
which collected the blood of Christ ; of the manna which fed the Israelites ; of 
the rod of Aaron which flourished in the desert; of the relics of the eleven 
prophets ! ' — Percy's ' Homanisrn.' 

Two staircases near the tribune lead to the subterranean church, 
which has an altar with a Pieta, and statues of SS. Peter and Paul of 
the twelfth century. Hence opens the chapel of S. Helena,^ which 
women (by a perversion especially strange in this case) are never 
allowed to enter except on the festival of the saint, August 18. It 
is built upon a soU composed of earth brought by the Empress from 
Palestine. Her statue is over the altar. The vault has mosaics 
(originally erected under Valentinian III., but restored by Zucchi 
in 1593), representing, in ovals, a half-length figure of the Saviour; 
the Evangelists and their symbols ; the Finding of the True Cross ; 
SS. Peter and Paul ; S. Sylvester, the conservator of the church ; 
and S. Helena, with Cardinal Carvajal kneeling before her. 

Here the feast of the ' Invention of the True Cross ' (May 3) is 
celebrated with great solemnity, when the hymns ' Pange Lingua ' 
and ' Vexilla Regis ' are sung, and the antiphon : — 

' O Cross, more glorious than the stars, world famous, beauteous of aspect, 
holiest of things, which alone wast worthy to sustain the weight of the world : 
dear wood, dear nails, dear burden bearing ; save those present assembled in 
thy praise, to-day. Alleluia." 

1 S. Helena is claimed as an English saint, and all the best authorities allow 
that she was born in England : according to Gibbon at York ; according to others 
at Colchester, which town bears as its arms a cross between three crowns, in 
allusion to this claim. Some say that she was an innkeeper's daughter ; others, 
that her father was a powerful British prince, C'oilus or CoeL 

88 Walks in Rome 

And the collect : — 

'0 God, who by the glorious uplifting of the salvation-bearing cross, hast 
displayed the miracles of Thy Passion, grant that by the merit of that life-giving 
wood, we may attain the suffrages of eternal life,' &c. 

The adjoining Monastery belongs to the Cistercians. Only part 
of one wing is ancient. The library formerly contained many 
curious MSS., but most of these were lost to the basilica when the 
collection was removed to the Vatican during the French occupa- 
tion and the exile of Pius VII. 

The garden of the monastery contains the ruin generally known 
as the Temple of Venus and Cupid, from the statue in the Vatican, 
which was found there, and which was long supposed to be a Venus, 
but is now discovered, from a name upon the pedestal, to be that of 
the Koman matron Sallustia. Dr. Braun considers the ruins to be 
those of the Sessorian Basilica or law court, where the causes of 
slaves (who were allowed to appeal to no other court) were wont to 
be heard. Behind the monastery is the Amphitheatrum Castrense, 
attributed to the time of Nero, when it is supposed to have been 
erected for the games of two cohorts of soldiers quartered near 
here. It is ingrafted into the line of the Honorian walls, and is 
best seen from the outside of the city. Its arches and pillars, with 
Corinthian capitals, are all of brick. 

(On the left of the Via S. Croce, which leads hence to S. Maria 
Maggiore, is the Villa Altieri, now a prison for women condemned 
for life. The destroyed grounds of this beautiful villa were chiefly 
remarkable for a grand umbrella - pine, the finest in the city. 
Farther, on the right, was a tomb of unknown origin.) 

Turning to the right from the basilica, we follow a lane which 
leads beneath some line brick arches of an aqueduct of the time of 
Nero, cited by Ampere,^ as exemplifying the perfection to which 
architecture attained in the reign of this emperor, ' by the quality 
of the bricks and the excellence and small quantity of the cement.' 
These ruins are popularly called the Baths of S. Helena. 

Passing these arches, we find ourselves facing the Porta Maggiore, 
formed by two arches of the Claudian Aqueduct, formerly known as 
the Porta Labicana, and Porta Praenestina, of which the former 
was closed in the time of Honorius, and has never been reopened. 
Three inscriptions remain, the first relating to the building of the 
aqueduct by the Emperor Tiberius Claudius ; the second and third 
to its restoration by Vespasian and Titus. Above the Aqua Claudia 
flowed a second stream, that of the aqueduct Anio Novus ; the 
waters of the two aqueducts were mingled within the city. 

Outside the gate, only lately disclosed, upon the removal of con- 
structions of the time of Honorius (the fragments of those worth 
preserving are placed on the opposite wall), in the fork of the Via 
Labicana and Via Praenestina, is the Tomb of the Baker Eurysaces, 
who was also one of the inspectors of aqueducts. The tomb is 

1 Emv- ii- 43. 

Porta Maggiore 89 

attributed to the early years of the Empire. Its first storey is sur- 
mounted by the inscription : ' EST HOC MOSIMEKTUM Maecei 
Veegilei Evbysagis Pistobis Redemptobis Appabet.' Its 
second storey is composed of rows of the mortars used in baking, 
placed sideways, and supporting a frieze with bas-reliefs telling 
the story of a baker's work, from the bringing of the corn into the 
mill to its distribution as bread. In the front of the tomb was 
formerly a relief of the baker and his wife, with a sarcophagus, 
and the inscription : ' puit atistia uxob mihei — femin A optvma 

— HOC PAXABio.' This has been foolishly removed, and is now 
to be seen upon the opposite wall, with a row of arched windows 
which formerly surmounted the external fa§ade of the gate. 

From this gate many pleasant excursions may be taken. The 
direct road leads to Palestrina by Zagarolo, and at 1 J mile from the 
gate passes, on the left, Torre Pignataxa, the tomb of S. Helena, 
mother of Constantine, where the magnificent porphyry sarcophagus 
was found, which was seized for his own tomb by Pope Anas- 
tasins IV., and removed to the Lateran, and is now in the Vatican. 
The name is derived from the pignatte, or earthen pots, used in the 
building. Beneath it is a catacomb, now closed. The adjoining 
Catacomb of SS. Pietro e Marcellino contains some well-preserved 
paintings ; the most interesting is that of the Divine Lamb on a 
mound (from which four rivers flow as in the mosaics of the an- 
cient basilicas), with figures of Petrus, Gorgonius, Marcellinus, and 
Tiburtius. At three miles from the gate the road reaches Cen- 
tocelle, whence, near the desolate tower called Torre Pemice, there 
is a most picturesque view of the aqueduct Aqua Alezandrina, 
built by Alexander Severus, with a double line of arches crossing 
the hoUow. At five miles, on the right, is the Borghese farm of 
Torre Nuova, with a fine group of old stone pines. 

The road which turns left from the gate leads by the Aqua Bofli- 
cante, where the Arvales sang their hymn, to the picturesque ruins 
of the Torre del Schiavi, the palace of the Emperors Gordian 
(A.D. 228). adjoining which are the remains of a round temple of 
Apollo. This is, perhaps, one of the most striking scenes in the 
Campagna, and — backed by the violet mountains above Tivoli — is a 
favourite subject with artists. The splendid statue of Livia in the 
Torlonia Museum was found here. 

' Les Gordiens, trfes grands personnages, furent de tria petits empereurs, lis 
montrent ce (ju'^tait devenu raristocratie romaiue degeneree. Le premier, 
honnOte et pusillaiiime, comiue le prouvent son election et sa niort, etait on peu 
replet et avait dans lair du visage quelque chose de solennel et de theatral 
{pompali vultu). II ainiait et cultivait les lettres. Son flls cgalenient se fit 
quelque reputation en ce genre, gn\ce surtout a sa bibliotbeqne de soixante mille 
yolunies ; niais il avait d'autres gouts encore que celui des livres : on lui donne 
jusqu'a vingt-deux concul)ines en titre, et de chacime d'elles, il eut trois on 
quatre enfants. II menait une \1e epicurienne dans ses jardius et sons des 
ombrages delicieux : c"etaieut les jardins et les onibrages d'nne villa magniflque 
que les Gordieus avaient sur la voie Prenestine, et dont Capitoliu, au temps 

90 Walks in Rome 

duquel elle existait encore, nous a laisse une description detaill^e. Le peristyle 
6tait forme de deux cents eolonnes des marbres les plus precieux, le cipoUiu, le 
pavonazetto, le jaune et le rouge antiques. La villa renfermait trois basiliques 
et les thermes que ceux de Rome surpassaient k peine. Telle (5tait I'opulence 
d'une habitation privee vers le milieu du troisifeme sifecle de VempiTe.'— Ampere, 
Emp. ii. 328. 

The road, which continues in a straight line from hence, passes, 
on the left, the Torre Tre Teste. The eighth milestone is of historic 
interest, being described by Livy (v. 49) as the spot where the dic- 
tator Camillus overtook and exterminated the army of Gauls who 
were retreating from Rome with the spoils of the Capitol. 

At the ninth mile is the Ponte di Nono, a magnificent old bridge 
with seven lofty arches of lapis-gabinus. This leads (twelve miles 
from Rome) to the dried-up lake and the ruins of Gabii (Castiglione), 
including that of the Temple of Juno Gabina. 

' Quique arva Gabinae 
Junonis, gelidumque Anienem, et roscida rivis 
Hernica saxa colunt.' Virgil, Aen. vii. 682. 

The road which branches oif on the left leads (twelve miles from 
Rome) to Lunghezza, the fine old castle of the Strozzi family, situ- 
ated on the little river Osa. Hence a beautiful walk through a wood 
leads to Castello del Osa, the ruins of the ancient Collatla, so cele- 
brated from the tragedy of Lucretia. Two miles beyond the Torre 
dei Schiavi, on the left, is the fine castellated farm of Cervaletto, a 
property of the Borghese. A field road of a mile and a half, passing 
in front of this (practicable for carriages), leads to another fine old 
castellated farm (five miles from Rome), close to which are the ex- 
traordinary Grottoes of Cervara — a succession of romantic caves of 
great size, in the tufa rocks, from which the material of the Coliseum 
was excavated. Here the ' Festa degli Artisti ' is held in May, which 
is well worth seeing — the artists in costume riding in procession and 
holding games amid these miniature Petra-like ravines. Beyond 
Cervara are remains of a villa of Lucius Verus, and, on the bank of 
the Anio, the romantically situated castle of Rustica. 

A large Castellum of the Aqua Tepula is included in the line of 
the Aurelian Wall between Porta Maggiore and the Porta S. 
Lorenzo, anciently called the Porta Tiburtina (the road to Tivoli 
passes through it), built in 402 by the Emperors Arcadius and 
Honorius, on the advice of Stilicho, as we learn from an inscrip- 
tion over the archway of the Marcian, Tepulan, and Julian aque- 
ducts, now half buried within the later brick gateway. Inside 
the gate, the road to the Termini is crossed by a handsome arch of 
Sixtus V. 

During the construction of the new gate in the wall and the road 
leading to it, a number of remains of ancient Roman houses, faced 
with opus reticulatum and decorated with marbles and mosaics, were 
destroyed. A number of pieces of the aqueduct — a continuation of 
that above the gate — perished at the same time. 

The road just beyond the gate (now spoilt by frightful modern 

Porta S. Lorenzo 91 

buildings) is connected with the story of the favonrit« saint of the 
Roman people. 

' When S. Francesca Bomana had no resource but to beg for the sick under her 
care, she went to the Basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le Mora, where was the station 
of the day, and seated herself among the crowd of be^ars, who, according to 
custom, were there assembled. From the rising of the sun to the ringing of the 
vesper bell she sate there, side by side with the lame, the deformed, and the 
blind. She held out her band as they did, gladly enduring, not the semblance, 
but the reality, of that deep humiliation. When she had receired enough where- 
with to feed the poor at home, she rose, and, entering the old basUica, adored 
the Blessed Sacrament, and then walked Ijack the long and weary way, blessing 
God all the vriule.'—Lady G. Fullerton. 

A quarter of a mile beyond the gate we come in sight of the 
church and monastery ; but the effect is much spoilt by the hide- 
ous modem cemetery, formed since the following description was 
written : — 

' S. Lorenzo is as perfect a picture of a basfllca externally as S. Clemente is 
internally. Viewing it from a little distance, the whole pile — in its grey reverend 
dignity — the row of stones indicating the atrium, with an ancient cross in the 
centre — the portico overshadowing faded frescoes — the shelving roof, the body- 
waU bulging out and lapping over, like an Egyptian temple — the detached Lom- 
bard steeple — with the magic of sun and shadow, and the background of the 
Campagna, bounded by the blue mountains of Tivoli— together with the stillness, 
the repose, interrupted only by the chirp of the grasshopper and the distant 
intermitted song of the Contadino — it forms altogether such a scene as painters 
love to sketch, and poets to repeople with the shadows of past ages ; and I 
open a wider heaven for either fraternity to fly their fancies in when I add that 
it was there the ill-fated Peter de Courtenay was crowned Emperor of the East,' 
— Lord Lindxay, * Christian Art.' 

' To S. Laurence was given a crown of glory in heaven, and upon earth eternal 
and universal praise and fame; for there is scarcely a city or town in all 
Christendom which does not contain a church or altar dedicated to his honour. 
The first of these was built by Constantine outside the gates of Eome, on the 
spot where he was boiied; and another was built on the summit of the hill 
where he was martyred ; besides these, there are at Eome four others ; and in 
Spain the Escnrial, and at Genoa the CathedraL' — Jfrs. Jameson. 

We have already followed S. Laurence to the various spots in Rome 
connected with his story — to the green space at the Navicella, where 
he distributed his alms before the house of S. Ciriaca (in whose cata- 
comb he was first buried) ; to the basilica in the Palace of the 
Caesars, where he was tried and condemned ; to S. Lorenzo in Fonte, 
where he was imprisoned ; to S. Lorenzo Pane e Pema, where he 
died ; to S. Lorenzo in Lucina, where his supposed gridiron is pre- 
served ; and now we come to his grave, where a grand basilica has 
arisen around the little oratory, erected by Constantine, which 
marked his first burial-place in the catacombs. 

The first Basilica erected here was buUt in the end of the sixth 
century, by Pope Pelagius II. ; but this was repeatedly enlarged and 
beautified by succeeding popes, and at length was so much altered 
in 1216 by Honorius III., that the old basilica became merely the 
choir or tribune of a larger and more important church. So many 
other changes have since taken place, that Bunsen remarks upon 
S. Lorenzo as more diflicult of explanation than any other of the 
Roman churches. 

92 Walks in Rome 

In front of the basilica stands a bronze statue of S. Laurence 
upon a tall granite pillar. The portico of the church is supported 
by six ionic columns, four of them spiral. Above these is a mosaic 
frieze of the thirteenth century. In the centre is the Spotless 
Lamb, having, on the right, S. Laurence, Honorius III., and 
another figure ; and on the left three heads, two of whom are 
supposed to be the virgin martyr S. Ciriaca and her mother 
Tryphoena, buried in the adjoining cemetery. Above this is a very 
richly decorated marble frieze, boldly relieved with lions' heads. 
The gable of the church is faced with modern mosaics of saints. 
Within the portico are four splendid sarcophagi ; that on the left of 
the entrance is adorned with reliefs representing a vintage, with 
cupids as the vine-gatherers, and contains the remains of Pope 
Damasus II., who died in 1049, after a reign of only twenty-three 
days. At the sides of the door are two marble lions. The walls of 
the portico are covered with a very curious series of frescoes, lately 
repainted. They represent four consecutive stories. 

On the right : — 

A holy hermit, living a life of solitude and prayer, heard a rushing noise, and, 
looliiiig out of liis window, saw a troop of demons, who told him that the 
Emperor Henry II. had just expired, and that they were hurrying to lay claim 
to his soul. The hermit trembled, and besought them to let him know as they 
returned how they had succeeded. Some days after they came back, and 
narrated that when the Archangel was weighing the good and evil deeds of the 
Emperor in his balance, the weight was falling in their favour, when suddenly 
the roasted S. Laurence appeared, bearing a golden chalice, which the Emperor 
shortly before his death had bestowed upon the church, and cast it into the scale 
of good deeds, and so turned the balance the other way, but that in revenge they 
had broken off one of the golden handles of the chalice. And when the hermit 
heard these things he rejoiced greatly ; and the soul of the Emperor was saved 
and he became a canonised saint, and the devils departed blaspheming. 

The order of the frescoes representing this legend is :— 

1, 2. Scenes in the life of Heni-y II. 

3. The Emperor offers the golden chalice. 

4. A banquet scene. 

5. The hermit discourses with the devils. 

0. The death of Henry II., 1024. 

7. Dispute for the soul of the Emperor. 

8. It is saved by S. Laurence. 

The second series represents the whole story of the acts, trial, 
martyrdom, and burial of S. Laurence ; one or two frescoes in this 
were entirely effaced, and have been added by the restorer. Of the 
old series were : — 

1. nie investiture of S. Laurence as deacon. 

2. S. Laurence washes the feet of poor Chi'istians. 

3. He heals S. Ciriaca. 

4. He distributes alms on the Coelian. 

5. He meets S. Sixtus led to death, and receives his blessing. 
0. He is led before the Prefect. 

7. He restores sight to Lucillus. 

8. He is scourged. 

9. He baptizes S. Hipjwlytus. 

11. He refuses to give up the treasures of the Church. 
13, 14, 15. His burial by S. Hippolytus. 

S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura 93 

The third series represents the story of S. Stephen, followed by 
that of the translation of his relics to this basilica. 

The relics of S. Stephen were preserved at Constantinople, whither they had 
been transported from Jerusalem by the Empress Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius 11. 
Hearing that her daughter Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian II., Emperor of the 
West, was afflicted with a devil, she begged her to come to Constantinople, that 
her demon might be driven out by the touch of the relics. The younger Eudoxia 
wished to comply, but the devil refused to leave her unless S. Stephen was 
brought to Rome. An agreement was therefore made that the relics of 8. 
Stephen should be exchanged for those of S. Laurence. S. Stephen arrived, and 
the Empress was immediately relieved of her devil ; but when the persons who 
had brought the relics of S. Stephen from Constantinople were about to take 
those of S. Laurence back with them, they all fell down dead I Pope Pelagius 
prayed for their restoration to life, which was granted for a short time, to prove 
the efficacy of prayer, but they all died again ten days after ! Thus the Bomans 
knew that it would be criminal to fulfil their promise, and part with the 
relics of S. Laurence, and the bodies of the two martyrs were laid in the same 

The frescoes on the left wall represent a separate story : — 

A holy sacristan arose before the dawn to enjoy solitary prayers before the 
altars of this church. Once when he was thus employed, he found that he was 
not alone, and beheld three persons, a priest, a deacon, and subdeacon, officiat- 
ing at the altar, and the church around him flUed with worshippers, whose 
faces bore no mortal impress. Tremblingly he drew near to him whom he 
dreaded the least, and inquired of the deacon who this company might be. 
' The priest whom thou seest is the blessed Apostle Peter,' answered the spirit, 
' and I am Laurence, who suffered cruel torments for the love of my master 
Christ upon a Wednesday, which was the day of His betrayal ; and in remem- 
brance of my martyrdom we are come to-day to celebrate here the mysteries of 
the Church ; and the subdeacon who is with us is the first martyr, S. Stephen ; 
and the worshippers are the apostles, the martyrs, and virgins who have passed 
with me into Paradise, and have come back hither to do me honour ; and of this 
solemn service thou art chosen as the witness. \Vhen it is day, therefore, go to 
the Pope and tell what thou hast seen, and bid him, in my name, to come hither 
and to celebrate a solemn mass with all his clergy, and to grant indulgences to 
the faithful." But the sacristan trembled and said, ' If I go to the Pope he will 
not believe me : give me some visible sign, then, which will show what I have 
seen.' And S. Laurence ungirt his robe, and giving his girdle to the sacristan, 
bade him show it in proof of what he told. In the morning the old man 
related what he had seen to the abbot of the monastery, who bore the girdle 
to the then Pope, Alexander IL The Pope accompanied him back to the basilica, 
and on their way they were met by a funeral procession, when, to test the 
powers of the girdle, the Pope laid it on the bier, and at once the dead arose 
and walked. Then all men knew that the sacristan had told what was true, and 
the Pope celebrated mass as he had lieen bidden, and promised an indulgence of 
forty years to all who should visit on a Wednesday any church dedicated to 
S. Laurence. 

This story is told in eight pictures : — 

1. The sacristan sees the holy ones. 

2. The phantom mass. 

3. The sacristan tells the abbot. 

4. The abbot tells the Pope. 

5. The Pope consults his cardinals. 

6. The dead is raised by the girdle. 

7. Mass is celebrated at S. Lorenzo, and souls are freed bova 

purgatorj' by the intercession of the saint. 

8. Prayer is made at the shrine of S. Laurence. 

The magnificent nave — which is the basilica of Honorius III. — is 
divided frona its side aisles by twenty -two ionic columns of granite 

94 Walks in Rome 

and cipoUino. One of the columns on the right has a lizard and a 
frog amongst the decorations of its capital, which led Winckelmann 
to the supposition that these columns were brought hitlier from the 
Portico of Octavia, because Plinj describes that the architects of 
the Portico of Metellus, which formerly occupied that site, were 
two Spartans, named Sauros and Batrachus, who implored per- 
mission to carve their names upon their work ; and that when leave 
was refused, they introduced them under this form — Batrachus 
signifying a frog, and Sauros a lizard. 

Above the architrave are frescoes by Fracassini of the lives and 
martyrdoms of SS. Stephen and Laurence. Higher up are saints 
connected with the history of the basilica. The roof is painted in 
patterns. The splendid opus-alexandrinum pavement is of the 
tenth century. On the left of the entrance is a baptismal font, 
above which are more frescoes relating to the story of S. Laurence. 
On the right, beneath a mediaeval canopy, is a very fine sarco- 
phagus, sculptured with a wedding scene, — adapted as the tomb 
of Cardinal Fieschi, nephew of Innocent IV., who died in 1256. 
Inside the canopy is a fresco of Christ throned, to whom S. Laur- 
ence presents the cardinal, and S. Stephen Innocent IV. Behind/ 
stand S. Eustace and S. Hippolytus. A tomb commemorates 
Landolfo, brother of the famous Pope-murderer Crescenzio. The 
west end of the church is closed by the inscription, ' Hi sunt qui 
venerunt de tribulatione magna, et laverunt stolas suas in sanguine 

The splendid ambones in the nave, inlaid with serpentine and 
porphyry, are of the twelfth century. That on the right, with a 
candelabrum for the Easter candle, was for the Gospel, that on the 
left for the Epistle. 

At the end of the left aisle, a passage leads down to a subter- 
ranean chapel, used for prayer for the souls in purgatory. Here 
is the entrance to the Catacombs of S. Ciriaca, which are said to 
extend as far as S. Agnese, but which have been much and 
wantonly injured in the works for the new cemetery. Here the 
body of S. Laurence is related to have been found. Over the 
entrance is inscribed : — 

' Haee est tumba ilia toto orbe terrarum celeberrima ex cimeterio S. Ciriacae 
Matronae ubi sacrum si quis fecerit pro defunctis eorum animas e purgatorii 
poenis divi laurentii mentis evocabit.'i 

Passing the triumphal arch, we enter the early basilica of Pope 
Pelagius II. (572-590), which is on a lower level than that of the 
nave. Here are twelve splendid columns of pavonazetto (marmor 
Phrygium), which legend affirms to have obtained its violet stains 
from the blood of Atys : ^ the first two bear trophies, carved above 
the acanthus leaves of their capitals. These support an entablature 

1 The qjiistence of this inscription makes the destruction of this catacomb 
under Pius IX. the more extraordinary. 

2 Statins, Sylv. i. v. 36. 

S. Lorenzo faori le Mura 95 

formed from various fragments, put together without uniformity — 
and a triforium, divided by twelve small columns. 

On the inside, which w^as formerly the outside, of the triumphal 
arch, is a restored mosaic of the time of Pelagius, representing the 
Saviour seated upon the world, having on the right S. Peter, 
S. Laurence, and S. Pelagius, and on the left S. Paul, S. Stephen, 
and with them in a warrior's dress S. Hippolytns, the soldier who 
was appointed to guard S. Laurence in prison, and who, being 
converted by him, was dragged to death by wild horses, aft«r 
seeing nineteen of his family suffer before his eyes. He is the 
patron saint of horses. Here also are the mystic cities Bethlehem 
and Jerusalem. 

A long poetical inscription which existed here in early times 
was restored in 1860. It records how Pelagius II. cut away the 
hill of Cyriaca to give light and air to the church. 

The high altar, with a baldacchino, supported by four porphyry 
columns, covers the remains of SS. Laurence and Stephen, enclosed 
in a silver shrine by Pelagius II., a Pope so munificent that he had 
given up his own house as a hospital for aged poor. S. Justin is 
also buried here. 

' Xo one knew what had become of the body of S. Stephen for 400 years, when 
Lucian, a priest of Carsamagala, in Palestine, was visited in a dream by Gamaliel, 
the doctor of the law at whose feet Paul was brought up in all the learning of 
the Jews ; and Gamaliel revealed to him that after the death of Stephen he had 
carried away the body of the saint, and had buried it in his own sepulchre, 
and had also deposited near it the body of Xicodemus and other saints ; and 
this dream having been repeated three times, Lucian went with others deputed 
by the bishop, and dug with mattocks and spades in the spot which had been 
indicated— a sepulchre in a garden — and found what they supposed to be the 
remains of S. Stephen, their peculiar sanctity being proved by many miracles. 
These relics were first deposited in Jerusalem, in the Church of Sion, and after- 
wards by the younger Theodosius carried to Constantinople, whence they were 
taken to Rome, and placed by the Pope Pelagius in the same tomb with S. Laur- 
ence. It is related that when they opened the sarcophagus, and lowered into 
it the body of S. Stephen, S. Laiu^nce moved on one side, giving the place of 
honour on the right hand to S. Stephen ; hence the common people of Borne 
have conferred on S. Laurence the title of " D cort«se Spagnuolo " — tiie coorteoos 
Spaniard.' — Jamestm't 'Sacred and Legendary Art.' 

Behind the altar is a mosaic screen, with panels of porphyry and 
serpentine, and an ancient episcopal throne. 

The lower church was filled up with soil till 1864, when restora- 
tions were ordered here. These were entrusted to Count Vespig- 
nani, and have been better carried out than most church alterations 
in Rome ; but an interesting portico, with mosaics by one of the 
famous Cosmati family, has been destroyed to make room for some 
miserable arrangements connected with the modem cemetery. 
Behind the altar a marble slab 'stained with the blood of 
S. Laurence' is shown. Beyond this a modem chapel has been 
built, whither, to a tomb now adorned with appropriate mosaics 
of the Good Shepherd, by his dying desire, instead of to the grand 
mausoleum which he had prepared at S. Maria Maggipre, the 
remains of the beloved Pope Pius IX. (ob. February 7, 1878) were 
brought from S. Peter's in 1881 — to 'be iDuried amongst the poor.' 

96 Walks in Rome 

It was in this basilica that Peter Courtenay, Count of Auxerre, 
with lolanthe his wife, received the imperial crown of Constantinople 
from Honorius III. in 1217. In unconsecrated ground, in the space 
in front of the church, rests the magnificent general Andrea Braccio, 

' Braccio valente 
Vinea ogni gente,' - 

of the popular distich, who lost his life at the siege of Aquila in 

Adjoining the church is the very picturesque Cloister of the Monas- 
tery, built in 1190 for Cistercian monks, but assigned as a residence 
for any Patriarchs of Jerusalem who might visit Kome. Here are 
preserved many ancient inscriptions, and other fragments from the 
neighbouring catacombs. 

The basilica is now almost engulfed in the Campo Verano, the 
Cemetery of S. Lorenzo, the great modern burial-ground of Rome. 
It was opened in 1837, but has been much enlarged in the last ten 
years. Hither wend the numerous funerals which are seen passing 
through the streets after Ave-Maria, with a procession of monks 
bearing candles. A frightful gate, with a laudatory inscription to 
Pius IX., and a hideous modern chapel, have been erected. There 
are very few fine, though manj' very pretentious, monuments. The 
best are those in imitation of the cinque-cento tombs, of which there 
are so many in the Roman churches. Those by Podesti, the painter 
(1865), and Lombard!, the sculptor (1872), to their wives, in the 
right corridor of the cloister, are touching. Near the end of the 
same corridor is the monument to the venerable Maria di Matthias 
(1866), foundress of the Order of the Precious Blood, who possessed 
a great influence amongst Catholics in her lifetime. The higher 
ground to the left, behind the church, is occupied by the tombs of 
the rich. Those of the poor are indiscriminately scattered over a 
wide plain. A range of cliffs on the left were perforated by the 
Catacombs of S. Ciriaca, which, with the bad taste so constantly 
displayed in Rome, have been wantonly and shamefully broken up. 
Those who do not wish to descend into a catacomb may here see 
(from without) all their arrangements — in the past^ages lined with 
sepulchres, and even some small chapels, covered with rude frescoes, 
laid open to the air, where the cliff has been cut away. 

A Roman funeral is a most sad sight, and strikes one with an un- 
utterable sense of desolation. 

" ' After a death the body is entirely abandoned to the priests, who take posses- 
sion of it, watch over it, and prepare it for burial ; while the family, if they can 
find refuge anywhere else, abandon the liouse and remain away a week. . . . 
The body is not ordinarily allowed to remain in the house more than twelve 
hours, except on condition that it is sealed up in lead or zinc. At nightfall a 
sad procession of becchini and frati may be seen coming down the street, and 
stopping before the house of the dead. The becchini are taken from the lowest 
classes of the people, and hired to carry the corpse on the bier and to accom- 
pany it to the church and cemetery. They are dressed in shabby black cappe, 
covering their head and face as well as their body, and having two large holes 
cut in front of the eyes to enable them to see. These cappc are girdled round 

Campo Verano 97 

the waist, and the dirty tronsen and worn-out shoes are miserably manifest 
under the skii-ts of their dress — showing plainly that their duty is occasional. 
All the //at! and becchini, except the four who carry the bier, are furnished with 
wax candles, for no one is buried in Kome without a candle. You may know 
the rank of the person to be buried by the lateness of the hour and the number 
of the /rati. If it be the funeral of a person of wealth or a noble, it takes place 
at a late hour, the procession of frati is long, and the bier elegant. If it be a 
state funeral, as of a prince, caniages accompany it in mourning, the coachmen 
and lackeys are bedizened in their richest liveries, and the state hammer-cloths 
are spread on the 1x)xes, with the family anus embossed on them in gold. But 
if it be a pauper's funeral, there are only becchini enough to carry the bier to the 
grave, and two /rati, each with a little candle ; and the sunshine is yet on the 
streets when they come to take away the corpse. 

' You will see this procession stop before the house where the corpse is lying. 
Some of the becchini go upstairs, and some keep guai-d below. Scores of shabby 
men and boys are gathered round the /rati; some attracted simply by curiosity, 
and some for the purpose of catching the wax, which gutters down from the 
caudles as they are blown by the wind. The latter may be known by the great 
horns of paper which they carry in their hands. While this crowd waits for the 
corpse, the /rail light their candles, and talk, and laugh, and take snuff together. 
Finally comes the body borne down by four of the becchini. It is in a common 
rough deal coffin, more like an ill-made packing-case than anything else. No 
care or expense has been laid out upon it to make it elegant, for it is only to be 
seen for a moment. Then it is sUd upon the bier, and over it is drawn the black 
velvet pall with golden trimmings, on which a cross, death's head, and bones are 
embroidered. Four of the becchini hoist it on their shoulders, the /rati break 
forth into their hoarse chant, and the procession sets out for the church, little 
and big boys and shabby men follow along, holding up their i)aperjhoms against 
the sloping candles to catch the dripping wax. Every one takes off his hat, or 
makes the sign of the cross, or mutters a prayer as the body passes ; and with 
a dull, sad, monotonous chant, the candles gleaming and flaring, and casting 
around them a yellow flickering glow, the funeral winds along through the 
narrow streets, and under the sombre palaces and buildings, where the shadows 
of night are deepening every moment. The spectacle seen from a distance, and 
especially when looked down upon from a window, is very effective ; but it loses 
much of its solemnity as you approach it ; for the /rati are so vulgai-, dirty, and 
stupid, and seem so utterly indifferent and heartless, as they mechanically croak 
out their psalms, that aU other emotions yield to a feeling of di^ust.' — Story's 

' Ces rapprochements soudains de I'antiquit^ et des temps modemes, provoqu^ 
par la vue d'un monimient dont la destinee se lie a I'une et aux autres, sont tres 
frequents a Kome. L'histoire poetique d'Enee aurait pu m'en foumir plusieurs. 
Ainsi dans I'Eneide, aux funerailles de Pallas, une longue procession s'avauce, 
portant des flambeaux funebres, suivant I'usage antique, dit VirgUe. En effet, on 
se souvient que I'usage des cierges remontait a I'abolition des sacrifices humains, 
accomplie dans les temps Wroiques par le dieu pelasgique Hercule. La description 
que fait Virgile des fimeraiUes de Pallas pourrait convenir a un de ces enterre- 
ments romains ovi Ion voit de lougues files de capucius marchant procession- 
nellement en portant des cierges. 

"Lucet via longo 
Online flammarum." (,Ae7i. xL 143.)' 

—Amph-e, L 217. 

On the other side of the road from S. Lorenzo is the Catacomb of 
S. Hippolytus, interesting as described by the christian poet Pru- 
dentius, •who wrote at the end of the fourth century. 

' Not far from the city walls, among the weU-trimmed orchards, there lies a 
crypt buried in darksome pits. Into its secret recesses a steep path with wind- 
ing stairs directs one, even though the turnings shut out the light. The light of 
day, indeed, comes in tlnx)ugh the doorway as far as the surface of the opening, 
and ilhmiinates the threshold of the portico ; and when, as you t^vance 


98 Walks in Rome 

farther, the darkness as of night seems to get more and more obscure through- 
out the mazes of the cavern, there occur at intervals apertures cut in the roof 
wliich convey the briglit rays of the sun upon the cave. Altliough the recesses, 
twisting at random tliis way and that, form narrow chambers with darksome 
galleries, yet a considerable quantity of light finds its way through the pierced 
vaulting down into the hollow bowels of the mountain. And thus throughout 
the subterranean crypt it is possible to perceive the brightness and enjoy the 
light of the absent sun. To such secret places is the body of Hippolytus con- 
veyed, near to the spot where now stands the altar dedicated to God. That 
same altar-slab (metisa) gives the sacrament and is the faithful guardian of its 
martyr's bones, which it keeps laid up there in expectation of the Eternal .Judge, 
while it feeds the dwellers by the Tilier with holy food. Wondrous is the sanc- 
tity of the place ! The altar is at hand for those who pray, and it assists the 
hopes of men by mercifully granting what they need. Here have I, when sick 
with ills both of soul and body, oftentimes prostrated myself in prayer and 
found relief. . . . Early in the moniing men come to salute (Hippolytus) : all 
the yoTith of the place worship here : they come and go until the setting of the 
sun. Love of religion collects together into one dense crowd both Latins and 
foreigners ; they imprint their kisses on the shining silver ; they pour out their 
sweet balsams ; they bedew their faces with tears.' — liorna Sotterranea, p. 98. 



S. Antonio dei Portoghesi — Torre della Scimia— S. Agostino— S. Apollinare — 
Palazzo Altemps— S. Maria dell' Aninia— S. Maria della Pace— Palazzo del 
Govemo Vecchio — Monte Giordano and Palazzo Gabrielli — S. Maria Nuova 
— S. Maria di MonseiTato — S. Girolamo della Caritii— S. Brigitta— S. Tom- 
maso degl' Inglesi — Palazzo Farnese — S. Maria della Morte — Palazzo Fal- 
conieri — Campo di Fiore — Palazzo Cancelleria — SS. Lorenzo e Damaso — 
Palazzo Linote — Palazzo Spada — Trinita dei Pellegrini — S. Maria in Monti- 
celli— Palazzo Santa Croce — S. Carlo a' Catinari — Theatre of Pompey— S. 
Andrea della Valle — Palazzo Vidoni — Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne — S. 
Pantaleone — Palazzo Braschi — Statue of Pasquin — S. Agnese — Piazza Navona 
— Palazzo Pamfili — S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli — Palazzo Madama — S. Luigi dei 
Francesi— Tlie Sapienza— S. Eustachio — Pantheon — 8. Maria sopra Minerva 
— II Pi6 di Mamio. 

THE Campus Martius, now an intricate labyrinth of streets, 
occupying the wide space between the Corso and the Tiber, 
was not included within the walls of ancient Rome, but even to 
late imperial times continued to be covered with gardens and 
pleasure-grounds, interspersed with open spaces, which were used 
for the public exercises and amusements of the Roman youth. 

' Tunc ego me memini ludos in gramine Campi 
Aspicere, et didici, lubrice Tibri, tuos.' 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 237. 

' Tot jam abiere dies, cum me, nee cura theatri, 
Nee tetigit Campi, nee mea musa juvat.' 

Propert. El. ii. 13. 

' Altera gramineo spectabis Equina campo, 
Quem Tiberis curvis in latua urget aquis.' 

Ovid, Fast. iii. 519. 

The vicinity of the Tiber afforded opportunities for practice in 

' Quamvis non alius flectere equum sciens 
Aeque conspicitur graffnine Martio : 
Xec quisquam citus aeque 
Tusco denatat alveo.' 

Har. Od. iii. 7. 
' Once upon a raw and gusty day, 
The troubled Tiber chafing with her shores, 
Caesar said to me, " Dar'st thou, Cassiua, now 
Leap in with me into this angry flood, 
And swim to yonder point ? " Upon the word. 
Accoutred as I was, I plunged in, 
And bade him follow, — so, indeed, he did : 

100 Walks in Rome 

The torrent roared ; and we did buffet it 

With lusty sinews ; throwing it aside, 

And stemming it with hearts of controversy.' 

Shakespeare, 'Julius Caesar.' 

It was only near the foot of the Capitol that any buildings were 
erected under the Republic, and these only public offices ; under the 
Empire magnificent edifices were gradually scattered here and there 
over the plain ; and at length the whole plain could be crossed 
under a succession of the magnificent porticoes which enabled the 
Romans, in every season, to walk protected from sun, rain, or cold. 
In the time of Cicero, the Campus was quite uninhabited ; it is 
supposed that the population were first attracted here when the 
aqueducts were cut during the Lombard invasion, which drove the 
inhabitants from the hills, and obliged them to seek a site where 
they could avail themselves of the Tiber. 

The hills, which were crowded by a dense population in ancient 
Rome, have, till recently, been for the most part deserted ; the plain, 
which was deserted in ancient Rome, has long been thickly covered 
with inhabitants. 

The plain was bounded on two sides by the Quirinal and Capito- 
line hills, which were both in the hands of the Sabines, but it had 
no connection with the Latin hill of the Palatine. Thus it was 
dedicated to the Sabine god, Mamers or Mars, either before the 
time of Servius Tullius, as is implied by Dionysius, or after the 
time of the Tarquins, as stated by Livy. 

Tarquinius Superbus had appropriated the Campus Martius to his 
own use, and planted it with corn. After he was expelled, and his 
crops cut down and thrown into the Tiber, the land was restored to 
the people. Here the tribunes used to hold the assemblies of the 
plebs in the Prata Flaminia at the foot of the Capitol, before any 
buildings were erected as their meeting-place. 

The earliest building of the Campus Martius of which there is any 
record is the Temple of Apollo, built by the consul C. Julius in 
B.C. 430. Under the censor C. Flaminius, in B.C. 220, a group of 
important edifices arose on a site which is ascertained to be nearly 
that occupied by the Palazzo Caetani, Palazzo Mattel, and S. 
Caterina dei Funari. The most important was the Circus Flaminius 
(which would accommodate 150,000 persons), where the plebeian 
games were celebrated under the care of the plebeian aediles, and 
which in later times was fiooded by Augustus, when thirty-six 
crocodiles were killed there for the amusement of the people.' 

Close to this circus was the Villa Publica, erected B.C. 438, for 
taking the census, levying troops, and such other public business 
as could not be transacted within the city. Here, also, foreign 
ambassadors were received before their entrance into the city, as 
afterwards at the Villa Papa Giulio, and here victorious generals 
awaited the decree which allowed them a triumph.^ It was in the 

1 Dyer's Rome, 70. 2 Ampere, Hist. ii. 10. 

The Campus Martius 101 

Villa Publica that Sulla cruelly massacred three thousand partisans 
of Marius, after he had promised them their lives, 

' Tunc flos Hesperiae, Latii jam sola juventus, 
Concidit, et miserae macnlaTit ovilia Romae.' 

Luean, ii. 196. 

The cries of these dying men were heard by the senate, who were 
assembled at the time in the Temple of Bellona (restored by Appins 
Claudius Caecus in the Samnite War), which stood hard by, and in 
front of which, at the extremity of the Circus Flaminius, where 
the Piazza Paganica now is, stood the Columna Bellica, where the 
Fetialis, when war was declared, flung a lance into a piece of 
ground, supposed to represent the enemy's country, when it was 
not possible to do it at the hostile frontier itself. Julius Caesar 
flung the spear here when war was declared against Cleopatra.^ 

' Prospicit a templo summiini brevis area Circum ; 
Est ibi non parvae parva columna notae. 
Hinc solet hasta manu, belli praenuntia, mitti, 
In regem et gentes, cum placet arraa capi.' 

Ovid, Fast. \i. 205. 

Almost adjoining the Villa Publica was the Septa, where the 
Comitia Centuriata elected their tribunes. The other name of this 
place of assembly, Ovilia, or the sheepfolds, bears witness to its 
primitive construction, when it was surrounded by a wooden barrier. 
In later times the Ovilia was more richly adorned. Pliny describes 
it as containing two groups of sculpture — Pan and the young 
Olympus, and Chiron and the young Achilles — for which the keepers 
were responsible with their lives ',2 and under the Empire it was 
enclosed in magnificent buildings, which contained a museum of 
rare foreign curiosities. 

In B.C. 189 the Temple of Hercules Musagetes was built by the 
censor Fulvius Nobilior. It occupied a site a little south of the 
Circus Flaminius.* Sulla restored it : — 

' Altera pars Circl custode sub Hercule tuta est ; 
Quod Deus Eulwico carmine munus habet 
Muneris est tempus, qui >'onas Lucifer ante est : 
Si titulos quaeris, Sulla probavit opus.' 

Ovid, Fait. vi. 209. 

This temple was rebuilt by L. Marcius Philippus, stepfather of 
Augustus, and surrounded by a portico called after him Portions 

' Vites, censeo, porticum Philippi, 
Si te viderit Hercules, peristi.' 

Martial, Ep. v. 49.^ 

1 Ampere, Emp. i. 184. 

2 Pliny, H. X xss. 37, 2 ; and 49, 4. 

3 Dyer, 110. 

4 Dyer, 211. 

5 It was close to this temple of Hercules that the Ixxlies of S. Symphorosa 
and her seven sons, martyred imder Hadrian ('the seven Biothanati '), were 
buried by order of the Emperor. S. Symphorosa herself had been hung up here 
by her hair, before being drowned in the Tiber. 

102 Walks in Rome 

The Portico of Octavia itself was originally built by the praetor 
Cn. Octavius in B.C. 167, and rebuilt by Augustus, who rededicated 
it in memory of his sister. Close adjoining was the Porticus Metelli, 
built B.C. 146, by Caecilius Metellus.^ It contained two temples of 
Juno and Jupiter.^ Another Temple of Juno stood between this and 
the Theatre of Pompey, having been erected by M. Aemilius Lepidus 
in B.C. 170, together with a Temple of Diana. ^ Near the same spot 
was a Temple of Fortuna Equestris, erected in consequence of a 
vow of Q. Fulvius Flaccus when fighting against the Celtiberians 
in B.C. 176 ; a Temple of Isis and Serapis ;"* and a Temple of Mars, 
erected by D. Junius Brutus, for his victories over the Gallicians, 
in B.C. 136;^ at this last-named temple, the people, assembled in 
their centuries, voted the war against Philip of Macedon. In the 
same neighbourhood was the Theatre of Balbus, a general under 
Julius Caesar, occupying the site of the Piazza della Scuola. 

The munificence of Pompey extended the public buildings much 
farther into the Campus. He built, after his triumph, a Temple 
of Minerva on the site now occupied by the Church of S. Maria 
sopra Minerva, on which the beautiful statue called " the Giustiniaui 
Minerva " was found, and the Theatre of Pompey, surrounded by 
pillared porticoes and walks shaded with plane-trees. 

' Scilicet unibrosis sordet Pompeia coliunnis 
Porticus, aulaeis nobilis Attalicis : 
Et creber pariter platanis surgentibus ordo, 
Flumina sopito quaeque Marone cadunt.' 

Propertius, El. ii. 32. 

' Tu modo Pompeia lentus spatiai'e sub umbra, 
Cum sol Herculei terga leonis adit.' 

Ovid, de Art. Am. i. 67. 

' Inde petit centum pendentia tecta columnis, 
mine Pompeii dona, nemusque duplex.' 

Martial, Ep. ii. 14. 

Near the theatre was the Portico Ad Nationes, so called from 
colossal statues representing the nations of the world. 

Under the Empire important buildings began to rise up farther 
from the city. The Amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, whose ruins 
are supposed to be the foundation of the Monte Citorio, was built 
by a general under Augustus ; the magnificent Pantheon, the 
Baths of Agrippa, and the Diribitorium — where the soldiers re- 
ceived their pay — whose huge and unsupported roof was one of 
the wonders of the city,* were due to his son-in-law. Agrippa 
also brought the Aqua Virgo into the city to supply his baths, con- 
veying it on pillars across the Flaminian Way, the future Corso. 

1 Dyer, 113, 11.5. 

2 Amp6re, Hist. Rom. iii. 198. 

3 Dyer, 115. 

* Endless relics of this temple have l)een found. 

6 Dyer, 115, 116. 

« Pliny, //. N. xxxv. 15, 24. 

The Campus Martins 103 

' Qna vicina pluit Vipsanis porta colamnis, 
Et madet assiduo lubriciis imbre lapis, 
In jugulum pueri, qui roscida tecta subiliat, 
Decidit hiberno praegravis unda gelu.' 

Martial, Ep. It. 18. 

Near this aqueduct was a temple of Juturna : 

' Te quoque Irts eadem, Turni soror, aede recepit, 
Hie ubi Virginea campus obitur aqua.' 

Ovid, Fast. L 463. 
and another of Isis, — 

' A Meroe portabit aquas, nt spargat in aede 
Isidis, antique quae iHroxima surgit orili.' 

Juoenal, Sat. vL 528. 

These were followed by the erection of the Temple of Neptune — 
by some ascribed to Agrippa, who is said to have built it in honour 
of his naval victories — by others to the time of the Antonines ; by 
the great Imperial Mausoleum, then far out in the country ; and 
by the Baths of Nero, on the site now occupied by S. Luigi and the 
neighbouring buildings. 

' . . . Quid Nerone pejus ? 
Quid thermis melius Xeronianis?' 

Martial, Ep. viL 33. 

' . . . Fas sit componere magnis 
Parva, Xeronea nee qui modo lotus in unda 
Hie iterum sudare neget." 

Statitts, Silv. i. 

Besides these were an Arch of Tiberius, erected by Claudius, a 
Temple of Hadrian, and Basilica of Matidia, built by Antoninus 
Pius, in honour of his predecessors ; the Temple and Arch of Marcus 
Aurelius, near the site of the present Palazzo Chigi, and an Arch of 
Gratian, Valentinian II., and Theodosius. 

Of all these various buildings nothing remains except the Pantheon, 
a portion of the Baths of Agrippa, some disfigured fragments of the 
Mausoleum, a range of columns belonging to the Temple of Neptune, 
and a portion of the Portico of Octavia. The interest of the Campus 
Martius is almost entirely mediaeval or modern, and the objects 
worth visiting are scattered amid such a maze of dirty and intricate 
streets, that they are seldom sought out except by those who make 
a long stay in Rome, and care for everything connected with its 
history and architecture. 

Following the line of streets which leads from the Piazza di Spagna 
to S. Peter's (Via Condotti, Via Fontanella Borghese), beyond the 
Borghese Palace, let us turn to the left by the Via della Scrofa,^ at 
the entrance of which are the Palazzo Cardelli, on the left, and 
the Palazzo Mancini, formerly Galitzin, on the right : a tablet on 

1 So called from a fountain adorned with the figure of a sow, which once 
existed here. 

104 Walks in Rome 

the latter records the visit which the poet Tasso paid here to 
Cardinal Scipio Gonzaga. 

The second turn on the right, Via S. Antonio dei Portoghesi, 
shows a church dedicated to S. Anthony of Padua, and the fine 
mediaeval tower called Torre della Scimia. 

In this tower once lived a man who had a favourite ape. One day 
this creature seized upon a baby, and rushing to the summit, was 
seen from below by the agonised parents, perched upon the battle- 
ments, and balancing their child to and fro over the abyss. They 
made a vow in their terror, that if the baby were restored in safety, 
they would make provision that a lamp should bum nightly for ever 
before an image of the Virgin on the summit. The monkey, without 
relaxing its hold of the infant, slid down the walls, and, bounding 
and grimacing, laid the child at its mother's feet.^ Thus a lamp 
always burns upon the battlements before an image of the Madonna. 

This building is better known, however, as ' Hilda's Tovv^er,' a 
fictitious name which it has received from Hawthorne's mysterious 

'Takingher way through some ol the intricacies of the city, Miriam entered 
what might be called either a widening of the street or a small piazza. The 
neighboiu-hood comprised a baker's oven, emitting the usual fragi-ance of sour 
bread ; a shoe shop ; a linen-draper's sliop ; a pipe and cigar shop ; a lottery 
ofBce ; a station for French soldiers, with a sentinel pacing in front ; and a fruit 
stand, at which a Eoman matron was selling the dried kernels of chestnuts, 
wretched little figs, and some bouquets of yesterday. A church, of course, was 
near at hand, the facade of which ascended into lofty pinnacles, whereon were 
perched two or three winged figures of stone, either angelic or allegorical, 
blowing stone trumpets in close vicinity to the upper windows of an old and 
shabby palace. This palace was distinguished by a feature not very common 
in the architecture of Roman edifices ; that is to say, a mediaeval tower, square, 
massive, lofty, and battlemented and machicolated at the summit. 

' At one of the angles of the battlements stood a shrine of the Virgin, such as 
we see everywhere at the street corners of Rome, but seldom or never, except in 
this solitary instance, at a height above the ordinaiy level of men's views and 
aspirations. Connected with this old tower and its lofty shrine there is a legend ; 
and for centuries a lamp has been burning before the Virgin's image at noon, at 
midnight, at all hours of the twenty-four, and must be kept burning for ever, as 
long as the tower shall stand, or else the tower itself, the palace, and whatever 
estate belongs to it, shall pass from its hereditary possessor, in accordance with 
an ancient vow, and become the property of the Church. 

' As Miriam approached, she looked upward, and saw — not, indeed, the flame 
of the never-dying lamp, which was swallowed up in the broad sunlight that 
brightened the shrine — but a flock of white doves, shining, fluttering, and 
wheeling above the topmost height of the tower, their silver wings flashing in 
the pure transparency of the air. Several of them sat on the ledge of the upper 
window, pushing one another off by their eager struggle for this favourite 
station, and all tapping their beaks and flapping their wings tumultuously 
against the panes ; some had alighted in the street far below, but flew hastily 
upward at the sound of the window l)eing thrust ajar, and opening in the 
middle, on rusty hinges, as Roman windows do.' — Transformution. 

The next street, on the right, leads to the Church of S. Agostino, 
built originally by Baccio Pintelli, 1483, for Cardinal d'Estouteville, 

1 The story is told in Howell's Familiar Letters, 1043, as having happened in 
Paris, and similar stories are told of the infancy of Cromwell and Cliristian of 

S. Agostino 105 

Archbishop of Ronen and Legate in France^ (the vindicator of 
Jeanne Dare), but altered in 1740 by Vanvitelli. The delicate 
work of the front, built of travertine robbed from the Coliseum, is 
much admired by those who do not seek for strength of light and 
shadow. This church — dedicated to her son — contains the remains 
of S. Monica, brought hither from Ostia, where she died. 

' Drawing near her death, she sent most pious thoughts as harbingers to heaven ; 
and her soul saw a glimpse of happiness through the chinks of her sickness-broken 
hodj.'— Fuller. 

The chapel of S. Augnstin, in the right transept, contains a gloomy 
picture by Guercino, of S. Augnstin between S. John Baptist and 
S. Paul the hermit. The high altar, by Bernini, has an image of 
the Madonna, brought from S. Sophia at Constantinople, and attri- 
buted to S. Luke. The second chapel in the left aisle has a group 
of the Virgin and Child with S. Anna, by Jacopo Sansovino, 1512. 

On the third pilaster, to the left of the nave, is a fresco of Isaiah 
by Ilafadle, painted in 1512, but retouched by Daniele da Yolterra 
in the reign of Paul IV. The prophet holds a scroll with words from 
Isaiah xxvi. 2. Few will agree with the stricture of Kugler : — 

'In a fresco, representing the prophet Isaiah and two angels, who hold a 
tablet, the comparison is unfavourable to Eaffaelle. An effort to rival the 
powerful style of Michelangelo is very visible in this picture ; an effort which, 
notwithstanding the excellence of the execution in parts, has produced only an 
exaggerated and affected figure.' — Kugler, iL 371. 

The church overflows with silver hearts and other votive offerings, 
which are all addressed to the Madonna and Child of Jacopo Sanso- 
vino, close to the west entrance, which is really a fine piece of 
sculpture — for an object of Roman Catholic idolatry. 

On the pedestal of the image is inscribed—' N. S. Pio Vn. concede in perpetuo 
200 giomi d' indiilgenza da lucrarsi una volta al giomo da tiitti queUi che divota- 
mente toccheranno U piede di questa 3. Immagine, recitando un Ave Maria per 
U bisogno di S. Chiesa, 7 Giug. JiDCCCxxii.' 

Around this statue, till recently, a whole army of assassins' daggers 
were hung, strange instances of trespass-offering. 

' The Church of S. Agostino is the Methodist meeting-house, so to speak, of 
Eome, where the extravagance of the enthusiasm of the lower orders is allowed 
the freest scope. Its Virgin and Child are covered, smothered, with jewels, 
votive offerings of those whose prayers the image has heard and answered. All 
round the image the walls are covered with votive offerings likewise ; some of a 
similar kind— jewels, watches, valuables of different descriptions. Some offer- 
ings, again, consist of pictures, representing, generally in the rudest way, some 
sickness or accident cured or averted by the appearance in the clouds of the 
Madonna, as seen in the image. Almost the whole side of the church is covered, 
from pavement to roof, with these curious productions.'— ^//ord'g ' Letters from 

'It is not long since the report wa« spread, that one day when a poor woman 
called upon this image of the Madonna for help, it began to speak, and replied, 
•' If I had only something, then I could help thee, but I myself am so poor ! " 

1 The monks of S. Agostino and canons of S. Maria Ma^ore fought at his 
funeral for the trappings of his bier ; the rings were torn from his fingers, and 
the combatants charged one another with the torches. 

106 Walks in Rome 

' This story was circulated, and very soon throngs of credulous people hastened 
hither to kiss the foot of the Madonna, and to present her with all kinds of gifts. 
The image of the Virgin, a beautiful figure in brown marble, now sits shining 
with ornaments of gold and precious stones. Candles and lamps burn around, 
and people pour in, rich and poor, great and small, to kiss— some of them two or 
three times— the Madonna's foot, a gilt foot, to which the forehead also is de- 
votionally pressed. The marble foot is already worn away with kissing ; the 
Madonna is now rich. . . . Below the altar it is inscribed in golden letters that 
Pius VII. promised two hundred days' absolution to all such as should kiss the 
Madonna's foot and pray with the whole heai-t Ave Maria.'— Frederika Bremer. 

Passing the arch, just beyond this, is the Church of S. Apollinare, 
built originally by Adrian I. (772-795), but entirely modernised 
under Benedict XIV. by Fuga. It contains a number of relics of 
saints brought from the East by Basilian monks. Over the altar, on 
the left, in the inner vestibule, is a Madonna by Peruffino. This 
church now belongs to the German College. 

' S. Apollinare is said to have accompanied S. Peter from Antioch to Rome, 
and to have remained here as his companion and assistant (whence the church 
dedicated to him here). He was afterwards sent to preach the faith in Ravenna, 
where he became the first christian bishop, and suffered martyrdom outside the 
Rimini gate, July 23, A.D. 79.' 

This church occupies the site of the Statio Rationis Marmorum, 
the central office for the marble works of the State, connected by 
a paved road with the marble wharf on the Tiber. 

Adjoining this church is the Seminario Romano, founded by 
Pius IV., on a system drawn up by his nephew, S. Carlo Borromeo. 
Eight hundred young boys are annually educated here. In order 
to gain admittance, it is necessary to be of Koman birth, to be 
acquainted with grammar, and to wish to take orders. Pupils are 
held to their first intention of entering the priesthood by being 
compelled to refund all the expenses of their education if they 
renounce it. 

Nearly opposite the church is the Palazzo Altemps, built 1580, 
by Martino Lunghi. Its courtyard, due, like all the best palace 
work in Rome, to Baldassare Peruzzi, is exceedingly graceful and 
picturesque. Ancient statues and flowering shrubs occupy the 
spaces between the arches of the ground-floor, and on the first- 
floor is a loggia, richly decorated with delicate arabesques in the 
style of Giovanni da Udine. Near this loggia is a chapel of 
exceedingly beautiful proportions and delicately worked detail. 
It has several good frescoes, especially the Flight into Egypt, and 
S. Cecilia singing to the Virgin and the Child. At the west end is 
a small gracefully proportioned music-gallery, in various coloured 
marbles ; in an inner chapel is a fine bronze crucifix. The palace, 
of which the most interesting parts are shown on request, is now 
the property of the Duke of Gallese, to whom it came by the 
marriage of Jules Hardouin, Duke of Gallese, with Donna Lucrezia 
d' Altemps. 

We follow the Via S. Agostino by the mediaeval Torre Sanguinea, 
whose name bears witness to the mediaeval frays of popes and 
anti-popes, and where Benvenuto Cellini avenged himself upon the 

S. Maria dell' Anima 107 

murderer of his brother Cecchino. Thus we reach the German 
national church of S. Maria dell' Anima, which derives its name 
from a marble group of the Madonna invoked by two souls in 
purgatory, found among the foundations, and now inserted in the 
tympanum of the portal. It was originally built c. 1440, with 
funds bequeathed by 'un certo Giovanni Pietro,' but enlarged in 
1514; the facade is by Giuliano da Sangallo. The door-frames, of 
delicate workmanship, are by Antonio Giamberti. The materials 
used in building the church were quarried from the Temple of 
Jupiter Capitolinus. 

The front entrance is generally closed, but one can always gain 
admittance from behind, through the courtyard of the German 

The interior is peculiar from its great height and width in com- 
parison with its length. It is divided into three almost equal 

Over the high altar is a damaged picture of the Holy Family 
with saints, by Giulio Romano. On the right is the fine tomb of 
Pope Adrian VI., Adrian Florent (15'2'2-23), designed by Baldassare 
Peruzzi, and carried out by Michelangelo Sanese and Niccolo 
Tribolo. This Pope, the son of a shipbuilder at Utrecht, was 
professor at the university of Louvain, and tutor of Charles V. 
After the witty, brilliant age of Julius II. and Leo X., he ushered 
in a period of penitence and devotion. He drove from the Papal 
court the throng of artists and philosophers who had hitherto 
surrounded it, and he put a stop to the various great buildings 
which were in progress, saying, ' I do not wish to adorn priests 
with churches, but churches with priests.' In his epitaph we 
read : — 

' Hadrianus hie situs est, qui nibil sibi infelicius in vita quam quod imperaret 
duxit.' 1 

and — 

' Proh dolor ! quantum refert in qnae tempora vel optimi 
.... cnjusque virtus incidat ! ' 

In a year, however, the penitential Pope died of drinking too 
much beer, whereupon the house of his physician was bung with 
garlands by midnight revellers, and decorated with the inscription, 
'Liberator! Patriae, S.P.Q.R.' 

The tomb was erected at the expense of Cardinal William of 
Enkenfort, the only prelate to whom he had time to give a hat. 

' It is an irony that in this tomb Adrian, who despised all the arts on principle, 
and looked upon Greek statues as idolatrous, had a more artistic monument than 
Leo X. of the house of Medici. Baldassare Peruzzi made the design, its sculp- 
tures were carried out by Michelangelo Sanese and Tribolo, and they merit the 
highest acknowledgment. Here, as is so often the case, the architecture is, as it 
were, a frontispiece ; but the way in which the Pope is represented resembles, in 

1 ' Here rests Hadrian, who foimd his greatest misfortune in being obliged to 

108 Walks in Rome 

conformity with his character, the type of the Middle Ages. He is stretched 
upon a simple marble sarcophagus, and slumbers with his head supported by his 
hand. His countenance (Adrian was very handsome) is deeply marked and 
sorrowful. In the lunette above, following the ancient type, appears Mary with 
the Child between S. Peter and S. Paul. Below, in the niches, stand the figures 
of the four cardinal virtues : Temperance holds a chain ; Courage a branch of a 
tree, while a lion stands by her side ; Justice has an ostrich by her side ; Wisdom 
carries a mirror and a serpent. These figures are executed with great care. 
Lastly, under the sarcophagus is a large l>as-relief representing the entry of the 
Pope to Rome. He sits on horseback in the dress of a cardinal ; behind him 
follow cardinals and monks ; the senator of Rome renders homage on his knees, 
while from the gate the eternal Rome comes forth to meet him. This Cypria, so 
well adorned by his predecessors, seems ill-pleased to do homage to this cross old 
man. With secret pleasure one sees a pagan idea carried out in the corner : the 
Tiber is represented as a river-god with his horn of abimdance ; and thus the 
devout Pope could not defend himself against the heathen spirit of the time 
which has at least attached itself to his tomh.'—Gregorovius, ' Grabmiiler der Papste. ' 

Opposite the Pope, on the left of the choir, is the fine tomb of 
Charles, Duke of Cleves, who died 1575, by Gilles di Riviere and 
Nicolas d' Arras, 

The body of the church has several good pictures. In the 1st 
chapel of the right aisle is S. Bruno receiving the keys of the 
cathedral of Meissen in Saxony from a fisherman, who had found 
them in the inside of a fish, by Carlo Saraceni ; in the 2nd chapel, 
the monument of Cardinal Slusius, 1687 ; in the 3rd chapel, an 
indifferent copy of the Pieta of Michelangelo, by Nanni di Baccio 
Bigio. In the 1st chapel of the left aisle is the Martyrdom of S. 
Lambert, by C. Saraceni. 

The two pictures in this church are cited by Lanzi as the best works of this 
comparatively rare artist, sometimes called Carlo Veneziano, 1585-1625. He 
sought to follow in the steps of Caravaggio ; many will think that he surpassed 
him, when they look upon the richness of colour and grand effect of light and 
shadow which is displayed here. 

In the 3rd chapel (del Cristo Morto) are frescoes from the life of 
S. Barbara, by Mich. Coxeie, and an altar-piece (the Entombment) 
by Salviati. 

On the left of the west door is the tomb of Cardinal Andrea of 
Austria, nephew^ of Ferdinand II., who died 1600 ; on the right that 
of Cardinal Enkenfort, died 1534. In the passage towards the sacristy 
is a fine bas-relief, representing Gregory XIII. giving a sword to 
the Duke of Cleves. The best church music in Rome is (1896) to be 
heard at Sunday services in this church. 

Close to this church is that of S. Maria della Pace, built in 1487, 
by Baccio Pintelli, to fulfil a curious ex-voto made by Sixtus IV, 
Formerly there stood here a little chapel dedicated to S. Andrew, 
in whose portico was an image of the Virgin. One day a drunken 
soldier pierced the bosom of this Madonna with his sword, when 
blood miraculously spurted forth. Sixtus IV. (Francesco della 
Rovere, 1471-84) visited the spot with his cardinals, and vowed to 
compensate the Virgin by building her a church, if she would 
grant peace to Europe and the Church, then afflicted by a cruel 
war with the Turks. Peace was restored, and the Church of 
' S. Mary of Peace ' was erected by the grateful Pope. Pietro da 

The Sibyls of EaffaeUe 109 

Cortona added the peculiar semicircular portico under Alexander 
VII. The interior has only a short nave ending onder an octagonal 

Above the 1st chapel on the right (that of the Chigi family) are 
the Four Sibyls of Baffaelle. 

' This is one of Raffaelle's most perfect works : great mastery is shown in the } 
mode of filling and taking advantage of the apparently unfavourable space. The j 
angels who hold the tablets to be written on, or read by the Sibyls, create a 
spirited variety in the severe symmetrical arrangement of the whole. Grace in 
the attitudes and movements, with a peculiar harmony of form and colour, per- 
vade the whole picture ; but imjwrtant restorations have unfortunately become 
necessary in several parts. An interesting comparison may be instituted between 
this work and the Sibyls of Michelangelo. In each we find the i)eculiar excel- 
lence of the great masters ; for while Michelangelo's figures are grand, sublime,, 
profound, the fresco of the Pace bears the impress of EatfaeUe's severe andf 
ingenious grace. The four Prophets, on the wall over the Sibyls, were executea 
by Timoteo deUa Vite, after drawings by RaffaeUe.' — Kugler. 

' The Sibyls have suffered much from time, and more, it is said, from restora- 
tion ; yet the forms of Kaffaelle, in all their loveliness, all their sweetness, are 
still before us ; they breathe all the soul, the sentiment, the chaste expression, 
and purity of design that characterise his works. The dictating angels hover 
over the heads of the gifted maids, one of whom writes with rapid pen the irre- 
versible decrees of Fate. ITie countenances and musing attitudes of her sister 
Sibyls express those feelings of habitual thoughtfulness and pensive sadness 
natural to those who are cursed with the knowledge of futurity and all its coming 
evils.' — Eaton's '■Rome.' 

' The Sibyls are simply beautiful women of antique form, to whom, with the 

aid of books, scrolls, and inscriptions, the Sibyllic idea has been given, but who 
would equally pass for the abstract personifications of virtues or cities. They 
are four in number— the Cumana, Phrjgia, Persica, and Tiburtina ; all, with the 
exception of the last, in the fulness of youth and beauty, and occupied, appa- 
rently, with no higher aim than that of displaying both. Indeed, the Tiburtina 
matches ill with the rest, either in character or action. She is aged, has an open 
book on her lap, but turns with a strange and rigid action as If suddenly called. 
The very comparison with her tends to divest the others of the Sibylline 
character. In this, the angels who float above, and obviously inspire them, 
also help ; for, while adding to the charm of the composition, which is one of 
the most exquisite as to mere art, they interfere with that inwardly inspired ex- 
pression which all other art has given to these women. 

' The inscription on the scroll of the Cumaean Sibyl gives in Greek the words, 
" The Resurrection of the Dead." The Persica is writing on the scroll held by 
the angel, " He will have the lot of Death." The beautiful Phrygia is presented 
with a scroll, "The heavens surround the sphere of the earth ; " and the Tibur- 
tina has imder her the inscription, "I will open and arise." The fourth angel 
floats alwve, holding the seventh line of Virgil's Eclogue, "Jam nova pro- 
genies." ' — Lady Eautlake's ' History of our Lord.' 

The 1st chapel on the left has monuments of the Ponzetti family. 
The 2nd chapel on the left has an altar-piece of the Virgin between 
S. Bridget and S. Catharine, by Baldassare Peruzzi ; in the front of 
the picture kneels the donor, Cardinal Ponzetti. The 1st altar on 
the right has the Adoration of the Shepherds, by Sermoneta. The 
2nd chapel, the burial-place of the Santa Croce family, has rich 
carved work of the sixteenth century, executed for Cardinal Cesi 
by Vincenzo de Rossi, who used for it some columns of Pentelic 
marble discovered on the Tarpeian rock, and sometimes supposed 
to have belonged to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. The high 
altar, designed by Carlo Mademo, has an ancient (miracle-working) 

110 Walks in Rome 

Madonna. Of the four paintings of the cupola, the Nativity of 
the Virgin is by Francesco Vanni; the Visitation, Carlo Maratta; 
the Presentation in the Temple, Baldassare Peruzzi; the Death of 
the Virgin, Morandi. The noble fresco of the Salutation by 
Schastiano del Piombo, now at Alnwick Castle, once existed in 
the church. 

Newly-married couples have the touching custom of attending 
their first mass here, and invoking ' S. Mary of Peace ' to rule the 
course of their new life. 

The Cloister of the Convent, entered on the left under the dome, 
■was designed by Bramante for Cardinal Caraffa in 1504. 

From the portico of the church, the Via in Parione leads to the 
Via del Govemo Vecchio. Here, on the right, is the Palazzo del 
Govemo Vecchio, with a richly -sculptured doorway and ancient 
cloistered court. This was the residence of the Governors of Kome 
from the time of Urban VIII. to that of Benedict XIV., when they 
moved to Palazzo Madama. 

Proceeding as far as the Piazza del Orologio, on the right is an 
eminence known as Monte Giordano, supposed to be artificial, and 
to have arisen on the ruins of the first stone amphitheatre in Kome, 
that of Statilius Taurus, built 29 B.C. 

Its name is derived from Giordano Orsini, a noble of one of the oldest Roman 
families, who built the palace there which is now known as the Palazzo Gabrielli, 
and which has rather a handsome fountain. It was probably in consequence of 
the name Jordan that this hillock was chosen in mediaeval times as the place 
where the Jews in Rome received the newly-elected Pope on his way to the 
Lateran, and where their elders, covered with veils, presented him, on their 
knees, with a copy of the Pentateuch bound in gold. Then the Jews spoke in 
Hebrew, saying, ' Most holy Father, we Hebrew men beseech your Holiness, in 
the name of our synagogue, to vouchsafe to us that the Mosaic Law, given on 
Mount Sinai by the Almighty God to Moses our priest, may be confirmed and 
approved, as also other eminent Popes, the predecessors of your Holiness, have 
approved and confirmed it.' And the Pope replied, 'We confirm the Law, but 
we condemn your faith and interpretation thereof, because He who you say 
is to come, the Lord Jesus Christ, is come already, as oui' Chui'ch teaches and 

Turning to the left, we enter a piazza (now on the Corse Vittorio 
Emanuele), one side of which is occupied by the Convent of the 
Oratorians, and the vast Church of S. Maria in Vallicella, or the Chiesa 
Nuova, built by Martino Lunghi for Gregory XIII. and S. Filippo 
NerL The fa9ade is by Eughesi. The decorations of the magnifi- 
cently-ugly interior are partly due to Pietro da Cortona, who painted 
the roof and cupola. 

On the left of the tribune is the gorgeous Chapel of S. Filippo 
Neri, containing the shrine of the saint, rich in lapis-lazuli and 
gold, surmounted by a mosaic copy of the picture by Guklo in the 
adjoining convent. 

On the right, in the 1st chapel, is the Crucifixion by Scipione 
Caetani; in the 3rd chapel, the Ascension, MuziaiM. On the left, 
in the 2nd chapel, is the Adoration of the Magi, Cesare Nebbia ; 
in the 3rd chapel, the Nativity, Durante Alberti ; in the 4th chapel, 
the Visitation, Baroccio. In the left transept are statues of SS. 

The Chiesa Nuova HI 

Peter and Paul, by Vaholdo, and the Presentation in the Temple, 
by Baroccio. When S. Filippo Neri saw this picture, he said to the 
painter : ' Ma come avete ben fatto ! — Che vera somiglianza !— E 
cosi che mi ha apparso tante volte la Santa Vergine.' 

The high altar has four columns of porta-santa. Its pictures are 
by Rubens in his youth ; — that in the centre represents the Virgin 
in a glory of angels ; on the right are S. Gregory, S. Mauro, and 
S. Papias ; on the left S. Domitilla, S. Nereus, and S. Achilleus. 

The Sacristy, entered from the left transept, is by Marucelli. It 
has a grand statue of S. Filippo Neri, by Algardi. The ceiling is 
painted by Pictro da Cartoiw. — the subject is an angel bearing the 
instruments of the Passion to heaven. 

The Monastery, built by Borromini, contains the magnificent 
library founded by S. Filippo. The cell of the saint is accessible, 
even to ladies. It retains his confessional, chair, shoes, waist- 
cord, and also a cast taken from his face after death, and some 
pictures which belonged to him, including one of S. Francesca 
Eomana, and the portrait of an archbishop of Florence. In the 
private chapel adjoining is the altar at which he daily said mass, 
over which is a picture of his time. Here also are the crucifix 
which was in his hands when he died, his candlesticks, and some 
sacred pictures on tablets which he carried to the sick. The door 
of the cell is the same, and the little bell by which he summoned 
his attendant. In a room below is the carved coffin in which he 
lay in state, a picture of him lying dead, and the portrait by Guido 
from which the mosaic in the church is taken. A curious picture 
in this chamber represents an earthquake at Beneventum, in 
which Pope Gregory XIY. believed that his life was saved by an 
image of S. Filippo. When S. Filippo Neri died — as in the case 
of S. Antonio — the Catholic world exclaimed intuitively, ' II Santo 
5 morto ! ' 

' Let the world flaunt her glories ! each glittering prize. 
Though tempting to others, is naught in my eyes ; 
A child of S. Philip, my mast«r and guide, 
I would live as he lived, and would die as he died. 

If scanty my fare, yet how was he fed ? 

On olives and herbs and a small roll of bread. 

Are my joints and bones sore with aches and with pains'? 

Philip scourged his young flesh with fine iron chains. 

A closet his home, where he, year after year, 
Bore heat or cold greater than heat or cold here ; 
A rope stretched across it, and o"er it he spread 
His small stock of clothes ; and the floor was his bed. 

One lodging besides : God's temple he chose, 
And he slept in its iwrch his few hours of repose ; 
Or studied by light which the altar-lamp gave, 
Or knelt at the martjT's victorious grave.' 

J. H. Newman, 1857. 

The Church of the Chiesa Nuova belongs exclusively to the 
Oratorian Fathers. Pope Leo XII. wished to turn it into a parish 

112 Walks in Rome 

' It was said that the superior of the house took and showed to the Holy 
Pather an autogi'aph memorial of tlie founder, S. Philip Neri, to the Pope of his 
day, petitioning that his church should never be that of a parish. And below 
it was written that Pope's promise, also in his own hand, that it never should. 
This Pope was S. Pius V. Leo bowed to such authorities, said that he could not 
contend against two saints, and altered his plans.' — Wiseman's 'Life of Leo XII.' 

' S. Fihppo Neri was good-humoui-ed, witty, strict in essentials, indulgent in 
trifles. He never commanded ; he advised, or perhaps requested ; he did not 
discourse, he conversed ; and he possessed, in a remarkable degree, the acute- 
ness necessary to distinguish the peculiar merit of every character.' — lianke. 

'S. I'ilippo Neri laid the foundation of the Congregation of Oratorians in 
1551. Several priests and young ecclesiastics associating themselves with him, 
began to assist him in his conferences, and in reading prayers and meditations 
to the i^eople in the Chm-ch of the Holy Trinity. They were called Oratorians, 
because at certain hours every morning and afternoon, by ringing a bell, they 
called the people to the church to prayers and meditations. In 1564, when 
the saint had formed his congregation into a regular community, he preferred 
several of his young ecclesiastics to holy orders ; one of whom was the eminent 
Caesar Baronius, whom, for his sanctity, Benedict XIV., by a decree dated on 
the 12th of January 1745, honoured with the title of "Venerable Servant of 
God." At the same time he formed his disciples into a community, using one 
common purse and table, and he gave them rules and statutes. He forbade any 
of them to bind themselves to this state by vow or oath, that all might live 
together joined only by the bands of fervoiu- and holy charity ; labouring with 
all their strength to establish the kingdom of Christ in themselves by the most 
perfect sanctittcation of their own souls, and to propagate the same in the souls 
of others by preaching, instructing the ignorant, and teaching the christian 
doctrine.' — Alban Butler. 

It was in the piazza in front of this church that (during the 
reign of Clement XIV.) a beautiful boy was wont to improvise 
wonderful verses, to the admiration of the crowds who surrounded 
him. This boy was named Trapassi, and was the son of a grocer in 
the neighbourhood. The Arcadian Academy changed his name into 
Greek, and called him 'Metastasio.' 

Even the most devoted lovers of old Kome must in fairness allow 
that there is something very fine in the part of the modern Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele near this, and that the street has been skilfully 
turned to include many of the finest buildings in this part of its 
course, whilst many of these, especially the Chiesa Nuova, the 
Cancelleria, and S. Andrea della Valle, have gained greatly by the 

Continuing to wander in and out of the city, the Via Calabraga 
leads from the corner of the piazza in front of the Chiesa Nuova 
into the Via Monserrato, which it enters between S. Lucia del 
Gonfalone on the right, and S. Stefano in Piscinula on the left ; — 
then, passing on the right S. Giacomo in Aino — behind which, and 
the Palazzo Ricci, is Santo Spirito del Napolitani, a much frequented 
and popular little church — we reach S. Maria di Monserrato, built 
by Sangallo in 1495, where S. Ignatius Loyola was wont to preach 
and catechise. 

Here, behind the altar, under a stone unmarked by any epitaph, 
repose at last the remains of Pope Alexander VI., Rodrigo Borgia 
(1492-1503)— the infamous father of the beautiful and wicked 
Caesar and Lucrezia Borgia — who is believed to have died from 
accidentally drinking in a vineyard-banquet the poison which he 

S. Tommaso degli Inglesi 113 

had prepared for one of his own cardinals. When exhnmed and 
turned out of the pontifical vaults of St. Peter's by Julius II., he 
found a refuge here in his national church. The bones of his 
uncle Calixtus III., Alfonso Borgia (1455-58), rest in the same 

A little farther, on the left, is the Chnrch of S. Tommaso degli 
Inglesi, rebuilt 1870, on the site of a church founded by Offa, king 
of the East Saxons, in 775, but destroyed by fire in 817. It was 
rebuilt, and was dedicated by Alexander III. (1159) to S. Thomas 
Ik Becket, who had lodged in the adjoining hospital when he was 
in Rome. Gregory XIII., in 1575, united the hospital which existed 
here with one for English sailors on the Ripa Grande, dedicated 
to S. Edmund the Martyr, and converted them into a college for 
English missionaries. 

'Kothing like a hospice for English pilgrims existed till the first great Jubilee, 
when John Shepherd and his wife Alice, seeing this want, settled in Rome, and 
devoted their substance to the support of poor palmers from their own country. 
This small beginning grew into sufficient importance for it to become a royal 
charity ; the king of England hecame its patron, and named its rector, often a 
person of high consideration. Among the fragments of old monuments scattered 
al)out the house by the revolution, and now collected and arranged in a corridor 
of the college, is a shield surmounted by a crown, and carved with the ancient 
arms of England, lions or lionceaiix, and fleur-de-lis, quarterly. This used for- 
merly to be outside the house, and under it was inscribed : — 

"Haec conjuncta duo, 
Successus debita legi, 
Anglia dat, regi 
Francia signa suo. 
Laorentius Chance me fecit X.OCC.ZU." ' 

Cardinal Witeman. 

The same cloister has a beautiful tomb of Christopher Bainbrigg, 
Archbishop of York, British envoy to Julius II., by whom he was 
made a cardinal, who died at Rome 1514, in the reign of Leo X., 
under suspicion of poison. Another monument commemorates Sir 
Thomas Dereham, ob. 1739. Against the wall is the monument of 
Martha Swinburne, a prodigy of nine years old, inscribed : — 

'Memoriae Marthae, Henrici et Marthae Swinburne . Xat . Angliae . ex . 
Antiqua . et . Xobili . Familia . Caphaeton . >'orthumbriae . Parentes . Moestiss . 
Filiae . Carissimae . Pr . Quae . Ingenio . Excellenti . Forma . Eximia . Incredibili . 
Doctrina . Moribus . Suavissimis . Vis . Ann . viii . Men . xi . Tantum . Praerepta . 
Komae . v. rD . sept . an . mdcclxvtl 

' Martha Swinburne, Iwm Oct. x. MDCCLvn. Died Sept, viii. MDCCLXvn. Her 
years were few, but her life was long and fulL She spoke English, French, and 
Italian, and had made some progress in the Latin tongue ; knew the English and 
Roman histories, arithmetic, and geography ; sang the most difficult music at 
sight with one of the finest voices in the world, was a great proficient on the 
harpsichord, wrote well, and danced many sorts of dances with strength and 
elegance. Her face was beautiful and majestic, her body a perfect model, and 
all her motions gracefiil. Her docility in doing everything to make her parents 
happy could only be equalled by her sense and aptitude. With so many perfec- 
tions, amidst the praises of all persons, from the sovereign down to the beggar 
in the street, her heart was incapable of vanity ; affectation and arrogance were 
unknown to her. Her beauty and accomplishments made her the admiration 
of all beholders, the love of all that enjoyed her company. Think, then, what 
the pangs of her wretched parents mtist be on so cruel a separation. Their 


114 Walks in Borne 

only comfort is in the certitude of her being completely happy, beyond the 
reach of pain, and for ever freed from the miseries of this life. She can never 
feel the torments they endure for the loss of a beloved child. Blame them not 
for indulging an innocent pride in transmitting her memory to posterity as an 
honour to her family and to her native country, England. Let this plain char- 
acter, penned by her disconsolate father, draw a tear of pity from every eye that 
peruses it.' 

The arm of S. Thomas k Becket is the chief ' relic ' kept here. 
In the hall of the college are preserved portraits of Roman Catholics 
who suffered for their faith in England under Henry VIII. and 

At the end of the street are two exceedingly ugly little churches 
— very interesting from their associations. On the right is 
S. Girolamo della Carita, founded on the site of the house of 
S. Paula, where she received S. Jerome upon his being called to 
Rome from the Thebaid by Pope Damasus in 392. Here he re- 
mained for three years, till, embittered by the scandal excited 
by his residence in the house of the widow, he returned to his 

In 1519 S. Filippo Neri founded here a Confraternity for the dis- 
tribution of dowries to poor girls, for the assistance of debtors, 
and for the maintenance of fourteen priests for the visitation and 
confession of the sick. 

' Lorsque S. Philippe de Ndri fut pr6tre, il alia se loger h Saint-J6r6me della 
Carita, ou il demeura trente-cinq ans, dans la soci6t6 des pieux eccldsiastiques 
qui administraient les sacrements dans cette paroisse. Chaque soir, Philippe 
ouvrait, dans sa chambre qui existe encore, des conferences sur tous les points 
du dogma catholique ; les jeunes gens aftluaient h ces saintes reunions : on y 
voyalt Baronius ; Sordini, qui fut archeveque ; Salviati, frere du cardinal ; 
Tarugia, neveu du pape Jules III. Un d^sir ardent d'excrcer ensemble le 
ministere de la predication et les devoirs de la charite porta ces pieux jeunes 
gens k vivre en comnuin, sous la discipline du vertueux pretre, dont la parole 
etait si puissante sur leurs coours.' — Gournerie. 

The masterpiece of Domenichino, the Last Communion of 
S. Jerome, in which S. Paula is introduced kissing the hand of 
the dying saint, hung in this church till carried off to Paris by the 

Opposite this is the Church of S. Brigitta, on the site of the 
dwelling of the saint, a daughter of the house of Brahc, and wife 
of Walfon, Duke of Nericia, who came hither in her widowhood to 
pass her declining years near the Tomb of the Apostles. With her 
lived her daughter S. Catharine of Sweden, who was so excessively 
beautiful, and met with so many importunities in that wild time 
(1350), that she made a vow never to leave her own roof except to 
visit the churches. The crucifix, prayer-book, and black mantle of 
S. Bridget are preserved here.^ 

'S. Bridget exercised a reformatory influence as well upon the higher class 
of the i)riesthood in Rome as in Naples. For she did not alone satisfy herself 
with praying at the graves of the martyrs, she earnestly exhorted bishops and 

1 There is a chapel dedicated to S. Bridget in S. Paolo fuorl le Mura. Sion 
House, in England, was a famous convent of the Brigittines. 

Palazzo Famese 115 

cardinals, nay, even the Pope himself, to a life of the true worship of God and 
of good works, from which they had almost universally fallen, to devote them- 
selves to worldly ambition. She awoke the consciences of many, as well by her 
prayers and remonstrances as by her example. For she herself, of a rich and 
noble race, that of a Brahe, one of the nobles in Sweden, yet lived here in Kome, 
and lalxmred like a truly humble servant of .Christ. " AVe must walk barefoot 
over pride, if we would overcome it," said she, and Brigitta Brahe did so ; and, 
in so doing, overcame those proud hearts, and won them to God.' — Frederika 

We now reach the Palazzo Famese — the most magnificent of 
all the Roman palaces— began by Paul III., Alessandro Famese 
(1534-50), and finished by his nephew. Cardinal Alessandro Famese. 
Its architects were Antonio di Sangallo, Michelangelo, and Giacomo 
della Porta, who finished the facade towards the Tiber. The mate- 
rials were plundered partly from the Coliseum and partly from 
the Theatre of Marcellus, and the columns of verde antico were 
brought from the Baths of Zenobia at Tivoli. The immense size 
of the blocks of travertine used in the building give it a solid 

This palace was inherited by the Bourbon kings of Naples by 
descent from Elizabetta Famese, who was the last of her Une, and 
in the last years of the Papal power it was the residence of the 
Neapolitan Court, who lived here in the utmost seclusion. It is 
now occupied by the French ambassador. The huge walls are 
painted with the masterpieces of Annibale Caracci — huge mytho- 
logical subjects, for which he was only paid 300 scudi — and a 
few frescoes by Guido, Domenichino, Daniele da Tolterra, Taddeo 
Zucchero, and others ; but there has not been much to see since 
the dispersion of the Famese gallery of sculpture, of which the best 
pieces (the Bull, Hercules, Flora, &,c.) are in the museum at Naples. 
In the courtyard is the sarcophagus which is said once to have held 
the remains of Cecilia Metella. 

' The painting of the gallery at the Famese Palace is supposed to have partly 
caused the death of Caracci. Without fixing any price he set alx)ut it, and 
employed both himself and all his best pupUs nearly seven years in perfecting 
the work, never doubting that the Famese family, who had employed him, would 
settle a pension upon him or keep him in their service. When his work was 
finished they paid him as you would pay a house-painter, and this ill-usage so 
deeply affected him, that he took to drinking, and never painted anything great 
afterwanls.' — Jfis« Berry's ' Journals.' 

The noble fountains in front of the palace fall into granite basins 
(labra) found in the Baths of Caracalla. 

' The pleasant, natiu^l sound of mnning wat«r, not unlike that of a distant 
cascade in the forest, may l)e heard in many of the Roman streets and piazzas, 
when the tumult of the city is hushed ; for consuls, emperors, and popes, the 
great men of every age, have found no better way of Immortalising their 
memories than by the shifting, indestructible, ever-new, yet unchanging, 
upgush and downfall of water. They have written their names in that un- 
stable element, and proved it a more durable record than brass or marble.' — 

Behind the Palazzo Farnese runs the "Via Ginlia, which contains 
the ugly fountain of the Mascherone. Close to the picturesque arch 

116 Walks in Rome 

which leads to the Farnese Gardens is the Church of S. Maria della 
Morte or Dell' Orazione, built by Fuga. It is in the hands of a 
pious Confraternity who devote themselves to the burial of the 

' L'oglise de la Bonne-Mort a son caveau dtScore dans le style funfebre comme 
le convent des Capucins. On y conserve aussi 6Iegamment que possible les os 
des noy6s, asphyxies et autres victimes des accidents. La confrerie de la 
Bonne-Mort va chercher les cadavres ; un sacristain assez adroit les dess^che et 
les disiwse en ornements. J'ai cause quelque temps avec cet artiste: "Mon- 
sieur," me disait-il, "je ne suis heureux qu'ici, au milieu de nion ceuvre. Ce 
n'est pas pour les quelques ecus que je gagne tous les jours en montrant la 
chapelle aux strangers ; non ; niais ce monument que j'entretiens, que j'embellis, 
que j'egaye par mon talent, est devenu I'orgueil et la joie de ma vie." II me 
montra ses mat(5riaux, c'est-.'v-dire quelques poign^es d'ossements jet6s en tas 
dans un coin, fit I'eloge de la pouzzolane, et t^moigna de son m6pris pour la 
chaux. "La chaux brule les os," me dit-il ; " elle les fait tomber en poussifere. 
On ne peut faire rien de bon avec les os qui ont (5t6 dans la chaux. C'est de la 
drogue (rohaceia)." ' — About. 

Beyond the arch is the Palazzo Falconieri (with falcons at the 
corners), built by Borromini about 1650. There is something rather 
handsome in the tall three-arched loggia, as seen from the back of 
the courtyard, which overhangs the Tiber opposite the Farnesina. 
The poet Monti sang the charms of Costanza Falconieri ; now the 
family are extinct. Cardinal Fesch (uncle of Napoleon I.) lived 
here, and here formed the fine gallery of pictures which was dis- 
persed at his death, having been vainly offered by him during the 
last years of his life to the English Government, in exchange for 
an annuity of £4000 per annum. This palace, the residence of 
Leo XIII. before his accession to the throne, was (to his great dis- 
tress) sold in 1892 to a Jew. It is the palace described by Zola as 
Palazzo Boccanera. 

Farther on are the Career! Nuove, prisons established by Inno- 
cent X. (appropriately reached by the Via del Malpasso), and 
then the Palazzo Sacchetti, built by Antonio da Sangallo for his 
own residence, and adorned by him with the arms of his patron, 
Paul III., and the grateful inscription, ' Tu mihi quodcumque hie 
rerum est.' The collection of statues which was formed here bj^ 
Cardinal Ricci was removed to the Capitol by Benedict XIV., and 
became the foundation of the present Capitoline collection. 

In front of the Palazzo Farnese, beyond its own piazza, is that 
known as the Campo de' Fiori, a centre of commerce among the 
working classes, and the scene on Wednesday mornings of a curious 
market of mingled vegetables and antiquities. Close by, in the 
Piazza del Paradiso, interesting old books may often be purchased. 
The most terrible of the Autos da Fd instituted by the Dominicans, 
in which many Jews and other heretics were burnt alive, were held 
in the Campo de' Fiori. Now a fine bronze statue of Giordano Bruno 
marks the spot where he was burnt. 

' One of the most remarkable sufferers here was Giordano Bruno, who was 
born at Nola, A.D. 1,550. His chief heresy was ardent advocacy of the Coper- 
nican system, the .author of which liad died ten years before Bruno's l)irth. He 
was also strongly opposed to the philosophy of Aristotle, and gave great offence 
by setting forth views of his own, which strongly tended to pantheism. He 

The Cancelleria 117 

visited Paris, England, and Germany, and everywhere excited hostility by the 
uncompromising expression of his opinions. It was at Venice that he at first 
came into the power of liis ecclesiastical enemies. After six years of imprison- 
ment in that city, he was brought to Rome to be put to death. His execution 
took place in the Campo de' Fiori on the 17th of February 1600, in the presence 
of an immense concourse. It was noted that when the monlis offered him the 
crucifix as he was led to the stake, he turned away and refused to kiss it. This 
put the finishing touch to his career, in the estimation of all beholders. 
Scioppus, the Latinist, who was present at the execution, with a sarcastic 
allusion to one of Bruno's heresies, the infinity of worlds, wrote, "The flames 
carried him to those worlds which he had imagined." ' i 

On the left of this piazza is the gigantic Palace of the Cancelleria, 
begun by Cardinal Mezzarota, and finished in 1494 from designs of 
Bramante by Cardinal Riario, who, long disgraced under the Borgias, 
rose to renewed power with Julius II. The huge blocks of travertine 
of which it is built were taken from the Coliseum. Many of its de- 
tails are admirable, especially a stone balcony at the angle towards 
the Campo de' Fieri. The colonnades of the court have forty-four 
granite pillars, brought from the neighbouring Library of S. Lorenzo, 
erected by Pope Damasus, 366-384, who plundered them from the 
Theatre of Pompey. The roses with which their (added) capitals 
are adorned are in reference to the arms of Cardinal Riario, nephew 
of Sixtus IV. The frescoes of the great saloon by Vcuari, Salviati, 
and other contemporary masters, represent events in the life of 
Paul III., and are also interesting as representing many ancient 
Roman buildings. The great entrance is by Fontana. 

' L'oeuvre maitresse de Bramante, le type pur de la renaissance romaine, d'une 
beaute nue et froide.' — Zola. 

This palace was the seat of the Tribunal of the Cancelleria 
Apostolica. In June 1848, the Roman Parliament, summoned by 
Pius IX., was held here. In July, while the deputies were seated 
here, the mob burst into the council-chamber, and demanded the 
instant declaration of war against Austria. On the 16th of Novem- 
ber its staircase was the scene of the murder of Coxmt Rossi. 

' C'etait le 16 Xovembre 1848, le ministre de Pie IX., voue des longtemps a la 
mort, dont la presse s6ditieuse disait : "Si la victime condamnee parvient a 
s'^chapper, elle sera poursuivie sans relache, en tout lieu ; le coupable sera frappe 
par uue main invisible, se fut-U r^fugie sur le sein de sa mere ou dans le taber- 
nacle du Clirist." 

' Dans la nuit du 14 au 15 Kovembre, de jeunes etudiants, reunis dans cette 
pensee, s'exercent sans fremir sur un cadavre apporte i prix d'or au theatre 
Capranica; et quand leurs mains infames furent devenues assez siires pour le 
crime, quand ils sont certains d'atteindre au premier coup la veine jugulaire, 
chacun se rend ti son poste. — "Gardez-vous d'aller an Palais L^gislatif, la mort 
vous y attend," fait dire au ministre une Fran(;aise alors a Rome, Madame la 
Comtesse de Menon : " >'e sortez pas, ou vous serez assassine 1 " lui ecrit de son 
cote la Duchesse de Rignano. Mais I'intrepide Rossi, n'ecoutant que sa consci- 
ence, arrive au Quirinal. A son tour le pape le conjure d'etre prudent, de ne 
point s'exposer, afln, lui dit-U, "D'eviter 4 nos ennemis un grand crime, et a moi 
une immense douleur." — "Ils sont trop laches. Us n'oseront pas." Pie IX. le 
benit, et il continue de se diriger vers la chancellerie. . . . 

'. . . Sa voitiu-e s'arrete, il descend au milieu dlionunes sinistres, leur 

1 See Penny Cyclopaedia, and Lewes's Hist, of Philosophy. 

118 Walks in Rome 

lance un regard de dedain, et, continuant sans cralnte ni peur, 11 commence a 
monter ; la foule presse en slfllant, I'un le frappe sur I'd'paule gauche : d'un 
mouvement instinctif 11 retoiu-ne la tete, d6couvrant la veine fatale, 11 tombe, se 
relive, raonte quelques marches, et retombe lnond6 de sang.' — M. de Bellemie. 

Entered from the courtyard of the palace is the Church of SS. 
Lorenzo e Damaso, also from designs of Bramante, removed by 
Cardinal Riario, in 1495, from another site a little farther west, 
where it had been founded by the sainted Pope Damasus. It 
consists of a short nave and aisles, divided by richly-detailed 
columns, and is almost square, with an apse and chapels. The 
doors are by Vignola. At the end of the left aisle is a curious 
black Virgin, much revered. Opening from the right aisle is the 
chapel of the Massimi, with several tombs ; a good modern monu- 
ment of Princess Gabrielli, &c. Against the western wall is a 
seated statue of S. Hippolytus, Bishop of Porto, taken from that 
at the Lateran. His relics are preserved here, with those of S. Gio- 
vanni Calabita, and many other saints. The tomb of Count Rossi is 
also here, inscribed, ' Optimam mihi causam tuendam assumpsi, 
miserebitur Deus.' The story of his death is told in the words: 
' Impiorum consilio meditata caede occubuit.' He was embalmed 
and buried on the very night of his murder for fear of further out- 
rage. S. Francis Xavier used to preach here in the sixteenth 
century. This is one of the churches which has been most ruined 
since the occupation of Rome by the Sardinians. The fine vaulted 
roof has been replaced by a commonplace ceiling, and the magni- 
ficent effect of light and shadow arranged by the architect from 
one great semicircular window behind the tribune has been anni- 
hilated by a number of monstrous side-windows. 

Near this was the site of the stables and headquarters of the 
Greens, one of the four squadrons of the charioteers of the circus 
(ayitatores circenscs), brought into especial notice by the follies of 
Caligula, and preserving supreme popularity till the time of Hadrian. 
In allusion to this Juvenal says : ' The whole of Rome flocked to the 
circus to-day. . , . The greens, as usual, won the day, otherwise I 
should see the city in deep mourning, just as if the consuls had 
been slain over again on the battle-field of Cannae.' A pedestal 
was found here, dedicated to the African jockey Crescens, who, at 
twenty-eight, had already gained 1,558,346 sesterces.^ 

Built into the line of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, just beyond 
the Cancelleria, is a very pretty little palace, carefully finished in 
all its details, and attributed to Baldassare Peruzzi. It is some- 
times called Palazzetto Famese, sometimes Palazzo Linote. 

Turning to the left, in front of the Palazzo Farnese, we reach the 
Piazza Capo di Ferro, one side of which is occupied by the Palazzo 
Spada alia Begola (now the Court of Cassation), built in 1504 by 
Cardinal Capodiferro, but afterwards altered and adorned by Bor- 
romini. The courtyard is very rich in sculptured ornament. The 
palace is always visible. 

1 See Lanciani, Ancient Hume. 

Palazzo Spada 119 

In the hall on the first floor is the famous statue believed to be that 
of Pompey, at the foot of which Julius Caesar felL Suetonius narrates 
that it was removed by Augustus from the Curia, and placed upon a 
marble Janus in front of the basilica. Exactly on that spot was the 
existing statue found, lying under the partition-wall of two houses, 
whose proprietors intended to evade disputes by dividing it, when 
Cardinal Capodiferro interfered, and in return received it as a gift 
from Pope Julius III. , who bought it for 500 gold crowns. 

' And thou, dread statue ! yet existent in 
The austerest form of naked majesty, — 
Thou who beheldest, 'mid the assassins' din, 
At thy bathed base the bloody Caesar lie, 
Folding his robe in dying dignity, 
An offering to thine altar from the queen 
Of gods and men, great Xeraesis I did he die. 
And thou, too, perish, Pompey '! have ye been 
Victors of countless kings, or puppets of a scene ? ' 

Byron, ' Childe Harold.' 

'Hac facie, Fortuna, tibi, Bomana placebas.' — Luean, Phars. viii. 686. 

' I saw in the Palazzo Spada the statue of Pompey : the statue at whose base 
Caesar fell. A stem, tremendous figure I I imagined one of greater finish : of 
the last refinement : full of delicate touches : losing its distinctness in the giddy 
eyes of one whose blood was ebbing before it, and settling into some such rigid 
majesty as this, as Death came creeping over the upturned face.' — Dickens. 

' Caesar was persuaded at first by the entreaties of his wife Calpiunia, who 
had received secret warning of the plot, to send an excuse to the senate ; but 
afterwards, being ridiculed by Brutus for not going, was carried thither in a 
litter. ... At the moment when Caesar descended fi-om his litter at the door of 
the hall, PopUius Laena approached him, and was obsei-ved to enter into earnest 
conversation with him. The conspirators regarded one another, and mutually 
revealed their despair with a glance. Cassius and others were gi-asping their 
daggers beneath their robes ; the last resource was to despatch themselves. But 
Brutus, observing that the manner of Popilius was that of one supplicating 
rather than warning, restored his companions' confidence with a smile. Caesar 
entered ; his enemies closed in a dense mass around him, and while they led him 
to his chair kept off all intruders. Trebonius was specially charged to detam 
Antonius in conversation at the door. Scarcely was the victim seated, when 
TUlius Cimber approached with a petition for his brother's pardon. The others, 
as was concerted, joined in the supplication, grasping his hands and embracing 
his neck. Caesar at first put them gently aside, but, as they became more im- 
portunate, repelled them with main force. Tillius seized his toga with both 
hands, and pulled it violently over his arms. Then P. Casca, who was behind, 
drew a weapon, and grazed his shoulder with an ill-directed stroke. Caesar dis- 
engaged one hand, and snatched at the hUt, shouting, "Cursed Casca, what 
means this?" — "Help," cried Casca to his brother Lucius, and at the same 
moment the others aimed each his dagger at the devoted object. Caesar for an 
instant defended himself, and even wounded one of his assailants with his 
stylus ; but when he distinguished Brutus in the press, and saw the st«el flash- 
ing in his hand also, " Whut I thou, too, Brutus !" he exclaimed, let go his hold 
of Casca, and drawing his robe over his face, made no fiuther resistance. The 
assassins stabl>ed him through and through, for they had pledged themselves, 
one and all, to bathe their daggers in his blood. Brutus himself received a 
woimd in their eagerness and trepidation. The victim reeled a few paces, 
propped by the blows he received on every side, tUl he fell dead at the foot of 
Pompeius' statue.' — Merivale, ch. xxL 

Another colossal naked statue of Pompey at the Villa Castelazzo, 
near Milan, disputes the honour of being the historic statue with 
that of the Palazzo Spada. Pompey, being one of the handsomest 

120 Walks in Rome 

men of his day, was probably led by his vanity to be the first Eoman 
who permitted himself to be represented naked. ^ 

The collection of pictures in this palace is little worth seeing. 
Among its other sculptures are eight grand reliefs, which till 1620 
were turned upside down, and used as a pavement in S. Agnese 
f uori le Mura ; and a fine statue of Aristotle. 

' Aristote est ^ Rome, nous pouvons Taller voir an palais Spada, tel que le 
pelgnent ses blographes et des vers de Christodore sur uue statiie qui etait a 
Constantinople, les jambes greles, les joues maigres, le bras hors du manteau, 
exserto brachio, comme dit Sidoine ApoUinaire d'une autre statue qui (Stait a 
Rome. Le philosophe est ici sans barbe aussi bien que sur plusieurs pierres 
grav6es ; on attribuait k Aristote I'habitude de se raser, rare parmi les philo- 
sophes et convenable k un sage qui vivait a cour. Du reste, c'est bien Ih, le mattre 
de ceux qui savent, selon I'expression de Dante, corps us6 par 1' etude, tete petite 
mais qui enferme et comprend tout.' — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 547. 

A little farther, on the right, is the Church of the Trinita dei 
Pellegrini, built in 1614, the fagade designed by Francesco de Sanctis. 
It contains a picture of the Trinity by Guido. 

The hospital attached to this church was founded by S. Filippo 
Neri for receiving and nourishing pilgrims of pious intention, who 
had come from more than sixty miles distance, for a space of from 
three to seven days. It is divided into two parts, for males and 
females. Here, during the Holy Week, the feet of the pilgrims are 
publicly washed, those of the men by princes, cardinals, &c., those 
of the women by queens, princesses, and other ladies of rank. In 
this case the washing is a reality, the feet not having been ' pre- 
pared beforehand,' as was done for the Lavanda at S. Peter's. 

An authentic portrait of S. Filippo Neri is preserved here, said to 
have been painted surreptitiously by an artist who happened to be 
one of the inmates of the hospital. When S. Filippo saw it, he said, 
' You should not have stolen me unawares.' 

The building in front of this church is the Monte di Pieta, founded 
by the Padre Calvo in the fifteenth century, to preserve the people 
from suffering under the usury of the Jews. It is a government 
establishment, where money is lent at the rate of 5 per cent, to 
every class of person. Poor people, especially ' Donne di facenda,' 
who have no work in the summer, thankfully avail themselves of 
this, and pawn their necklaces and earrings, which they are able to 
redeem when the means of subsistence come back with the return 
of the forestieri. Many Eoman servants go through this process 
annually, and though the Monte di Pietli is often a scene of great 
suifering when unredeemed goods are sold for the benefit of the 
establishment, it probably in the main serves to avert much evil 
from the poorer classes. 

A short distance farther, following the Via de' Specchi, surrounded 
by miserable houses (in one of which is a beautiful double gothic 
window, divided by a twisted column), is the small Church of 
S. Maria in Monticelli, which has a fine low campanile of 1110. 

1 See Merivale, lloinans wilder the Umpire, i. 160. 

Palazzo Santa Croce 121 

Admission may always be obtained through the sacristy to visit the 
famous ' miracle-working ' picture called ' Gesii Nazareno,' a modem 
half-length of our Saviour, with the eyelids drooping and half -closed. 
By an illusion of the painting, the eyes, if watched steadily, appear 
to open and then slowly to close again as if falling asleep — in the 
same way that many English family portraits appear to follow the 
li\iDg bystanders with their eyes ; but the effect is very curious. In 
the case of this picture, Pope Pius IX. turned Protestant, and dis- 
approving of the attention it excited, caused its secret removal. 
Remonstrance was made that the picture had been a ' regalo ' to the 
church, and ought not to be taken away, and when it was believed 
to be sufficiently forgotten, it was sent back by night. The mosaics 
in the apse of this obscure church are for the most part quite 
modern, but enclose a very grand and expressive head of the Saviour 
of the World, which dates from 1099, when it was ordered by Pope 
Paschal II. 

A little to the left of this church, facing the modern Piazza Bene- 
detto Cairoli, is the vast Palazzo Santa Croce. This palace will 
bring to mind the murder of the Marchesa Costanza Santa Croce by 
her two sons (because she would not name them her heirs), on the 
day when the fate of her cousin Beatrice Cenci was trembling in 
the balance, which brought about her condemnation — the then 
Pope, Clement VIII., determining to make her terrible punishment 
' an example to all parricides.' 

The late Prince Santa Croce claimed to be a direct descendant of 
Valerius Publicola, the 'friend of the people,' who is commemorated 
in the name of a neighbouring church, ' Sancta Maria de Publicolis.' 
His three married daughters always have ' nata Principessa Publi- 
cola ' upon their cards. The palace is now the property of the 
youngest, the Contessa Santa Flora. 

This is one of the few haunted houses in Eome : it is said that 
by night two statues of Santa Croce cardinals descend from their 
pedestals, and rattle their marble trains about its long galleries. 
In recent alterations for the sake of making a lift, an oubliette was 
discovered, lined with sharp-pointed instruments, and at the bottom 
lay a mass of skeletons, one of them in armour, with a dagger 
driven through the helmet and far into the skull. A figure, fully 
dressed, but mummified, was also found walled up in a niche. The 
late Princess Santa Croce was one night awakened by a man, 
dripping with water, rising through the floor by her bedside. She 
had seized the bell and was about to ring it, when he fell on his 
knees and implored her to desist. He proved to be a political 
prisoner, who had escaped from his captors in crossing the bridge 
as he was being taken to the Castle of S. Angel o, and jumped over 
the bridge into the Tiber. His guards pursued him swimming, 
and his strength was just giving in, when he saw the opening 
of a drain, crept into it, and followed a secret passage, which led 
him ultimately to the room in which he was. The Princess found 
that his story was true, and as he had been guilty of no crime, and 
the Palazzo S. Croce had the right of giving sanctuary, she kept 

122 Walks in Rome 

him there hidden for some days, and eventually conveyed him 
safely out of Kome in her own carriage. 

On the opposite side of the Piazza Benedetto Oairoli is the Church 
of S. Carlo a' Catinari, built in the seventeenth century, from de- 
signs of Kosati and Soria. It is in the form of a Greek cross. The 
very lofty cupola is adorned with frescoes of the cardinal virtues 
by Uomenichino ; and a fresco of S. Carlo, by Guido, once on the fayade 
of the church, is now preserved in the choir. Over the high altar 
is a large picture by Pietro da Cortona of S. Carlo in a procession 
during the plague at Milan. In the first chapel on the right is the 
Annunciation, by Lanfranco ; in the second chapel, on the left, the 
Death of S. Anna, by Andrea Sacchi. On the pilaster of the last 
chapel on the right is a good modern tomb, with delicate detail. 
The cord which S. Carlo Borromeo wore round his neck in the peni- 
tential procession during the plague at Milan is preserved as a relic 
here. The Catinari, from whom this church is named, were makers 
of wooden dishes, who had stalls in the adjoining piazza, or sold 
their wares on its steps. The street opening from hence (Via de' 
Giubbonari) contains on its right the Palazzo Pio ; at the back of 
which are the principal remains of the Theatre of Pompey, which 
was once of great magnificence and capable of containing 40,000 
people. The Via de' Chiavari follows the line of the scena. The 
bronze statue of Hercules, now in the Vatican, was found on 
the site of the theatre in 1864. The name of the church S. Maria 
in Grotta Pinta comes from the painted decorations of a vault in 
Pompey's Theatre. In the portico (of a hundred columns) attached 
to this theatre Brutus sat as praetor on the morning of the murder 
of Julius Caesar, and close by was the Curia, or senate-house, 

' In his mantle muffling up his face, 
Even at the l)ase of Pompey's statue, 
Whicli all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell.' i 

Behind the remains of the theatre, perhaps on the very site of the 
Curia Pompeiana, facing the modern Corso VittorioEmanuele, rises 
the fine modern Church of S. Andrea della Valle,- begun in 1591 by 
Olivieri, and finished by Carlo Maderno. The facade, which faces 
the modern Ciro Vittorio Emanuele, is by Carlo Kainaldi. The 
cupola is covered with frescoes by Lanfranco, those of the four 
Evangelists at the angles being by Domenicliino, who also painted 
the Flagellation and Glorification of S. Andrew in the tribune. 
Beneath the latter are frescoes of events in the life of S. Andrew 
by Cidahrese. 

' In the fresco of the Flagellation, the apostle is bound by his hands and feet 
to four short posts set flrnily in the gi'oinid ; one of the executioners, in tighten- 
ing a cord, breaks it and falls back ; three men prepare to scourge him with 
thongs: in the foreground we liave the usual group of the mother and her 

1 Shakespeare, Julius Caemr, Act iii. sc. 2. 

2 So called from a slight hollow, scarcely now perceptible, left by a reservoir 
made by Agrippa for the public beneht, and used by Nero in hiafcten. 

Palazzo Vidoni 123 

frightened children. This is a composition full of dramatic life and movement, 
but unpleasiug.' — Jametson's ' Sacred Art,' p. 229. 

In the second chapel on the left is the tomb of Giovanni della 
Casa, Archbishop of Beneventum, 1556. 

The last piers of the nave are occupied by the tombs of Pius II, , 
Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (1458-64), and Pius III., Todeschini 
(1503), removed from the old Basilica of S. Peter's. The tombs 
are hideous erections in four stages, by Niccolo della Guardia and 
Pietro da Todi. The epitaph of the famous Aeneas Sylvius is as 
good as a biography. 

' Pius II., sovereign pontiff, a Tuscan by nation, by birth a native of Siena, of 
the family of the Piccolomini, reigned for six years. His pontificate was short, 
but his glory was great. He united a christian council (Basle) in the interests 
of the faith. He resisted the enemies of the holy Koman see, both in Italy and 
abroad. He placed Catherine of Siena amongst the saints of Christ. He abo- 
lished the pragmatic sanction in France. He re-established Ferdinand of Arragon 
in the kingdom of Sicily. He increased the power of the Church. He established 
the alum mines which were discovered near Talpha. Zealous for religion and 
justice, he was also remarkable for his eloquence. As he was setting out for the 
war which he had declared against the Turks, he died at Ancona. There he had 
already his fleet prepared, and the Doge of Venice, with his senate, as com- 
panions in arms for Christ. Brought to Rome by a decree of the fathers, he was 
laid in this spot, where he had ordered the head of S. Andrew, wkich had been 
brought him from the Peloponnese, to be placed. He lived fifty-eight years nine 
months and twenty-seven days. Francis, Cardinal of Siena, raised this to the 
memory of his revered imcle, mcdlxtv.' 

Pius III., who was the son of a sister of Aeneas Sylvius, only 
reigned for twenty-six days. His tomb was the last to be placed 
in the old S. Peter's, which was pulled down by his successor. 
Opposite the church was the palace of Pietro della Valle, the 
famous traveller (see vol. i. p. 97). 

To the right from S. Andrea della YaUe runs the Via della 
Valle, on the right of which is the Palazzo Vidoni (formerly called 
Caffarelli, and Stoppani), the lower portion of which was designed 
by RafFaelle in 1513, the upper floor being a later addition. There 
are a few antiquities preserved here, among them the ' Calendarium 
Praenestinum ' of Verrius Flaccus, being five months of a Roman 
calendar found by Cardinal Stoppani at Palestrina. At the foot of 
the stairs is a statue of Marcus Aurelius. At one corner of the 
palace on the exterior is the mutUated statue familiarly known as 
the Ablate Luigi, which was made to carry on witty conversation 
with the Madama Lucrezia near S. Marco, as Pasquino did with 

Following the Corso Vittorio Emanuele from S. Andrea della 
Valle on the right, following the bend of the street, is the gloomy 
but handsome Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne, built c. 1526 by 
Baldassare Peruzzi. The semicircular portico has six doric 
columns. The staircase and fountain are peculiar- and picturesque. 
In the loggia is a fine antique lion. The palace is not often shown, 
but is a good specimen of one of the smaller Roman princely 

This palace has more than the usual amount of terrible associa- 

124 Walks in Eome 

tions which cling around old Roman houses. In the sixteenth 
century Lelio, chief of the house of Massimo, had six sons by his 
wife, Girolama Savelli. After her death in 1571, he married one 
Eufrosina, who had been mistress to the great Marcantonio 
Colonna, by whom her husband Corberio had been murdered. On 
her marriage to Lelio Massimo in 1585, his sons refused to receive 
her, and five of them entered her room and shot her dead on 
the day after her wedding. Their father died of a broken heart, 
solemnly cursing them, and they all died unnatural deaths ; only 
Pompeo Massimo, who had refused to assist in his stepmother's 
murder, living to continue the line. The present Princess Massimo 
is daughter of the Duchesse de Berri and great-niece of Marie 

The entrance-hall has its distinctive dais and canopy adorned 
with the motto of the family, ' Cunctando Restituit,' in allusion to 
the descent which they claim from the great dictator Fabius 
Maximus, who is described by Ennius as having ' saved the republic 
by delaying.' 

' Napoloon interpella un Massimo aveo cette brusquerie qui intimidait tant de 
gens : " Est-il vrai," lui dit-il, " que vous descendiez de Fabius-Maximus ? " " Je 
ue saurais le prouver," repondit le noble romain, "niais c'est un bruit qui coiU't 
depuis plus de mille ans dans notre famille." ' — About. 

On the second floor, approached through a series of picturesque 
old rooms with sixteenth-century furniture, is a chapel in memory 
of the temporary resuscitation to life by S. Filippo Neri of Paolo 
Massimo, a youth of fourteen, who had died of a fever, March 16, 
1584. On that day, by ancient custom, the Massimo family still 
' receive ' all day, and the chapel is open to the public for eight 
days after. 

' S. Filippo Neri was the spiritual director of the Massimo family ; it is in 
his honour that the Palazzo Massimo is dressed up in festal gnise every 16th of 
March. The annals of the family narrate, that the son and heir of Prince Fabrizio 
Massimo died of a fever at the age of fonrteen, and that S. Philip, coming into 
the room amid the lamentations of the father, mother, and sisters, laid his hand 
upon the brow of the youth and called him by his name, on which he revived, 
opened his eyes, and sate up. "Art thou unwilling to die?" asked the saint. 
"No," sighed the youth. "Art thou resigned to yield thy soul to God?" "I 
am." "Then go," said Philip. " Va, che sii benedetto, e prega Dio per noi." — 
The boy sank back on his pillow with a heavenly smile on his face and expired.' 
—Jameson's ' Monastic Orders. ' 

The back of the palace towards the Piazza Navona is covered 
with curious frescoes in distemper by Danicle di Volterra. 

In buildings belonging to this palace, Pannartz and Schweinheim 
established the first printing-ofiice in Rome in 1455. The rare 
editions of this time bear, in addition to the name of the printers, 
the inscription, ' In aedibus Petri de Maximis. ' 

' Conrad Sweynheim et Arnold Pannartz s'utablircnt pres de Subiaco, au 
monastere de Sainte-Scholastiqne, qui ctiiit occupc par les Boncdictins de leur 
nation, et publiorent successivement, avec le concours des nioines, les (Kuvres 
de Lactance, la Cite de Dieu de Saint- Augustin, et le traito de Oiatorc de Ciceron. 

Pasquino 125 

En 1467, ils se transportirent in Rome, au palais Massimi, on ils s'associerent 
Jean-Andre de Bussi, 6veque d'Aleria, qui arait etudie sous Victorin de Feltre, 
at dont la science leur fut d'une haute utilite pour la correction de leurs textes. 
Le savant eveque leur donnait son temps, ses veilles : — "Malheureux metier," 
disait-il, "qui consiste non pas a chereher des perles dans le fumier, mais dn 
fumier parmi les perles ! " — Et cependant il s'y adonnait avec passion, sans meme 
y trouver I'aisance. Les livres, en effet, se vendirent d'alwrd si mal que Jean- 
Andre de Bussi n'avait pas toujours de quoi se faire faire la barlie. Les premiers 
livres qu'll publia chez Conrad et Arnold furent la Grammaire de Donatus, a 
trois cents exemplaires, et les EpUres famiiieres de Cieeron, a cinq cent cin- 
quante.' — Goumerie, ' Rmne Chretienne,' ii. 79, 1. 

Farther, on the right, is the modernised Church of St. Pantaleone, 
built originally in 1219 by Honorius III., and given by Gregory XV., 
in 1641, to S. Giuseppe Calasanza, founder of the Order of the 
Scolopians, and of the institution of the Scuola Pia. He died in 
1648, and is buried here in a porphyry sarcophagus. 

Adjoining this is the very handsome Palazzo Braschi, the last 
result of Papal nepotism in Rome — built at the end of the last 
century by Morelli, for the Duke Braschi, nephew of Pius VI. The 
staircase, which is perhaps the finest in Rome, is adorned with 
sixteen columns of red oriental granite. The Braschi Pope col- 
lected all the proudest devices of heraldry and had them arranged 
for his own coat of arms, whence the epigram : — 

' Eedde aquilam imperio, Francorum lilia regi, 
Sidera redde polo, caetera, Bras'^he, tibi.' 

The palace has been recently sold to the Minister of the Interior 
for 1,500,000 lire. 

At the farther corner of the Braschi Palace stands the mutilated 
but famous statue called Pasquino, from a witty tailor, who once 
kept a shop opposite, and who used to entertain his customers with 
all the clever scandal of the day. After his death his name was 
transferred to the statue, on whose pedestal were appended witty 
criticisms upon passing events, sometimes in the form of dialogues 
which Pasquino was supposed to hold with his friend Marforio, 
another statue at the foot of the CapitoL From the repartees 
appended to this statue is derived the term Pasquinade. 

' This Pasquil is an author eminent on many accoimts. First, for his self-con- 
cealment, being noscens omnia and notm nemini. Secondly, for his intelligence, 
who can display the deeds of midnight at high noon, as if he hid himself In the 
holes of their bed-staves, knowing who were cardinal's children better than they 
knew their fathers. Thirdly, for his impartial boldness. He was made all of 
tongue and teeth, biting whate'er he touch'd, and it bled whate'er he bit ; yea, as 
if a General CouncU and Pasquil were only above the Pope, he would not stick to 
tell where he trod his holy sandals awry. Fourthly, for his longevity, having lived 
(or rather lasted) in Rome some hundreds of years, whereby he appears no par- 
ticular person, but a successive Corporation of SatjTists. Lastly, for his impu- 
nity, escaping the Inquisition ; whereof some assign this reason, because hereby 
the Court of Rome comes to know her faults, or rather to know that her faults 
are known ; which makes Pasquil's converts (if not more honest) more wary in 
their behaviour.'— FuUer"* ' Worthies,' 1662. 

Pasqnin was naturally regarded as a mortal enemy by the popes, 
who, on several occasions, made vain attempts to silence him. The 
bigoted Adrian VI. wished to have the statue burnt and then thrown 

126 Walks in Rome 

into the Tiber ; but it was saved by the suggestion of Ludovico 
Suessano, that his ashes would turn into frogs, who would croak 
louder than he had done. When Marforio, in the hope of stopping 
the dialogues, was shut up in the Capitoline Museum, the Pope 
attempted to incarcerate Pasquino also, but he was defended by 
his proprietor, Duke Braschi. Among offensive pasquinades which 
have been placed here are : 

' Venditur hie Christus, venduntur dogmata Petri : 
Descendam inferuum ne quoque veudar ego.' 

Amongst the earliest pasquinades were those against the venality 
and evil life of Alexander VI. (Rodrigo Borgia, 1492-1503) : 

' Vendit Alexander claves, altaria, Christum : 
Emerat ille prius, vendere jure potest ; ' 


' Sextus Tarquinius, Sextws Nero— Sextus ct iste ; 
Semper sub Sextis perdita Roma fuit ; ' 

and, upon the body of his son Giovanni, murdered by his brother 
Caesar Borgia, being fished up on the following day from the 
Tiber : 

' Piscatorem hominum ne te non, Sexte, putemus, 
Piscaris natum retibus ecce tuum.' 

In the reign of the warlike Julius 11. (1503-13), of whom it was 
said that he threw the keys of Peter into the Tiber while marching 
his army out of Kome, declaring that the sword of Paul was more 
useful to him : 

' Cum Petri nihil efBciant ad proelia claves, 
Auxilio Pauli forsitan ensis erit ; ' 

and, in allusion to his warlike beard : 

' Hue barbam Pauli, gladium Pauli, omnia Pauli : 
Claviger ille nihil ad mea vota Petrus.' 

At a moment of great unpopularity : 

' Julius est Romae, quid abest? Date, numina, Brutum, 
Nam quoties Romae est Julius, ilia perit.' 

In reference to the sale of indulgences and benefices by Leo X. : 

' D(jna date, astantes ; versus no reddite ; sola 
Imperat aethereis alma Moneta dels ; ' 

and to his love of buffoons : 

'Cur non te fingi scurrani, Pasquille, rogasti? 
Cum Romae scurris omnia jam liceant ; ' 

and with reference to the death of Leo, suddenly, under suspicion 
of poison, and without the sacrament : 

'Sacra sub extrema, si forte requiritis, horil 
Cur Leo non potuit sumere ; vendiderat.' 

Pasquino 127 

On the death of Clement VII. (1534), attributed to the mis- 
management of his physician, Matteo Curzio : 

' Ciirtius occidit Clementem — Curtius auro 
Donandiis, per quern publica porta sal us.' 

To Paul III. (1534r-50), who attempted to silence him, Pasqnin 
replied : 

' Ut canerent data multa olim sunt vatibus aera ; 
Ut taceam, quantum tu mihi, Paule, dabis ? ' 

Upon the spoliation of ancient Rome by Urban VIII. : 

' Qaod non fecerunt barbari, fecenmt BarberinL' 

Upon the passion of Innocent X. (1644-55) for his sister-in-law, 
Olympia Maldacchini : 

' Magis amat Olympiam quam Olympium.' 

Upon Christina of Sweden, who died at Rome in 1689 : 

' Regina senza Regno, 
Christiana senza Fede, 
E Donna senza Vergogna." 

In reference to the severities of the Inquisition during the reign 
of Innocent XI. (1676-89) : 

' Se parlianio, in galera ; se scrlYiamo, impiccati ; se stiamo in quiete, al santo 
nfflzio. Eh I— che bisogna fare ? ' 

To Francis of Austria, on his visit to Rome : 

'Gaudiuni urbis,— fletus provinciarum,— risus mundi." 

After an awful storm, and the plunder of the works of art by 
Napoleon, occurring together : 

' L' Altissimo in sii, ci manda la terapesta, 
L' Altissimo qua giii, ci toglia quel che resta 
E fra li due Altissinii, 
Stiama noi malissimi.' 

During the stay of the French in Rome : 

' I Frances! son tntti ladri.' 

' Xon tutti — ma Buona parte.' 

Against the vainglorious follies of Pius VI. Pasquin was especially 
bitter. Pius finished the sacristy of S. Peter's, and inscribed over 
its entrance, ' Quod ad Templi Vaticani ornamentum publica vota 
flagitabant, Pius VI. fecit.' The next day Pasquin retorted : 

' Publica ! mentiris ! 'Son publica vota fuere, 
Sed tuniidi ingenii vota fuere tuL' 

Upon his nepotism, when building the Braschi Palace : 

128 Walks in Rome 

' Tres habiiit fauces, et terno Cerberus ore 
Latratus intra Tartara nigra dabat. 
Et tibi plena fame tria sunt vel quatuor ora 
Quae nulll latrant, quemque sed ilia vocant.' 

And in allusion to the self -laudatory inscriptions of this Pope upon 
all his buildings, at a time when the two-baiocco loaf of the common 
people was greatly reduced in size, one of these tiny loaves was 
exhibited here, with the satirical notice, 'Munificentia Pii Sexti.' 

But perhaps the most remarkable of all Pasquin's productions is 
his famous ' Antithesis Christi ' : 

' Christus regna fugit — Sed vi Papa subjugat urbem. 
Spinosam Christus— Triplicem gerit ille coronam. 
Abluit ille pedes — Reges his oscula praebent. * 

Vectigal solvit— Sed clerum hie eximit omneni. 
Pavit oves Christus— Luxum hie sectatur inertem. 
Pauper erat Christus— E,egna hie petit omnia mundi. 
Bajulat ille crucem — Hie servis portatur avaris. 
Christus spernit opes — Auri hie ardore tabescit. 
Vendentes pepulit templo — Quos suscipit iste. 
Pace venit Christus — Venit hie radiantibus armis. 
Christus mansuetus venit — Venit ille superbus. 
Quas leges dedit hie— Praesul dissolvit iiiiquus. 
Ascendit Christus— Desceudit ad infera Praesul." 

The statue called Pasquin is said to represent Menelaus with the 
body of Patroclus, and to be the same as two groups which still exist 
at Florence ; but so little remains of either of these heroes, that it 
could only have been when overpowered by ' I'esprit de contra- 
diction ' that Bernini protested that this was ' the finest piece of 
ancient sculpture in Eome.' Under the pontificate of Innocent X., 
Bonelli states, the statue was temporarily ' restored ' as Neptune. 

'A Tangle que forment deux rues de Rome se voit encore il Pasquino, nom 
donn6 par le peuple a un des plus l)eaux restes de la sculpture antifiue. Beniin, 
qui exagerait, disait le plus beau ; cette assertion fut sur le point d'attirer un 
duel k celui qui se I'^tait perniise. Tout homme qui s'avise d'avoir une opinion 
sur les monuments de Rome s'applaudira pour son compte, en le regrettant pcut- 
6tre qu'on ne prenne plus si k ca3ur les questions archdologiques.' — Ampere, Hist, 
Rom. iii. 440. 

'Jan. 16, 1870.— The public opinion of Rome has only one traditional organ. 
It is that mutilated l)lock of marble called Pasquin's statue ... on which are 
mysteriously affixed by unknown hands the frequent s(iuibs of Roman mother- 
wit on the events of the day. That organ has now uttered its cutting joke on 
the Fathers in Coiuicil. Some mornings ago there was found pasted in big 
letters on this defaced and truncated stump of a once choice statue the inscrip- 
tion, "Libero come il Concilio." The sarcasm is admirably to the ^omi.'—Times. 

Following the Via dell' Anima from hence, on the right, opposite 
the mediaeval Torre Mellina, is the Church of S. Agnese. It was 
built in 1642 by Girolamo Kainaldi, in the form of a Greek cross, 
upon the site of the scaffold where S. Agnes, in her fourteentli year, 
was condemned to be burnt alive.' When 

'The blessed Agnes, with Iter hands extended in the midst of the flames, 
prayed thus : " It is to Thee that I appeal, to Thee the all-powerful, adorable, 

1 The story of S. Agnes is told by S. Jerome. 

S. Agnese in Piazza Navona 129 

perfect, terrible God. O my Father, it is through Thy most blessed Son that 
I have escaped from the menaces of a sacrUegious tyrant, and have passed un- 
blemished through shameful alx»minations. And thus I come to Thee, to Thee 
whom I have loved, to Thee whom I have sought, and whom I have always 
chosen." ' — Roman Breviary. 

Then the flames, miraculously changed into a heavenly shower, 
refreshed instead of burning her, and dividing in two, and leaving 
her uninjured, consumed her executioners ; and the virgin saint 
cried : — 

' "I bless Thee, O Father of my God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who by the 
power of this Thy well-beloved Son, commanded Uie Are to respect me." 

'At this age, a young girl trembles at an angry look from her mother; the 
prick of a needle draws tears as easily as a wound. STet fearless under the 
bloody hands of her executioners, Agnes is immovable under the heavy chains 
which weigh her down ; ignorant of death but ready to die, she presents her 
botiy to the point of the sword of a savage soldier. Dragged against her will to 
the altar, she holds forth her arms to Christ through the fires of the sacrifice ; 
and her hand forms even in those blasphemous flames the sign which is the 
trophy of a victorious Saviour. She presents her neck and her two hands to the 
fetters which they bring for her, but it is impossible to find any small enough to 
encircle her delicate limbs. '—& Ambrose. 

The statue of S. Sebastian in this church is an antique altered by 
Maini; that of S. Agnes is by Ercde Pcrrata ; the relief of S. Cecilia 
is by Antonio Raggi, The columns of verde-antico at the high altar 
belonged to the Arch of Marcus Anrelius in the Corso. Over the 
entrance are the half-length figure and tomb of Innocent X., Gio. 
Battista Pamfili (164i-55), an amiable but feeble Pope, who was 
entirely governed by his strong-minded and avaricious sister-in-law, 
Olympia Maidalchini, who deserted him on his death-bed, making 
off with the accumulated spoils of his ten years' papacy, which 
enabled her son, Don Camillo, to build the Palazzo Doria Pamfili 
in the Corso, and the beautiful Villa Doria Pamfili.^ 

' After the three days during which the body of Innocent remained exposed 
at S. Peter's, say the memoirs of the time, no one could be found who would 
undertake his burial. They sent to tell Donna Olympia to prepare for him a 
coffin and an escutcheon, but she answered that she was a poor widow. Of all 
his other relations and nephews, not one gave any signs of life ; so that at length 
the body was carried away into a chamber where the masons kept tlieir tools. 
Some one, out of pity, placed a lighted tallow-candle near the head ; and some 
one else having mentioned that the room was full of rats, and that they might 
eat the corpse, a person was found who was willing to pay for a watcher. And 
after another day had elapsed, Monsignor Scotti, the majordomo, had pity 
upon him, and prepared him a coffin of poplar-w(X)d, and Monsignor Segni, 
Canon of S. Peter's, who had been his majordomo, and whom he had dis- 
missed, returned him good for evil, and expended five crowns for his burial.' — 

Beneath the church are vaulted chambers, said to be part of the 
house of infamy where S. Agnes was publicly exposed^ before her 

1 Donna Olympia soon aft«r died of the plague at her villa near Viterlx). 

2 ' Les maisons de la Place Kavone sont assises sur la base des ancieus gradins 
du cirque de Domitien. Sous ces gradins etaieut les voutes habitees par des 
femmes i)erdue8.' — Amj^e, Emp. ^L 137. 

VOL. n. 1 

130 Walks in Rome - 

' As neither temptation nor tlie fear of death could prevail with Agnes, Sem- 
pronius thought of other means to vanquish her resistance ; he ordered her to be 
carried by force to a place of infamy, and exposed to the most degrading outrages. 
Tlie soldiers, who dragged her thither, stripped her of her garments ; and when she 
saw herself thus exposed, she bent down her head in meek shame and prayed ; and 
immediately her hair, which was already long and abundant, became like a veil, 
covering her whole person from head to foot ; and those who looked upon lier 
were seized with awe and fear as of something sacred, and dared not lift their eyes. 
So they shut her up in a chamber, and she prayed that the limbs which had been 
consecrated to Jesus Christ should not be dishonoured, and suddenly she saw be- 
fore her a white and shining garment, with which she clothed herself joyfully, 
praising God, and saying, "I thank Thee, O Lord, that I am found worthy to put 
on the garment of Thine elect ! " and the whole place was filled with miraculous 
light, brighter than the sun at noonday. 

' The chamber which, for her preservation, was filled with heavenly light, has 
become, from the change of level all over Rome, as well as from the position of 
the church, a subterranean cell, and is now a chapel of peculiar sanctity, into 
which you descend by torchlight. The floor retains the old mosaic, and over the 
altar is a bas-relief representing S. Agnes, with clasped hands, and covered 
only by her long tresses, while two ferocious soldiers drive her before them. The 
upper church, as a piece of architecture, is beautiful, and rich in precious marbles 
and antique columns. The works of art are all mediocre, and of the seventeenth 
century, but the statue over her altar has considerable elegance. Often have I 
seen the steps of this church, and the church itself, so crowded with kneeling 
worshippers at matins and vespers, that I could not make my way among them ; 
— principally the women of the lower orders, with their distaffs and market 
baskets, who had come thither to pray, through the intercession of the patron 
saint, for the gifts of meekness and chastity,— gifts not abounding in these 
regions.' — Jameson's 'Sacred Art.'^ 

Here, on the festival of S. Agnes, the Papal choir sing the anti- 
phons of the virgin saint, and the hymn ' Jesu Corona Virginuin.' 

The front of S. Agnese opens upon the Circo Agouale or Piazza 
Navona, a vast oblong square, occupying the site of the Circus 
Agonalis of Domitian, and decorated with three handsome foun- 
tains. That in the centre, by Bernini — ' a fable of Esop done into 
stone ' ^ — supports an obelisk brought from the Circus of Maxentius, 
where it was erected in honour of Domitian. Around the mass of 
rock which supports the obelisk are figures of the gods of the four 
largest rivers (Danube, Nile, Ganges, Eio della Plata). That of the 
Nile veiled his face, said Bernini, that he might not be shocked 
by the fagade which was added by Borromini to the Church of 
S. Agnes. 

'Bemin s'ing^niade creuser iin des fameux piliers de S. PieiTe pour y pratiquer 
un petit escalier montant ;\ la tribune ; aussitot le dome prit coup et se fendit. 
On f ut oljligu de le relier tout entier avec un cercle de fer. Oe n'est point raillerie, 
le cercle y est encore ; le mal n'a pas augments depuis. Par malheur pour le 
pauvre cavalier, on trouva dans les Menioires de Michel-Ange (ju'll avait reconi- 
niand6, sub poena capitis, de ne jamais toucher aux (piatre piliers massifs faits 
pour supporter le dome, sachant de quelle masse 6pouvantable il allait les charger ; 
le pape voulait faire pendre Bemin, qui, pour se r^dimer, inventa la fontaine 
Navone.' — De Brasses. 

1 Yorkshire maidens, anxious to know who their future spouse is to be, still 
consult S. Agnes on S. Agnes's Eve, after twenty-four hours' abstinence from 
everything but pure spring water, in the words : — 

'S. Agnes, be a friend to me 
In the boon I ask of thee : 
Let me this night my husband see.' 

2 Forsyth. 

Palazzo Pamfili 131 

The lower fountain, also by Bernini, is adorned with tritons and 
the figure of a Moor. The great palace to the right of the church 
is the Palazzo Pamfili, built bj Rainaldi for Innocent X. in 1650. 
It possesses a ceiling painted by Pietro da Coi-tona with the adven- 
tures of Aeneas, extolled by many poets of the time. Its music-hall 
is still occasionally used for public concerts. 

The Pamfili family claim a legendary descent from Numa Pom- 
pilius, altering his name to Numa Pamfilio. In the ninth century 
Amanzio Pamfili received many castles from Charlemagne, with the 
arms of three golden lilies on a blue field, crossed by red spears. 
His son Pietro rebuilt Gubbio in 917, and greatly increased the 
possessions of his house. The family were summoned to Rome by 
Sixtus IV., on account of his friendship for Antonio Pamfili da 
Gubbio, whose grandson, Camillo, was the father of six children, of 
whom Giovanni Battista became pope, and Pamfilio married Olimpia 
Maidalchini, of Viterbo, who disported herself here during the reign 
of her brother-in-law. 

' Tlie great object of Donna Olympia was to keep at a distance from Innocent 
every person and every influence that could either lessen her own, or go shares 
in the profits to be extracted from it For this, after all, was the great and 
ultimate scope of her exertions. To secure the profits of the Papacy in hard 
cash ; this was the problem. >'o appointment to oflice of any kind was made, 
except in consideration of a proportionable sum paid down into her own coffers. 
This often amounted to three or four years' revenue of the place to be granted. 
Bishoprics and benefices were sold as fast as they became vacant. One story is 
told of an unlucky disciple of Simon, who on treating with the Pope for a 
valuable see, just fallen vacant, and hearing from her a price at which it might \ 
be his, far exceeding all he could command, persuaded the members of his faniUy 
to sell all they had for the purpose of making this profitable investment. The 
price was paid, and the bishopric was given to him, but, with a fearful resem- 
blance to the case of Ananias, he died within the year, and his ruined family 
saw the see a second time sold by the insatiable and inconigible Olympia. . . . 
During the last year of Innocent's life, Olympia literally hardly ever quitted him. 
Once a week, we read, she left the Vatican, secretly by night, accompanied by 
several porters carrying sacks of coin, the proceeds of the week's extortions and 
sales, to her own palace. And dm-ing these short absences, she used to lock the 
Pope into his chamber, and take the key with her I ' — TroUope's ' Life of Olympia 

On the opposite side of the piazza is the modernised Church of S. 
Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, dating from the fifteenth century. It 
still possesses gothic rose windows (renewed), which is almost 
unique in Rome ; but the scallop-shells, with which the front was 
richly adorned, have been removed by the existing authorities, who 
could not understand that well-known emblem of S. James of 
Compostella. There is a handsome door on the other side towards 
the Via della Sediola. Hither the body of Alexander VII. (after- 
wards taken to S. Maria di Montefeltro) was first removed when it 
was turned out of S. Peter's. The lower end of the square near 
this is occupied by the Palazzo Lancellotti, built by Pirro Ligorio, 
simple externally, but very magnificent within. The destruction of 
the majorat combined with a distinct inheritance has made Prince 
Lancellotti far richer than his elder brother Prince Massimo, from 
whom he has purchased the famous Statue of the Discobolus, a 

132 Walks in Rome 

copy of the bronze statue of Myron, found in 1761 upon the 
Esquiline, near the ruined nymphaeum known as the Trophies of 
Marius. This is more beautiful and better preserved than the 
Discobolus of the Vatican, of which tlie head is modern. 

' La tete du discobole Massimi se retourne vers le bras qui lance le disque, arrea-- 
Tpafifievov eis tt)!/ SL(TKO(f)6pov. Cette tete est admirable, ce qui est encore ime res- 
semblance avec Myron, qui excellait dans les tetes conime Polyclete dans lea 
poitrines et Praxitfele dans les bras.' — Ampere, ill. 271. 

The statue is never shown now. 

Behind Palazzo Lancellotti is the frescoed front of Palazzo 
Massimo, mentioned above. Under the Popes, during the hot 
months, the singular custom prevailed of occasionally stopping the 
escape of water from the fountains of the Piazza Navona, and so 
turning the square into a lake, through which the rich splashed 
about in carriages, and ate ices and drank coffee in the water, 
while the poor looked on from raised galleries. It is supposed 
that this practice was a remnant of the pleasures of the Naumachia, 
once annually exhibited almost on this verj' spot, formerly the 
Circus Agonalis. The central level of the piazza, which had been 
used as a market from 1447, has been raised since the change of 
government, to the great injury of the fountains. 

Vitale Mascardi gives an extraordinary account of the magnificent 
tournament held here in 1634 in honour of the visit of Prince 
Alexander of Poland, when the piazza was hung with draperies of 
gold and silver, and Donna Anna Colonna and Donna Costanza 
Barberini awarded gorgeous prizes of diamonds to noble and 
princely competitors. 

Nearly opposite S. Agnese, a short street leads to the front of 
the Palazzo Madama, long the residence of the Governors of 
Rome, now the Palazzo del Senate, which is sometimes said to 
derive its ancient name from Margaret of Parma, daughter of 
Charles V., who once occupied it, and sometimes from Catherine 
de' Medici, who also lived here, and under whom it was altered to 
its present form by Paolo Marucelli. In the time of the Papal 
power the balcony towards the piazza was used every Saturday at 
noon for the drawing of the Roman lottery. 

Close by is the Church of S. Luigi del Francesi, rebuilt 1589, 
with a fagade by Giacomo della Porta. It contains a number of 
tombs of eminent Frenchmen who have died in Rome, and some 
good pictures. 

Following the right aisle, the second chapel has frescoes from 
the life of S. Cecilia by Domcnichino (she gives clothes to the poor 
— is crowned by an angel with her husband. Valerian— refuses to 
sacrifice to idols — suffers martyrdom — enters into heaven). 

' Domenichino is often cold and studied in the principal subject, while the 
subordinate persons have much grace and a nol)le character of beauty. Of this 
the two frescoes in S. Luigi at Rome, from the life of S. Cecilia, are striking 
examples. It is not the saint herself, bestowing her goods from a l)alcony, who 
contributes the chief su1)ject, b\it the masterly groiij) of poor people struggling 
for them below. The same may be said of the death of the saint, where the 
admiration and grief of the bystanders are inimitable.'— Jfu^fer. 

S. Luigi dei Frances! 133 

' Reclining on a conch, in the centre of the picture, her hand pressed on her 
boaom, her dying eyes raised to heaven, the saint is breathing her last ; whUe 
female forms of exquisite beauty and innocence are kneeling around or l>ending 
over her. The noble figure of an old man, whose clasped hands and l)ent brow 
seem to l)espeak a father's affection, appears on one side ; and lovely children, in 
all the playful graces of unconscious infancy, as usual in Domenichino's paintings, 
by contrast heighten, yet relieve, the deep pathos of the scene. From above, an 
angel — such an angel as Domenichino alone knew how to paint, a cherub form of 
lig^t and loveliness — is descending on rapid wing, bearing to the expiring saint 
the crown and pakn of glory.' — Eaton's 'Rome.' 

The copy of Eaffaelle's S. Cecilia over the altar is by Guido. 
The fourth chapel has on the right frescoes by Girolamo Sicciolante, 
on the left by Pellegrino da Bol/x/na, the altar-piece is by Giacomo 
del Conte. The fifth chapel has on the right the monument of 
Agincourt (ob. 1814), the famous archaeologist, on the left that of 
Guerin the painter. The high altar has an Assumption by Bassano. 

The first chapel in the left aisle has a S. Sebastian by Massei. 
In the fifth chapel, of S. Matthew, three pictures by Caravaggio 
represent the vocation and martyrdom of that saint. 

' The paintings of Caravaggio at S. Luigi belong to his most comprehensive works. 
The Martyrdom of S. Matthew, with the angel with a palm branch s<iuatting upon 
a cloud, and a l>oy running away, screaming, though highly animated, is an otfen- 
sive protluction. On the other hand, the Calling of the Ajxjstle may be considered 
as a genre picture of grand characteristic figures ; for instance, those of the money- 
changers and publican at the table ; some of them counting money, others looking 
up astonished at the entrance of the Saviour.' — Kugler. 

• Over the altar is S. ^latthew writing his Gospel ; he looks up at the attendant 
angel, who is behind with outspread wings, and in the act of dictating. On the 
left is the Calling of S. Matthew ; the saint, who has been counting money, rises 
with one hand on his breast, and turns to follow the Saviour : an old man, with 
spectacles on his nose, examines with curiosity the personage whose summons has 
had such a miraculous effect ; a hoy is slyly appropriating the money which the 
apostle has thrown down. The third picture is the martyrdom of the saint, who, 
in the sacerdotal habit, lies extended on a block, while a half-naked executioner 
raises the sword, and several spectators shrink back with hon-or. There is nothing 
dignified or poetical in these representations ; and though painted with all that 
power of effect which characterised Caravaggio, then at the height of his reputa- 
tion, they have also his coarseness of feeling and execution : the priests were (not 
without reason) dissatisfied ; and it required all the influence of his patron. 
Cardinal Giustiniani, to Induce them to retain the pictures in the church where 
we now see thevn.'—Jameson'g ' Sacred Art,' p. 146. 

Amongst the monuments scattered over this church are those of 
Cardinal d'Ossat, ambassador of Henry IV. ; Cardinal de la Grange 
d'Arquien. father-in-law of Sobieski, who died at the age of 105 ; 
Cardinal de la Tr^mouille, ambassador of Louis XIV. ; Madame de 
Montmorin, with an epitaph by Chateaubriand ; and Claude Lorraine, 
who is buried at the Trinith de' MontL 

The pillars which separate the nave and aisles are of splendid 
Sicilian jasper. They were intended for S. Ignazio, but when the 
Order of the Jesuits was dissolved by Clement XIV. he presented 
them to S. Luigi. 

The site of this church, the Palazzo Madama, and their adjoining 
buildings, were once occupied by the Baths of Nero,^ restored by 

» Martial, il. 48, 8 ; vii. 34, 5 ; xiL 83, 5. Statins, Sylv. v. 62. 

134 Walks in Rome 

Alexander Severns, and afterwards called Thermae Alexandrinae.^ 
They are commemorated by the name of the small church, ' S. Sal- 
vatorc in Thermis.' 

In front of S. Luigi are the Palaces Patrizi and Giustiniani, and 
following— to the right— the Via della Sediola, on the left is the 
entrance to the University of the Sapienza, founded by Innocent IV. 
in 1244 as a law school. Its buildings were begun by Pius III. and 
Julius II., and extended by Leo X. from plans of Michelangelo. 
The portico was built under Gregory XIII. by Giacomo della Porta. 
The northern facade was erected by Borromini, with the ridiculous 
church (S. Ivo), built in the form ot a bee to flatter Urban VIII., 
that insect being his device. The building is called the Sapienza, 
from the motto, ' Initium Sapientiae timor Domini,' engraved over 
the window above the principal entrance. Forty professors teach 
here all the different branches of law, medicine, theology, philo- 
sophy, and philology. 

Behind the Sapienza is the small Piazza di S. Eustachio, con- 
taining on three sides the Giustiniani, Lante, and Maccarini palaces. 
Close to this is the Ristoratore del Falcone (with a tavern where 
Ariosto stayed when he was in Rome), where a truly Roman dinner 
may be obtained, of wild boar, porcupine, &c. ; gnocchi a la Romana 
or con patati, raviuoli, the mixed fry known as fritto misto, and 
zampone di Modena con lenticchie (sausage and beans) are excellent 
and characteristic dishes. The Piazza S. Eustachio was formerly 
celebrated for the festival of the Befania (Epifania), which is now 
removed to the Piazza Navona. As a reminiscence of old times, 
the following quotation is interesting : — 

' The piazza and all the adjacent streets are lined with booths covered with 
every kind of plaything for children. These booths are gaily illuminated with 
rows of candles and the three-wick'd brass lucerne of Rome ; and at intervals, 
painted posts are set into the pavement, crowned with pans of grease, with a 
wisp of tow for wick, from which flames blaze and flare about. Besides these, 
numbers of torches carried about by hand lend a wavering and picturesque light 
to the scene. By eight o'clock in the evening, crowds begin to fill the piazza 
and the adjacent streets. Long before one arrives, the squeak of penny trumpets 
is heard at intervals ; but in the piazza itself the mirth is wild and furious, and 
the din that salutes one's ears on entering is almost deafening. The object of 
every one is to make as much noise as possible, and every kind of instrument for 
this purpose is sold at the booths. There are drums beating, tamhurelli thump- 
ing and jingling, pipes squeaking, watchman's rattles clacking, penny trumpets 
and tin horns shrilling, the sharpest whistles shrieking— and mingling with these 
is heard the din of voices, screams of laughter, and the confused burr and l)uzz 
of a great crowd. On all sides you are saluted by the strangest noises. Instead 
of being spoken to, you are whistled at. Companies of people are marching 
together in platoons, or piercing through the crowd in long flies, and dancing 
and blowing like mad on their instruments. It is a perfect witches' Sabbath. 
Here, huge dolls dressed as Polichinello or Pantaloon are borne about foi- sale— 
or over the heads of the crowd great black-faced jumping-jacks, lifted on a stick, 
twitch themselves in fastastic flts— or, what is more Roman than all, long poles 
are carried about strung with rings of hundreds of ciambelli (a light cake, (tailed 
jumble in English), which are screamed for sale at a mezzo baioeco each. There 
is no alternative but to get a drum, whistle, or trumpet, and join in the 
racket, and to fill one's pocket with toys for the children, and absurd presents 

1 Aur. Victor. Caes. 24. 

S. EustacMo 135 

for one's older friends. The moment you are once in for it, and making as much 
noise as you can, you begin to relish the jest. The toys are very odd, particularly 
the Roman whistles ; some of these are made of pewter, with a little wheel that 
whirls as you blow ; others are of ten-a-cotta, very rudely modelled into every 
shape of bird, beast, or human deformity, each with a whistle in its head, breast, 
or tail, which it is no joke to hear when blown close to your ears by a stout pair 
of lungs. The scene is extremely picturesque. Above, the dark vault of night, 
with its far stars, the blazing and flaring of lights below, and the great, darli 
walls of the Sapienza and church looking down grimly upon the mirth.' — Story's 
' Jioba di Boma.' 

The Church of S. Eustachio, which has a good brick campanile, 
commemorates one who, first a brave soldier in the army of Titus in 
Palestine, became master of the horse under Trajan, and general 
under Hadrian, and who suffered martyrdom for i-efusing to sacri- 
fice to idols, by being roasted alive in a brazen bull before the 
Coliseum, with his wife Theopista, and his sons Agapetus and 
Theopistus. The relics of these saints repose in a porphyry sarco- 
phagus under the high altar. The stags' heads on the portico and 
on the apex of the gable refer to the legend of the conversion of 
S. Eustace : — 

' One day, whOe hunting in the forest, he saw before him a white stag, of 
marvellous beauty, and he pursued it eagerly, and the stag fled before him and 
ascended a high rock. Then Placidus (Eustace was called Placidus tefore his 
conversion), looking up, beheld between the horns of the stag a cross of radiant 
light, and on it the image of the crucified Redeemer ; and being astonished and 
dazzled by this vision, he fell on his knees, and a voice which seemed to come 
from the crucifix cried to him, and said, " Placidus '. why dost thou pursue me? 
I am Christ, whom thou hast hitherto served without knowing me. Dost thou 
now believe?" And Placidus fell with his face to the earth, and said. "Lord, I 
believe!" And the voice answered, saying, "Thou shalt suffer many tribula- 
tions for my sake, and shalt be tried by many temptations : but be strong and 
of good courage, and I will not foi-sake thee." To which Placidus replied, "Lord, 
I am content. Do thou give me patience to suffer I " And when he looked up 
again, the glorious vision had depart ed.'—J'a7ne«o»i'« 'Sacred Art,' p. 792. 

A similar story is told of S. Hubert, S. Julian, and S. Felix. 

A fresco of S. Peter by Pkrino del Vaga in this church was 
much admired by Vasari, who dilates upon the boldness of its 
design, the simple folds of its drapery, its careful drawing and 
judicious treatment. 

Two streets lead from the Piazza S. Eustachio to — 

The Pantheon, the most perfect pagan building in the city, built 
B.C. 27 by Marcus Agrippa, the bosom friend of Augustus Caesar, 
and the most unsuitable second husband of his daughter Julia ; 
'Vir simplicitati proprior quam deliciis," as Pliny calls him. The 
inscription, in huge letters, perfectly legible from beneath, 'm. 
AGKIPPA. L. F. COS. TEETIUM FECIT,' records its Construction. 
Another inscription on the architrave, now almost illegible, records 
its restoration under Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla, c. 202, 
who, ' Pantheum vetustate corruptum cum omni cultu restituerunt.' 
It is said that Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon from the foundation, 
and that the level of the cella was originally two feet lower than 
it is now. Some authorities have maintained that the Pantheon 
was originally only a vast hall in the Baths of Agrippa, acknowledged 

136 Walks in Rome 

remains of which exist just behind it ; but the name ' Pantheum ' 
was in use as early as A.D. 59 ; and the building was consecrated 
as a temple to the mythical ancestors of the Gens Julia. 

In A.D. 399 the Pantheon was closed as a temple, in obedience to 
a decree of the Emperor Honorius, and in 608 was consecrated as 
a christian church by Pope Boniface IV., with the permission of the 
Emperor Phocas, under the title of S. Maria ad Martyres. To this 
dedication we owe the preservation of the main features of the 
building, though it had been terribly maltreated. In 663 the 
Emperor Constans, who had come to Rome with great pretence 
of devotion to its shrines and relics, and who only stayed there 
twelve days, did not scruple, in spite of its religious dedication, to 
strip off the tiles of gilt bronze with which the roof was covered, 
and carry them off with him to Syracuse, where, upon his murder, 
a few years after, they fell into the hands of the Saracens. In 
1087 the Pantheon was used by the anti-pope Guibert as a fortress, 
whence he made incursions upon the lawful Pope, Victor III., and 
his protector, the Countess Matilda. In 1101, another anti-pope, 
Sylvester IV., was elected here. Pope Martin V., after his return 
from Avignon, attempted the restoration of the Pantheon by clearing 
away the mass of miserable buildings in which it was encrusted, 
and his efforts were continued by Eugenius IV. ; but Urban VIII. 
(1023-44), though he spent 15,000 scudi upon the Pantheon, and 
added two ugly campanili called in derision 'the asses' ears,' 
of their architect, Bernini, did not hesitate to plunder the gilt 
bronze ceiling of the portico, 450,250 lbs. in weight, to make the 
baldacchino of S. Peter's, and cannon for the Castle of S. Angelo. 
Benedict XIV. (1740-58) further despoiled the building by tearing 
away all the precious marbles which lined the attic, to ornament 
other buildings. The campanili of Urban VIII. were removed 
in 1885. 

The Pantheon was not originally, as now, below the level of the 
piazza, but was approached by a flight of five steps. The portico, 
which is 110 feet long and 44 feet deep, is supported by sixteen grand 
columns of oriental granite, 36 feet in height, the earliest examples 
of the Corinthian order in Rome. The ancient bronze doors remain. 
On either side are niches, once occupied by colossal statues of 
Augustus and Agrippa.^ 

' Agrippa wished to dedicate the Pantheon to Augustus, l)ut he refused, and 
only allowed his statue to occupy a niche on the right of the peristyle, while 
that of Agi-ippa occupied a niche on the left.' — Merivale. 

The Interior is a rotunda, 143 feet in diameter, covered by a 
dome coffered on the inner surface. It is only lighted by an 
aperture in the centre, 28 feet in diameter. Seven great niches 
around the walls once contained statues of different gods and 
goddesses, that of Jupiter being the central figure ; now they are 

1 Tlie statue of Agi-ippa is now in the Fondaco dei Turchi at Venice. 

The Pantheon 137 

occupied by saints.^ All the surrounding columns are of giallo- 
antico (marmor Numidicum), except four, which are of pavonazetto, 
painted yellow. It is a proof of the great value and rarity of 
giallo-antico, that it was always impossible to obtain more to 
complete the set. 

' L'interieur du Pantheon, comme I'exterieiu', est parfaitement conserve, et les 
6dicules, places dans le pourtoiu- du temple, torment les chapelles de I'eglise. 
Jamais la simplicity ne fut alliee ;\ la grandeur dans une plus hem-euse harmonic. 
Le jour, tombant d'en haut et glissant le long des colonnes, et des parois de 
marbre, porte dans lame un sentiment de tranqnillite sublime, et donne a tons 
les objets, dit Serlio, un au' de beaute. Vue du dehoi"s, la coupole de plomb 
qui a remplace I'ancienne coupole de bronze couverte de tuiles dorees, fait bien 
comprendre I'expression de Vii-gile, lequel I'avait sous les yeux, et peut-etre en 
vue, quand il ecrivait : 

"... Media testudine templi." 

En efifet, cette coupole surbaiss6e ressemble tout i fait &, la carapace d'une 
tortue.' — Ampere, Emp. i. 342. 

'Being deep in talk, it so happened that they found themselves near the 
majestic pillared portico and huge black rotundity of the Pantheon. It stands 
almost at the central jx>int of the labyrinthine intricacies of the modern city, 
and often presents itself before the bewildered sti-anger when he is in search of 
other objects. Hilda, looking up, proposed that they should enter. 

'They went in accordingly, and stood in the fi-ee space of that great circle, 
around which are ranged the arched recesses and the stately altars, formerly 
dedicated to heathen gods, but christianised through twelve centm-ies gone by. 
The world has nothing else like the Pantheon. So gi'and it is, that the paste- 
l)oard statues over the lofty coniice do not disturb the effect, any more than 
the tin crowns and hearts, the dusty artificial flowers, and all manner of 
trumpeiy gewgaws, hanging at the saintly shrines. The rust and dinginess 
that have dimmed the precious marble on the walls ; the pavement, with its 
great squares and rounds of porphyry and granite, cracked crosswise and in a 
hundred directions, showing how roughly the troublesome ages have trampled 
here ; the grey dome above, with its opening to the skj', as if heaven were 
looking down into the interior of this place of worship, left unimpeded for 
prayers to ascend the more freely — all these things make an impression of 
solemnity, which S. Peter's itself fails to produce. 

' "I think," said Kenyon, "it is to the aperture in the dome — that gi'eat eye", 
gazing heavenward — that the Pantheon owes the peculiarity of its effect. It is 
so heathenish, as it were— so unlike all the snugnsss of our modern civilisation ! 
Look, too, at the pavement directly beneath the open space ! So much rain 
has fallen here in the last two thousand years, that it is green with small, flue 
moss, such as grows over tombstones in damp English churchyards." 

' "I like better," replied Hilda, "to look at the bright, blue sky, roofing the 
edifice where the builders left it open. It is very delightful, in a breezy day, to 
see the masses of white cloud float over the opening, and then the sunshine fall 
through it again, fitfully, as it does now. Would it be any wonder if we were 
to see angels hovering there, partly in and partly out, with genial, heavenly 
faces, not intercepting the light, but transmuting it into beautiful colours? 
Look at that broad, golden beam— a sloping cataract of sunlight — which comes 
down from the aperture, and rests upon the shrine, at the right hand of the 
entrance." '—Transformation. 

' . . . "Entrons dans le temple," dit Corinne : "vous le voyez, il reste de- 
couvert presque comme il I'etait autrefois. On dit que cette lumifere qui venait 
d'en haut etait I'embleme de la divinite sup^rieure a toutes les divinites. Les 
palens ont toujours aime les images symlwliques. II semble en eflfet que ce Ian- 
gage convient mieiLX tV la religion que la parole. La pluie tombe souvent sur ces 
parvis de marbre ; mais aussi les rayons du soleil viennent eclairer les prieres. 

1 Mr. Chai-les Gre%ille (1830) fulfilled a vow in giving a silver horseshoe to the 
Madonna in the Pantheon when his mare won a race at Newmarket 

138 Walks in Rome 

Quelle s^r6nit6 ! quel air de fete on reraarque dans cet ddlflce ! Les paiens ont 
dlvinis6 la vie, et les Chretiens ont divinis6 la moit : tel est I'esprit des deux 
cultes.'" — Madame de Stael. 

'In the ancient Pantheon, when the music of christian chaunts rises among 
the shadowy forms of the old vanished gods painted on the walls, and the light 
streams down, not from painted windows in the walls, but from the glowing 
heavens above, every note of the service echoes like a peal of triumph, and fills 
my heart with thankfulness.'— J/rs. Charles. 

'"Where," asked Redschid Pasha, on his visit to the Pantheon, "are the 
statues of the heathen gods ? " " Of course they were removed when the temple 
was christianised," was the natural answer. "No," he replied, "I would have 
left them standing to show how the true God had triumphed over them in their 
own house." '^Cardinal Wiseman. 

' No, great dome of Agrippa, thou art not Christian ! canst not, 
Strip and replaster and daub and do what they will with thee, be so ! 
Here underneath the great porch of colossal Corinthian colimms. 
Here as I walk, do I dream of the Christian belfries above them ; 
Or, on a bench as I sit and abide for long hours, till thy whole vast 
Round grows dim as in dreams to my eyes, I repeople the niches. 
Not with the Martyrs, and Saints, and Confessors, and Virgins, and children, 
But with the mightier forms of an older, austerer worship ; 
And I recite to myself, how 

Eager for battle here 

Stood "Vulcan, here matronal Juno, 

And with the bow to his shoulder faithful 

He who with pure dew laveth of Castaly 

His flowing locks, who holdeth of Lycia 

Tlie oak forest and the wood that bore him, 
Delos' and Patara's own Apollo.' — Clough. 

Some antiquarians have supposed that the aperture at the top of 
the Pantheon was originally closed by a huge ' Pigna,' or pine-cone 
of bronze, like that which crowned the summit of the Mausoleum 
of Hadrian, and this belief has been encouraged by the name of a 
neighbouring church being S. Giovanni della Pigna. 

The Pantheon has become the burial-place of painters. Raffaelle, 
Annibale Caracci, Taddeo Zucchero, Baldassare Peruzzi, Pierino del 
Vaga, and Giovanni da Udine, are all buried here. 

The third chapel on the left contains the Tomb of Raffaelle (born 
April 6th, 1483 ; died April 6th, 1520). From the pen of Cardinal 
Bembo is the epigram — 

' Hie hie est Raphael, timuit quo sospite vinci 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori.' i 

'Raffaelle mourut a I'age de 37 ans. Son corps resta expos6 pendant trois 
jours. An moment ou Ton s'appretait i le descendre dans sa derni6re demeure, 
on vit arriver le pape (L6on X.), qui se prosterna, pria quelqiies instants, b^nit 
Raphael, et lui prit pour la derniere fois la main, (ju'il arrosa de ses larmos (si 
prostro innanzi I'estinto Raffaello et baciogli quella niano, tra le lacrinie). On 
lui fit de magnifltpies funerailles, auxquelles assist6rent les cardinaux, les artistes, 
&c:—A. Du, Pays.^ 

1 ' Living, great Nature feared he might outvie 
Her works ; and, dying, fears herself to die.' 

Pope's Translatimi (without acknowledgment) in 
his EiJitaph on Sir Godfrey Kneller. 
2 Raffaelle was dug up and shown in a glass case in the Pantheon in 1832, to 
settle a dispute between two Academies as to which had his skull : neither 
had it. 

The Pantheon 139 

' When Eaflfaelle went, 
His heavenly face the mirror of his mind, 
His mind a temple for all lovely things 
To flock to and inhabit — when he went, 
Wrapt in his sable cloak, the cloak he wore. 
To sleep l)eneath the venerable Dome, 
By those attended who in life had loved. 
Had worshipped, following in his steps to Fame 
('Twas on an April day, when >'ature smiles). 
All Rome was there. But, ere the march liegan, 
Ere to receive their charge the bearers came. 
Who had not sought him ? And when all Ijeheld 
Him, where he lay, how changed from yesterday. 
Him in that hour cut off, and at his head 
His last great work ; i when, entering in, they looked 
Now on the dead, then on that masterpiece, 
Now on his face, lifeless and colourless. 
Then on those forms di>1ne that lived and breathed, 
And would live on for ages — all were moved ; 
And sighs burst forth, and loudest lamentations.' 


Taddeo Zucchero and Annibale Caracci are buried on either side 
of Raffaelle. Near the high altar is a monument to Cardinal 
Consalvi (1757-182-1), the faithful secretary and minister of Pius VII., 
by Thoricaldsen. This, however, is only a cenotaph, marking the 
spot where his heart is preserved. His body rests with that of his 
beloved brother Andrea in the Church of S. Marcello. 

To the right of the high altar, a bronze monument, like a money 
box, covers a hole in the wall, like those in an ancient columbarium. 
Here — not worthily amidst his ancestors in the glorious Superga — 
rests the body of King Victor Emmanuel II., who died on the 9th 
of January 1878, in the Pope's palace of the Quirinal. 

During the Middle Ages the Pope always officiated in the Pantheon 
on the day of Pentecost, when, in honour of the descent of the 
Holy Spirit, showers of white rose-leaves were continually sent down 
through the aperture during service. 

' Though plimdered of all its brass, except the ring which was necessary to 
preserve the aperture above ; though exposed to repeated fire ; though sometimes 
flooded by the river, and always open to the rain, no monument of equal anti(iuity 
is so well preserved as this rotunda. It passed with little alteration from the 
pagan into the present worship ; and so convenient were its niches for the 
chnstian altar, that Michael Augelo, ever studious of ancient beauty, introduced 
their design as a model in the catholic church.' — Forgyth. 

' Simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime — 
Shrine of all saints and temple of all gods, 
From Jove to Jesus — spared and bless'd by time, 
Looking tranquillity, while falls or nods 
Arch, empire, each thing round thee, and man plods 
His way through thorns to ashes — glorious dome ! 
Shalt thou not last? Time's scythe and tyrant's rods 
Shiver upon thee— sanctuary and home 
Of art and piety— Pantheon I pride of Rome I ' 

Byron, ' Childe Harold.' 

1 Raffaelle lay in state beneath his last great work. The Trangfigiiration. 

140 Walks in Rome 

In the Piazza della Rotonda is a small Obelisk found in the 
Campus Martius. 

'At a few paces from the streets where meat is sold, you will find gathered 
round the fountain in the Piazza della Rotonda, a number of bird-fanciers, sur- 
rounded by cages in which are multitudes of living birds for sale. Here are 
Java sparrows, parrots and paroquets, grey thrushes and nightingales, red- 
breasts (petti rossi), yellow canary birds, beautiful sweet-singing little cardellini, 
and gentle ringdoves, all chattering, singing, and cooing together, to the con- 
stant plashing of the fountain. Among them, perched on stands, and glaring 
wisely out of their great yellow eyes, may be seen all sorts of owls, from the 
great solemn harbigiani, and white-tufted owl, to the curious little civetta, which 
gives its name to all sharp-witted heartless flirts, and the aziola, which Shelley 
has celebrated in one of his minor poems.' — Story's ' Iloba di Roma.' 

Here formerly stood an arch known as the Arch of Piety, from 
the relief which it bore of the meeting of Trajan and the widow. 
The arch was destroyed by Alexander VII., that he might use its 
marbles in restoring the portico of the Pantheon. Its name lingers 
in the little church of La Madonna della Picta. 

The removal of a number of paltry buildings at the back of the 
Pantheon in 1882 has laid bare some masses of ruin and fluted 
columns belonging to the Baths of Agrippa, of which, till recently, 
the only remaining fragment was supposed to be the Arco di 
Ciamhclla (a small semicircular ruin in the third street on the left 
of the Via della Rotonda), which derives its popular name from a 
fancied resemblance to the favourite cake of the people. 

The district between this and the Collegio Romano, once occupied 
by the Temples of Isis and Serapis, has been extremely productive 
of ancient sculptures and statues. The Tiber of the Louvre and 
the Nile of the Vatican were found here under Leo X., and, in 
recent times, many curious relics of Egyptian worship and art, also 
six of the obelisks which lined the approach to the temple.^ 

Behind the Pantheon is the Piazza della Minerva, where a small 
Obelisk was erected 1667 by Bernini, on the back of an elephant.- 
It is exactly similar to the obelisk in front of the Pantheon, and 
they were both found near this site, where they formed part of the 
decorations of the Campus Martius, and, as many other Egyptian 
relics (including the statue of Isis in the Capitol and that of the 
Nile in the Vatican) were found with them, probably indicated the 
position of the Temples of Isis and Serapis. The liieroglyphics on 
this obelisk show that it dates from Hophres, a king of the 25th 
dynasty. On the pedestal is the inscription : — 

' Sapientis Aegypti insculptas obelisco flguras 
Ab elephanto belluarum fortissimo gestari 
Quisquis hie vides, documentum intellige 

Robustae mentis esse solidam sapientiam sustinere." 

One side of the piazza is occupied by the mean ugly front of the 
Church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, built 1280-90 upon the ruins of 

1 Now in the Villa Mattel, the Piazzas della Rotonda, della Minerva, and della 
Stazione, the Spaersterion at Url)ino, and (fi'agmentary) the Villa Albani. 

2 The design was copied by Bernini from a woodcut in Colonna's Poliphili 
Hypnerotomachia. Aldus : Venice, 1499. 

S. Maria sopra Minerva 14:1 

a temple of Minerva Chalcidica, founded by Pompev.^ The statue 
of Minerva in the Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican was found here. 
This is the only gothic church in Rome of importance. It was 
built by the same Dominican architect-monk who designed S. Maria 
Novella at Florence. In 1848-55 it was redecorated with tawdry 
imitation marbles, which have only a good effect when there is not 
sufficient light to see them. In spite of this, the interior is very 
interesting, and its chapels are a perfect museum of relics of art or 
history. Under the Papal government also this church was cele- 
brated for its services, many of which were exceedingly imposing, 
especially the procession on the night before Christmas, the mass 
of S. Thomas Aquinas, and that of 'the white mule day.' Some 
celebrated divine generally preaches here at 11 A.M. every morning 
in Lent. 

Hither, during the rule of the Popes, on the feast of the Annuncia- 
tion, came the famous ' Procession of the White Mule,' when the 
host was borne by the Grand Almoner riding on the Papal mule, 
followed by the Pope in his glass coach, and a long train of cardinals 
and other dignitaries. Up to the time of Pius VI., it was the Pope 
himself who rode upon the white mule, but Pius VII. was too 
infirm, and after his time the Popes gave it up. But this procession 
continued to be one of the finest spectacles of the kind, and was an 
opportunity for a loyal demonstration, balconies being hung with 
scarlet draperies, and flowers showered down upon the Papal coach, 
while the Pope, on arriving and departing, was usually received 
with tumultuous 'evvivas.' 

In this church, on Sept. 3rd, 1687, Molinos abjured the error of 
his books, in the presence of the cardinals and judges of the 
Inquisition. It was here also that Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo) 
was forced to do public penance in April 1791 for his magical arts, 
before his imprisonment in the Castle of S. Angelo, where he died 
four years after. 

On the right of the entrance is the tomb of Diotisalvi, a Floren- 
tine knight, ob. 1482. Beginning the circuit of the church by the 
right aisle, the first chapel has a picture of S. Ludovico Bertrando, 
by Bacciccio, the paintings on the pilasters being by Muziano. In 
the second, the Colonna Chapel, is the tomb of the Princess Colonna 
(Donna Isabella Alvaria of Toledo) and her child, who both died 
at Albano in the cholera of 1867. The third chapel is that of the 
Gabrielli family. The fourth is that of the Annunciation. Over its 
altar is a most interesting picture, shown as a work of Fra Angelico, 
but more probably that of Benozzo Gozzdi. It represents Monsignore 
Torquemada attended by an angel, presenting three young girls to 
the Virgin, who gives them dowries : the Almighty is seen in the 
clouds. Torquemada was a Dominican Cardinal, who founded the 
association of the Santissima Annunziata, which holds its meetings 
in this chapel, and which annually gives dowries to a number of 
poor girls, who used to receive them from the Pope when he came 

1 Pliny, Hist. Sat. xx\i. 7. 

142 Walks in Eome 

here in state on the 25th of March. On this occasion the girls who 
were to receive the dowries were drawn up in two lines in front 
of the churcli. Some were distinguished by white wreaths. These 
were those who were going to 'enter into religion,' and who conse- 
quently received double the dowry of the others, on the plea that 
' money placed in the hands of religion bears interest for the poor.' 

Torquemada is himself buried in this chapel, opposite the tomb, 
by Ambrogio Buonvicino, of his friend Urban VII., Giov. Battista 
Castagna, 1590 — who was Pope only for eleven days. 

The fifth chapel is the burial-place of the Aldobrandini family. 
It contains a faded Last Supper by Baroccio. 

'The Cenacolo of Baroccio, painted by order of Clement V^III. (1594), is remark- 
able for an anecdote relating to it. Baroccio, who was not eminent for a correct 
taste, had in his first sketch reverted to the ancient fashion of placing Satan close 
behind Judas, whispering in his ear, and tempting him to betray hi8 Master. 
The Pope expressed his dissatisfaction — "che non gli piaceva il demonio se 
dimesticasse tanto con Gesu Christo " — and ordered him to remove the offensive 
figure.' — Jameson's ' Sacred Art,' p. 277. 

Here are the fine tombs erected by Clement VIII. (Ippolito Aldo- 
brandini), as soon as he attained the Papacy, to his father and 
mother. Their architecture is by Giacomo della Porta, but the 
figures are by Cordieri, the sculptor of S. Silvia's statue. At the 
sides of the mother's tomb are figures emblematical of Charity ; by 
that of the father, figures of Humility and Vanity. Beyond his 
mother's tomb is a fine statue of Clement VIII. himself (who is buried 
at S. Maria Maggiore), by Ippolito Buzi. 

'Hippolyte Aldobrandini, qui prit le nom de Clement VIII., etaitle cinquieme 
flls du celebre jurisconsulte Silvestro Aldobrandini, qui, apr4s avoir professe k 
Pise et joui d'une fiaute autorite a Florence, avait 6te condamno a, I'exil par le 
retour au pouvoir des Medicis, ses ennemis. La vie de Silvestre devint alors 
penible et calamiteuse. Depouille de ses biens, il sut, du moins, toujours 
ennoblir son malheur par la dignity de son caractfere. Sa famille prcsentait un 
rare assemblage de douces vertus et de jeunes talents qii'une forte education 
d^veloppait chaque joiu' avec puissance. Appele k Rome par Paul III., (jui le 
iiomma avocat consistorial, Silvestre s'y transporta avec son epouse, la pieuse 
Leta Deti, qui, pendant trente-sept ans, fut potir lui conime sou ))on ange, et 
avec tons ses enfants, Jean, qui devait Ctre lui jour cardinal ; Bernard, qui 
devint lui vaillant guerrier ; Thomas, qui proparait dejji peut-etre sa traduction 
de Diogcne-Laiirce ; Pierre, (lui voidnt etre jurisconsulte connne son pure ; et 
le jeune Hippolyte, un enfant alors, dont les saillies inquictaient le vieillard, car 
il ne savait comment pourvoir i^i son education et utiliser cette vivacitc de genie 
qui dejiV brillait dans son regard. Hippolyte fut <ileve aux frais dii cardinal 
l'arn6se ; puis, tons les cmplois, toutes les dignites vinrent successivement au- 
devant de lui, sans qu'il les cherchat autremeut qu'eu s'en rcudant digne.' — 
Gournerie, ' Rome Chritienne,' ii. 238. 

The sixth chapel contains two fine cinque-cento tombs ; on the 
left, Benedetto Superanzio, Bishop of Nicosia, ob. 1495 ; on the right, 
a Spanish bishop, Giovanni da Coca, with frescoes. Close to the 
former tomb, on the fioor, is the grave of (Archdeacon) Robert 
Wilberforce, who died at Albano in 1857. 

Here we enter the right transept. On the right is a small dark 
chapel containing a fine Crucifix, attributed to Giotto. The central, 
or Caraffa Chapel, is dedicated to S. Thomas Aquinas, and is covered 

S. Maria sopra Minerva 143 

with well-preserved frescoes. On the right, S. Thomas Aquinas is | 
represented surrounded by allegorical figures, by FUippino Lippi. i. 
Over the altar is a beautiful Annunciation, in which a portrait of M 
the donor. Cardinal Olivieri Caraifa, is introduced.^ Above, is the - : 
Assumption of the Virgin. On the ceiling are the four Sibyls, by ;"( 
Raffdlino del Garho. n 

Against the left wall is the tomb of Paul IV., Gio. Pietro Caraffa (7 
(1555-59), the great supporter of the Inquisition, the patron of the '( 
Jesuits, and the persecutor of the Jews (whom he shut up with 
walls in the Ghetto) — a Pope so terrible to look upon, that even Alva, 
who feared no man, trembled at his awful aspect. Such he is 
represented upon his tomb, with deeply sunken eyes and strongly 
marked features, with one hand raised in blessing — or cursing, and 
the keys of S. Peter in the other. The tomb was designed by Pirro 
Ligorio ; the statue is the work of Giacomo and Tommaso Casig- 
nuola, and being made in marble of different pieces and colours, is 
cited by Vasari as an instance of a sculptor's ingenuity in imitating 
painting with his materials. The epitaph runs : — 

' To Jesus Christ, the hope and the life of the faithful ; to Paul IV. Caraffa, 
Bovereijrn pontiff, distinguished amongst all by his eloquence, his learning, and 
his wisdom ; illustrious by his innocence, by his liberality, and by his greatness 
of soul ; to the most ardent champion of the catholic faith, Pius V., sovereign 
pontiff, has raised this monument of his gratitude and of his piety. He lived 
eighty-three years one month and twenty days, and died 14th August 1559, the 
fifth year of his pontifical*.' - 

On the transept wall, just outside this chapel, is the beautiful 
gothic tomb, by Giovanni Cosmati, of Guillaume Durandus, bishop 
of Mende,^ with a recumbent figure guarded by two angels, the 
background being occupied by a mosaic of the Virgin and Child. 

The first chapel on a line with the choir — the burial-place of the 
Altieri family — has an altar-piece, by Carlo Maratta, representing 
five saints canonised by Clement X. presented to the Virgin by 
S. Peter. On the floor is the incised monument of a bishop of 
Sutri. \ 

The second chapel — which contains a fine cinque-cento tomb — is \ 
that of the Rosary. Its ceiling, representing the mysteries of the \ 
Rosary, is by MarccUo Veniisti ; the history of S. Catherine of Siena \ 
is by Giovanni dc" Veechi ; the large and beautiful Madonna with / 
the Child over the altar is attributed to Fra Angelico. Here is the / 
tomb of Cardinal Capranica of 1470. ^ 

Beneath the high altar, with lamps always burning before it, is a 
marble sarcophagus with a beautiful figure, enclosing the body of 
S. Catherine of Siena. In it her relics were deposited in 1461 by 
Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence. On the last pillar to the right 

1 These once beautiful frescoes have been ruined by a recent restoration. 

2 See Gregorovius, Grabmiiler der Papste. 

3 Author of the Jiationale DM ncrnim OJieiontm — 'A treasiu-e of information 
on all points connected with the decorations and services of the mediaeval 
church. Durandus was bom in Provence about 12-2(), and died in 1290 at Rome.' 
— L<rrd Lindsay. 

144 Walks in Rome 

is an inscription stating that ' all the indulgences and privileges in 
every church, of all the religious orders, mendicant or not mendicant, 
in every part of the world, are granted specially to this church, 
where is the body of S. Catherine of Siena.' 

' S. Catherine was one of twenty-five children born in wedlock to Jacopo and 
Lupa Benincasa, citizens of Siena. Her father exercised the trade of dyer and 
fuller. In the year of her birth, 1347, Siena reached the climax of its power and 
splendour. It was then that the plague of Boccaccio began to rage, which swept 
off 80,000 citizens, and interrupted the building of the great Duomo. In the 
midst of so large a family and during these trouljled times, Catherine grew 
almost unnoticed, but it was not long before she manifested her pecidiar dis- 
position. At six years old she already saw visions and longed for a monastic 
life : about the same time she used to collect her childish companions together 
and preach to them. As she grew her wishes became stronger ; she refused the 
proposals which her parents made that she should marry, and so vexed them 
by her obstinacy that they imposed on her the most servile duties in their 
household. These she patiently fulfilled, at the same time pursuing her own 
vocation with unwearied ardour. She scarcely slept at all, and ate no food but 
vegetables and a little bread, scourged herself, wore sackcloth, and became 
emaciated, weak, and half -delirious. At length the firmness of her character and 
the force of her hallucination won the day. Her parents consented to her 
assuming the Dominican robe, and at the age of thirteen she entered the mon- 
astic life. From this moment till her death we see in her the ecstatic, the 
philanthropist, and the politician combined to a remarkable degree. For three 
whole years she never Ipft her cell except to go to church, maintaining an almost 
unbroken silence. Yet, when she returned to the world, convinced at length 
of having won by prayer and pain the favoirr of her Lord, it was to preach to 
infuriated mobs, to toil among men dying of the plague, to execute diplomatic 
negotiations, to harangue the republic of Florence, to correspond with queens, 
and to interpose between kings and popes. In the midst of this varied and 
distracting career she continued to see visions, and to fast and scourge herself. 
The domestic virtues and the personal wants and wishes of a woman were 
annihilated in her ; she lived for the Church, for the poor, and for Christ, whom 
she imagined to be constantly supporting her. At length she died (at Kome, on 
the 29th of April 1380, in her 33rd year), worn out by inward conflicts, by the 
tension of a half-delirious ecstasy, by want of food and sleep, and by the excite- 
ment of political life.' — Symonds's ' Sketches of Greece and Italy.' 

' Canonised by Pius II., Catherine of Siena has a claim upon our reverence 
higher than that of a saint of the mediaeval church. A low-born maiden, without 
education or culture, she gave the only possible expression in her age and 
generation to the aspiration for national xuiity and for the restoration of eccle- 
siastical purity." — Creighton, ' The Papacy during the Mefonnation.' 

On the right of the high altar is a statue of S. John by Obicci; 
on the left is the famous statue of Christ by Michelangelo. This 
is one of the sculptures which Francis I. tried hard to obtain for 
Paris. Its effect is marred by the bronze drapery. 

' Son corps ne porte pas marque de souffrance, son visage ne porte pas marque 
de douleur. II est grave et non pas triste, il pense et ne s'attlige pas. II tient 
d'un bras ferme I'instrument de son martyrc comme uu chef d'armee tient sou 
drapeau ou son 6p6e.' — Emile MonUgiU. 

Behind, in the choir, are the tombs of two Medici popes. On 
the left is Leo X., Giovanni de' Medici (1513-21). This great Pope, 
son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was destined to the Papacy from 
his cradle. He was ordained at seven years old, was made a 
cardinal at seventeen, and Pope at thirty-eight, and at the installa- 
tion procession to the Lateran rode upon the same white horse 

S. Maria sopra Minerva 145 

upon which he had fought and had been taken prisoner at the battle 
of Ravenna. His reign was one of fetes and pleasures. He was the 
great patron of artists and poets, and Raffaelle and Ariosto rose 
into eminence under his protection. His tomb is from a design of 
Antonio di Sangallo, but the figure of the Pope is by Rafltaello da 

Near the foot of Leo X.'s tomb is the flat monumental stone of 
Cardinal Bembo, his friend and the friend of Raifaelle, who died 
1547. His epitaph has been changed. The original inscription, 
half-pagan, half -christian, ran : — 

' Hie Bembus jacet Aonidum laus maxima Phoebi 

Cum sole et luna vix periturus honos. 
Hie et fama jacet, spes, et suprema galeri 

Quam non ulla queat restltuisse dies. 
Hie jacet exemplar omni fraude carentis, 

Summa jacet, summa hie ciun pietate fides.' 

On the right of the choir is the tomb, by Sangallo, of Clement 
VII., Giulio^de' Medici (1523-34), son of the' Giulio who fell in the 
conspiracy of the Pazzi — who in his unhappy reign saw the sack of 
Rome (1527) under the Constable de Bourbon, and the begirming 
of the separation from England under Henry VIII. The figure of 
the Pope is by Baccio Bandinelli. Among other graves here is that 
of the English Cardinal Howard, ob. 1694. Just beyond the choir 
is a passage leading to a door into the Via S. Ignazio. Immediately 
on the left is the slab tomb of Fra Angelico da Fiesole. It is 
inscribed in words said to have been the last written by Pope 
Nicholas V., who died a few weeks after -^ — 

' Hie jacet Vene Pictor Fl. Jo. de Florentia Ordinis 

Praedicatorum, 1404. 
Non mihi sit laudi quod eram velut alter Apelles 

Sed quod luera tuis omnia, Christe, dabam. 
Altera nam terris opera exstant, altera eoelo. 
ITrbs me Johannem flos tulit Etmriae.' i 

' Fra Angelico was simple and most holy in his manners — and let this serve for 
a token of his simplicity, that Pope Jf ieholas one morning offering him refresh- 
ment, he scrupled to eat flesh without the licence of his superior, forgetful for 
the moment of the dispensing authority of the pontiff. He shunned altogether 
the commerce of the world, and living in holiness and in purity, was as loving 
towards the poor on earth as I think his soul must be now in heaven. He 
worked incessantly at his art, nor would he ever paint other than sacre<l 
subjects. He might have been rich, but cared not to \ie so, sajing that true 
riches consisted rather in being content with little. He might have ruled over 
many, but willed it not, saying there was less trouble and hazard of sin in 
obeying others. Dignity and authority were within his grasp, but he disregarded 
them, affirming that he sought no other advancement than to escape hell and 
draw nigh to Paradise. He was most meek and tempei"ate, and by a chaste life 
loosened himself from the snares of the world, ofttimes saying that the student 
of i)ainting hath need of quiet and to live without anxiety, and that the dealers 
in the things of Christ ought to live habitually with Christ. Never was he seen 
in anger with the brethren, which appears to me a thing most marvellous, and 

1 It is no honoiu- to me to be like another Apelles, but rather, O Christ, that I 
gave all my gains to the poor. One was a work for earth, the other for heaven. 
A city, the flower of Etruria, bare me, John. 

VOL. 11. K 

146 Walks in Rome 

all Init incredible ; his admonitions to his friends were simple, and always 
softened by a smile. Whoever sought to employ him, he answered with the 
utmost courtesy, that he would do his part willingly so the prior were content. 
—In sum, this never -sufficiently -to -be -lauded father was most humble and 
modest in all his wonls and deeds, and in his paintings graceful and devout ; 
and the saints which he painted have more of the air and aspect of saints than 
those of any other artist. He was wont never to retouch or amend any of his 
paintings, but left them always as they had come from his hands at first, believ- 
ing, as he said, that such was the will of God. Some say that he never took up 
his pencil without previous prayer. He never painted a crucifix without tears 
bathing his cheeks ; and throughout his works, in the countenance and attitude 
of all his figures, the correspondent impress of his sincere and exalted apprecia- 
tion of the christian religion is recognisable. Such was this verily Angelic 
father, who spent the whole time of his life in the service of God and in doing 
good to the world and to his neighbour. And truly a gift like his coild not 
descend on any but a man of uiost saintly life, for a painter must be holy him- 
self before he can depict holiness.' — Lord Lindsay, from Vasari. 

In the same passage are tombs of Cardinal Alessandrino by 
Giacomo dclla Porta ; of Cardinal Pimentel, by Bernini ; and of 
Cardinal Bonelli, by Carlo Rainaldi. 

Beyond this, in the left transept, is the Chapel of S. Domenico, 
with eight black columns, appropriate to the colour of the Order, 
and an interesting picture of the saint. Here is the tomb of 
Benedict XIII., Vincenzo-Maria Orsini (1724-30), by Pietro Bracci. 
This Pope, who had been a Dominican monk, laboured hard in his 
short reign for the reformation of the Church and the morals of 
the clergy. 

' Benolt XIII. se mettait k genoux par humility, dans son cabinet, quand il 
('crivait i son g^niSral, et 6tait d'une vanit6 insupportable sur sa naissance.' — 
Lettres du President de Brosses, 

Over a door leading to the sacristy are frescoes representing 
the election of Eugenius IV. in 1431, and of Nicholas V. in 1447, 
which both took place in this church. The altar of the sacristy 
has a Crucifixion by Andrea SaceJd. 

Returning down the left aisle, the second chapel, counting from 
this end, is that of the Lante family, which contains the fine tomb 
of the Duchess Lante, ob. 1840, by Tcnerani, with the Angel of the 
Resurrection, a sublime upward-gazing figure seated upon a sarco- 
phagus. Here is a picture of S. James, by Baroccio. 

The third chapel is that of S. Vincenzo Ferreri, apostle of the 
Order of Preachers, with a miracle-working picture by Bernardo 
CasteUi. The fourth chapel — of the Grazioli family — has on the 
right a statue of S. Sebastian by Mino da Ficsole, and over the altar 
a lovely head of our Saviour by Perw/ino. This chapel was pur- 
chased by the Grazioli from the old family of Maft'ei, of which 
there are some fine tombs. The fifth chapel — of the Patrizi family — 
contains the famous miraculous picture called ' La Madonna Con- 
solatrice degli Afflitti,' in honour of which Pope Gregory XVI. 
conceded many indulgences, as we read by the inscription : — 

' La santitfi di N. S. Gregorio Papa XVI con breve in data 17 Sept. 1836. Ho 
accordato I'indnlgenzia plenaria a chiinique confessato c comniunicato visitei-i 
divotamente questa santa immagine della B. Vergine sotto il titolo di consola- 

Convent of the Minerva 147 

trice degli aflflitti nella secontla doruenica di Luglio e suo ottavo di ciasciin anno.: 
concedo" altresi la parziale indulgenza di 200 giomi in qualunque giomo del 
anno a chiunque almeno contrito \Tsiteri la detta S. Immagine : _Ie dette indul- 
genze poi sono pure applicabili alle benedette anime del purgatorio.' 

The last chapel, belonging to a Spanish nobleman, contains the 
picture of the Crucifixion which is said to have conversed with S. 
Rosa di Lima. 

Near the entrance is the tomb of Cardinal Giacomo Tebaldi, ob. 
1466, and beneath it that of Francesco Tornabuoni, by Mino da 
Piesolc. It was for the tomb of the wife of this Tornabuoni, who 
died in childbirth, that the wonderful relief of Verocchio, now in 
the Uffizi at Florence, was executed. In the pavement is the 
gravestone of Paulus Manutius, the printer, son of the famous 
Aldus Manutius of Venice, with the inscription, 'Paulo Manutio 
Aldi Filio. Obit cioioLSXiv.' 

The great Dominican Convent of the Minerva was the great centre 
of the Dominicans, as Ara Coeli of the Franciscans. Every year, on 
the feast of S. Dominic, the Abbot of Ara Coeli, General of the 
Franciscans, came hither to salute and dine with the General 
of the Dominicans, in commemoration of the famous kiss of S. 
Dominic and S. Francis at their meeting in 1215. The convent 
contains the Bibliotheca Casanatensls (so called from its founder, 
Cardinal Casanata), the largest library in Rome after that of the 
Vatican, comprising 120,000 printed volumes and 4500 MSS. It is 
open from 8 to 11 A.M., and 1.30 to 3.30 P.M. This convent has 
always been connected with the history of the Inquisition. Here, 
on June 22, 1633, Galileo was tried before its tribunal for the 
' heresy ' of saying that the earth went round the sun, instead of 
the sun round the earth, and was forced to recant upon his knees 
this 'accursed, heretical, and detestable doctrine.' As he rose 
from his humiliation, he is said to have consoled himself by adding, 
in an undertone, ' E pur si muove.' When the ' Palace of the 
Holy Office' was stormed by the mob in the revolution of 1848, it 
was feared that the Dominican convent would have been burnt 

The very beautiful cloister of the convent, which has a vaulted 
roof richly painted in arabesques, contains grand fifteenth-century 
tombs of Cardinal Tiraso, ob. 1502, and of Cardinal Astorgius, ob. 
1503. S. Antonino, Archbishop of Florence, who lived in the 
reigns of Eugenius IV. and Nicholas V., was prior of this convent. 

From the Minerva, the Via del Pie di Marmo (so called from a 
gigantic marble foot which stands at the entrance of a street on the 
right) leads to the Corso.' The street was formerly crossed by an 
Arch of Camillus, as seen in the plan of Bersalini of 1502. 

1 That part of the ancient Campus Martins which contains the Theatre of 
Marcellus and Portico of Octaria, is descriljed in Chapter V. ; that which hektngs 
to the Via Flaniinia, in Chapter II. 


Via Tordinona— S. Salvatore in Lauro— House of Raffaelle— S. Giovanni de' 
Fiorentini— Bridge and Castle of S. Angelo— S. Maria Traspontina— Palazzo 
Giraud— Piazza Scossa Cavalli— Hospital of Santo Spirito— Piazza and Obelisk 
of the Vatican— S. Peter's ; its portico, tombs, crypts, dome, and sacristy- 
Churches of S. Stefano and S. Alarta— II Cimeterio dei Tedeschi— Palazzo del 
Santo Ufllzio— S. Salvatore in Torrione— S. Michele in Sassia. 

CONTINUING in a direct course from the Piazza Borghese, we 
skirt the Tiber, of which — with its bridge, S. Angelo, and S. 
Peter's — beautiful views might formerly be obtained from little 
courts and narrow strips of shore at the back of the houses ^ by 
which it was lined till 1888 ; now, as artistic subjects, the views 
are ruined. 

A short distance after passing (on left) the Locanda dell' Orso, 
where Montaigne stayed when he was in Rome, and beneath which 
are some curious vaulted chambers of c. a.d. 1500, the former street, 
which repeatedly changed its name, was called Via Tordinona, from 
the Tor di Nona, which once stood here, but was destroyed in 1690. 
It was used as a prison, as is shown by the verse of Regnier : 

' Qu'un barisel vous mit dedans la tour de Nonne.' 

(One of the narrow streets on the left of what was the Via Tordi- 
nona debouches into the Via dei Coronari, close to the Church of 
S. Salvatore in Lauro, built on the site of a laurel grove, which 
flourished near the portico of Europa. It contains a picture of the 
Nativity by Pietro da Cortona, and a modern work of Gagliardi, 
representing S. Emidio, S. Nicolo da Tolentino, and S. Giacomo della 
Marina, the three protectors of Ancona. In a side chapel, ojaening 
out of the cloisters, is the rich tomb of Pope Engenius IV. (Gabrlele 
Condolmieri, formerly a monk of S. Giorgio in Alga at Venice, 
made cardinal by his uncle, Gregory XII., ob. 1439), with a figure 
by Isaia de Pisa of Eugenius, who was so extravagant and mag- 
nificent that his tiara cost ,38,000 gold ducats — ' the ransom of a 
king.' His magnificent tomb here is a cenotaph : he was buried in 
S. Peter's, in accordance with his last request — ' That there may be 
no dispute about my funeral, bury me simply, and lay me in a lowly 
place by the side of Eugenius III.' Francesco Salviati painted a 

1 From the courtyard of No. 136 Via Tordinona the view was at its best. 

Via dei Banchi 149 

portrait of this Pope for the adjoining convent, to which he had 
belonged, as well as a fine fresco of the Marriage of Cana.^ 

There are several other fine monuments in the same chapel with 
the tomb, which in 1867 was given up as a barrack to the French 
Zouaves, at the great risk of injury to its delicate carvings.) 

The Via Tordinona emerged upon the quay of the Tiber, opposite 
S. Angelo, at the spot where Marcantonio Massimo was beheaded 
for the murder of his brother Luca in 1599. The remains of an 
ancient marble wharf were discovered herein 1891. Hence several 
streets diverge into the heart of the city. 

Till 1890, one of the most picturesque river views in the world 
was seen on approaching the Ponte S. Angelo. The mighty castle 
rose on the right from its projecting bastions, now destroyed, and a 
great solitary cypress cut the sky. Beyond the arches and statues 
of the bridge, St. Peter's rose in hazy splendour. Now the river is 
not only a canal between banks of formal masonry, but it is crossed 
by the vulgarest and most hideous of suspension bridges, entirely 
blocking out the view. 

(At the corner of the Via dei Banchi is a house with a frieze, 
richly sculptured with lions' heads, &c. This was formerly the 
Fleet Street of Rome and the residence of the chief merchants, 
especially of the goldsmiths, from whom the district derives its 
name. Here Benvenuto Cellini had his workshop, and being insulted 
through his open window by the goldsmith Pompeo, rushed out and 
stabbed him to the heart. This occurred during one of the Papal 
conclaves, which always created scenes of licence and violence 
in the Banchi, which at such times became ' a kind of improvised 
exchange, where the rival chances of candidates were publicly quoted 
and eagerly discounted, amidst commotion that commonly was 
attended with riot.'^ On the left of the street is the Church of 
S. Celso in Banchi, close to which the famous statue of the Herma- 
phrodite was found, and in front of which Lorenzo Colonna, the 
protonotary, was murdered by the Orsini and Santa Croce, im- 
mediately after the death of Sixtus IV. (1484) ; and where his 
mother, finding his head cut off, and seizing it by the hair, shrieked 
forth her curses upon his enemies. On the right, farther down the 
street, is the Church of S. Caterina da Siena, which contains an 
interesting altar-piece by Girolamo Gewja, representing the return 
of Gregory XI. from Avignon, which was due to her influence.) 

The renaissance Palazzo Altoviti, a picturesque house with a 
beautiful three-arched loggia (destroyed in 1888) which adjoined 
the Ponte S. Angelo, was said to have been the home of Bindo 
Altoviti, the * Violinista,' the friend of Raffaelle, who is familiar 
to us from his portrait in the Sciarra Palace. Some say that 
Raffaelle died while he was on a visit to him. But the best 
authorities maintain that he died in a house built for him by 
Bramante in the Piazza Rusticucci, which was pulled down to 

1 Vasari, v. 2 See Cartwright's Papal Conclaves. 

150 Walks in Rome 

enlarge the Piazza of S. Peter's. No. 124 Via Cororiari, not far 
from the Ponte S. Angelo, is shown as the house in which the great 
painter lived previously to this, and is that which he bequeathed to 
the chapel in the Pantheon in which he is buried. It was partly 
rebuilt in 1705, when Carlo Maderno painted on its fa§ade a portrait 
of Kallaelle in chiaroscuro, now almost obliterated. The house at 
present belongs to the canons of S. Maria Maggiore. 

The Via S. Oiovanni de' Fiorentini leads to the Church of that 
name, abutting picturesquely into the angle of the Tibei\ This is 
the national church of the Tuscans, and was built at the expense of 
-the city of Florence. In the tribune are tombs of the Falconieri 
family. Here are several fine pictures : a S. Jerome writing, by 
Clrjoli, who is buried in this church ; S. Jerome praying before a 
crucifix, Tito Santi^ (1538-1603) ; S. Francis, Tito Santi; SS. Cosmo 
and Damian condemned to martyrdom by fire — a grand work of 
Salvator Rosa. 

' Some of the altar-pieces of Salvator Rosa (1615-73) are well conceived and 
full of effect, especially when they represent a horrible subject, like the martyr- 
dom in S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini.' — Lanzi, ii. 165. 

The Chapel of the Crucifix is painted by Lanfranco ; the third 
chapel on the right has frescoes by Tempesta on the ceiling relating 
to the history of S. Lorenzo. 

The building of this church was begun in the reign of Leo X. by 
Sansovino, who, for want of space, laid its foundations, at enormous 
expense, in the bed of the Tiber. While overlooking this, he fell 
from a scafiiold, and being dangerously hurt, was obliged to give up 
his place to Antonio da Sangallo.^ Soon after, Pope Leo died, and 
the work, with many others, was suspended during the reign of 
Adrian VI. Under Clement VII. Sansovino returned, but was 
driven away, robbed of all his possessions, in the sack of Rome 
under the Constable de Bourbon. The church was finished by 
Giacomo della Porta in 1588, but Alessandro Galileo added the 
facade in 1725. 

'En 1488, une affreuse 6pidemie d^cimait les malheureux habitants des en- 
virons de Kome : les mourants tStaient abandonnos, les cadavres restaient sans 
sepulture. Aussitot qnelques I'lorentins fonnent luie confrerie sous le titre de 
la Pitie, pour rendre aux pestifiires les derniers devoirs de la charite chretiuiuie ; 
c'est a, cette confrerie qu'on doit la l)elle 6glise de Saint-Jean des Florentins, i 
Strada Giulia.' — Gournerie, 'Rome Chrctienne.' 

Recent excavations (Sept. 20, 1890) between the church and the 
bridge laid bare a wall of the eighth century, embedded in which 
were found the remains of an altar of Dis and Proserpine, with 
the now famous inscriptions of the Ludorum Saecularium preserved 
in the Museo delle Terme. The first records the Ludi of 17 B.C., 
under Augustus, the second the Ludi of 204 A.D., under Septimius 
Severus, Caracalla, and Geta. 

1 A scholar of Bronzino. 

2 See Vasarl, vol. vii. 

Ponte S. Angelo 151 

The Ponte S. Angelo is the Pons Aelius of Hadrian,^ built as an 
approach to his mausoleum, and only intended for this, as another 
public bridge existed close by at the time of its construction. It is 
almost entirely ancient except the parapets. Frederick III. dubbed 
a hundred knights on the bridge in 1452, and the conspirators 
against Leo X. were hung on the bridge, June 25, 1517. The statues 
of S. Peter and S. Paul, at the extremity, were erected here by 
Clement VII., in the place of two chapels, in 1530. and the angels 
by Clement IX. in 1688. The statue of S. Paul is the work of Pcudo 
Romaiw, the only Roman sculptor of the first half of the fifteenth 
century. The pedestal of the third angel on the right is a relic of 
the siege of Rome in ISiS, from which it bears the impress of a 

These fluttering angels, which have been called the 'breezy 
maniacs of Bernini,' are only from his designs, with the exception 
of two, which were preserved till quite recently in the church of 
S. Andrea delle Fratte. The idea of Clement IX. was a fine one, 
that 'an avenue of the heavenly host should be assembled to 
welcome the pilgrim to the shrine of the great apostle.' 

Dante saw the bridge of S. Angelo divided lengthways by barriers 
to facilitate the movement of the crowds going to and from S. Peter's 
on the occasion of the first jubilee, 1300 : — 

' Come i Homani per I'esercito molto, 
L' anno del giubbileo, su per lo i)onie 
Hanno a passar la gente modo tolto ; 
Che dair un lato tutti hanno la fronte 
Verso '1 castello, e vanuo a Santo Pietro 
DaU' altra sponda vanno verso 1 monte 

Inferno, svllL 29. 

It was on the bridge that Cecchino, brother of the famous 
Benvenuto Cellini, was mortally wounded in a street fray. Here 
also the famous warrior-cardinal, Giovanni Vitelleschi, was cut 
down by assassins in the employ of Eugenius IV., for whom he had 
won back Rome and the patrimony of S. Peter. 

The mutilation of the Ponte S. Angelo is amongst the worst of 
the changes at Rome. The bridge, with its five equal arches above 
a yellow ditch, has entirely lost its grandeur. 

' Besides having neither noticed nor respected any part of the characteristic 
and noble aspects of the sacred river, the engineers of the Tiber have not known 
how to avail themselves of that mastery of the water-way which Roman monu- 
ments show in the c<ise of bridges. The Bridge of S. Angelo was one of these 
masterpieces : the great central arches were made to keep the ted of the river 
in ordinary times covered with water, and the side arches to give passage to 
Hoods, and thus form an architectural whole, the material result of needs pro- 
vided by the experience of ages.' — ' The Builder,' Sept. 3, 1892. 

From the Ponte S. Angelo, when the Tiber was low, were visible 
the remains of Pons Vaticanus or Ncronianus, begun by Caligula, 
and finished by Nero, by which the ancient Via Triumptialis 
crossed the river. Close by, where Santo Spirito now stands, 

i Dion Cass. xlix. 23. 

152 Walks in Rome 

was the Porta Triumphalis, by which victors entered the city in 

Facing the bridge is the famous Castle of S. Angelo, built by the 
Emperor Hadrian as his family tomb, because the last niche in the 
imperial mausoleum of Augustus was filled when the ashes of Nerva 
were laid there. The first funeral here was that of Aelius Verus, 
the first adopted son of Hadrian, who died before him. The Emperor 
himself died at Baiae, but his remains were transported hither 
from a temporary tomb at Pozzuoli by his successor Antoninus 
Pius, by whom the mausoleum was completed in A.D. 140. Here, 
also, were buried Antoninus Pius, A.D. 161; Marcus Aurelius, A.D. 180; 
Commodus, A.D. 192 ; and Septimius Severus, in an urn of gold 
enclosed in one of alabaster, A.D. 211 ; Caracalla, in A.D. 217, was 
the last Emperor interred here. The well-known lines of Byron : — 

' Turn to the mole which Hadrian rear'd on high, 
Imperial mimic of old Egypt's piles, 
Colossal copyist of deformity, 
Whose travell'd phantasy from the far Nile's 
Enormous model, doom'd the artist's toils 
To build for giants, and for his vain earth, 
His shrunlsen ashes, raise this dome ! How smiles 
The gazer's eye witli philosophic mirth. 
To view the huge design which sprung from such a birth,' 

seem rather applicable to the Pyramid of the so-called tomb of 
Romulus than to this mausoleum. 

The castle, as it now appears, is but the skeleton of the magnifi- 
cent tomb of the emperors. Procopius, writing in the sixth century, 
describes its appearance in bis time. ' It is built, he says, of Parian 
marble ; the square blocks fit closely to each other without any 
cement. It has four equal sides, each a stone's throw in length. 
In height it rises above the walls of the city. On the summit are 
statues of men and horses, of admirable workmanship, in Parian 
marble.' Canina, in his ' Architectura Komaiina,' gives a restoration 
of the mausoleum, which shows how it consisted of three stories : 
(1) a quadrangular basement, the upper part intersected with doric 
pillars, between which were spaces for epitaphs of the dead within, 
and surmounted at the corners by marble equestrian statues ; (2) a 
circular story, with fluted ionic colonnades ; (3) a circular story, 
surrounded by Corinthian columns, between which were statues. 
The whole was surmounted by a pyramidal roof, ending in a bronze 

' The mausoleum which Hadrian erected for himself on the farther bank of the 
Tiber far outshone tlie tomb of Augustus, which it nearly confronted. Of the 
size and dignity whicli characterised this work of Egyptian massiveiiess we may 
gain a concejjtion fi'om tlie existing remains ; but it re<iuires an effort of imagina- 
tion to transform tlie scarred and shapeless bulk before us into the graceful pile 
which rose column upon column, surmounted by a gilded dome of span almost 
unrivalled.' — Merivalc, ch. Ixvi. 

The history of the Mausoleum in the middle ages is almost the 
history of Kome. It was probably first turned into a fortress by 
Honorius, A.D. 423. From Tlieodoric it derives the name of ' Career 

Castle of S. Angelo 153 

Theodorici. ' In 537 it was besieged by Vitiges, when the defending 
garrison, reduced to the last extremity, hurled down all the magni- 
ficent statues which decorated the cornice upon the besiegers. It 
is said that in A.D. 498 Pope Symmachus removed a pigna or bronze 
fir-cone at the apex of the roof to the court of S. Peter's, whence it 
was afterwards transferred to the Giardino della Pigna at the Vati- 
can,^ where it is still to be seen between two bronze peacocks, which 
possibly stood on either side of the entrance.- The colossal head of 
Hadrian's statue, found here, is now in the Museo Pio Clementino. 
The sarcophagus of the Emperor was used as a tomb for Pope 
Innocent II., 1143, and was destroyed in a fire of the Lateran in 
the fourteenth century. Its lid, of Egyptian porphyry, first used 
as a tomb for the Emperor Otho II., is now the font in the Bap- 
tistery of S. Peter's. 

Belisarius defended the castle against Totila, whose Gothic troops 
captured and held it for three years, after which it was taken by 

It was in 530 that the event occurred which gave the building its 
present name. Pope Gregory the Great was leading a penitential 
procession to S. Peter's, in order to offer up prayers for the staying of 
the great pestilence which followed the inundation of 589, when, as 
he was crossing the bridge, even while the people were falling dead 
around him, he looked up at the mausoleum, and saw an angel on its 
summit sheathing a bloody sword,* while a choir of angels around 
chanted with celestial voices the anthem, since adopted by the 
Church in her vesper service — ' Regina coeli, laetare — quia quern 
mei-uisti portare — resurrcxit, sicut dixit, Allduja;' — to which the 
earthly vpice of the Pope solemnly responded, ' Ora pro nobis Deum, 

In the tenth century the fortress was occupied by the infamous 

1 The holes beneath the scales of the pigna, pierced for jets of water, make it. 
unlikely that it was ever other than a fountain. It is shown as the fountain of 
Pope Symmachus in one of the frescoes in S. Martino in Monti. 

- But they are seen as ornaments of the facade of the early Basilica of S. Peter's 
in a Vatican drawing of the ninth centiuy. 

3 It is interesting to observe that the same vision was seen under the same 
circumstances in other periods of history. 

' So the Lord sent pestilence upon Israel, and there fell of Israel seventy thou- 
sand men. And God sent an angel to Jerusalem to destroy it . . . and David 
lifted up his eyes, and saw the angel of the Lord stand between the earth and the 
heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem." — 
1 Chron. ssi. 14-16. 

'Before the plague of London had l)egun (otherwise than in S. Giles), seeing 
a crowd of i)eople in the street, I joined them to satisfy my ciuiosity, and fonnd 
them all staring up into the air, to see what a woman told them appeared plain 
to her. This was an angel clothed in white, with a fiery sword in his hand, 
waving it, or brandishing it over his head : she described every part of the 
figure to the life, and showed them the motion and the form.' — Defoe, 'Hist, of 
the Plagtte.' 

* The pictures at Ara Coeli and S. Maria Maggiore both claim to be that carried 
by S. Gregory in this procession. The song of the angels is annually commemo- 
rated on S. Mark's Day, when the clergy pass by in pnxession to S. Peter's, and 
the Franciscans of Ara Coeli and the canons of S. Maria Maggiore, halting here, 
chant the antiphon, Eeffina coeli, laetare.' 

154 Walks in Rome 

Marozia, who, in turn, brought her three husbands (Alberic, Count 
•f Tusculuin ; Guido, Marquis of Tuscany ; and Hugo, King of Italy) 
thither, to tyrannise with her over Rome. It was within the walls 
of this building that Alberic, her son by her first husband, waiting 
upon his royal stepfather at table, threw a bowl of water over him, 
when Hugo retorted by a blow, which was the signal for an in- 
surrection, the people taking part with Alberic, putting the King to 
flight and imprisoning Marozia. Shut up within these walls. Pope 
John XI. (931-936), son of Marozia by her first husband, ruled under 
the guidance of his stronger- minded brother Alberic; here, also, 
Octavian, son of Alberic, and grandson of Marozia, succeeded in 
forcing his election as John XII. (being the first Pope who took 
a new name), and scandalised Christendom by a life of murder, 
robbery, adultery, and incest. 

In 974 the castle was seized by Cencio (Crescenzio Nomentano), 
the consul, who raised up an anti-pope (Boniface VII.) here, with 
the determination of destroying the temporal power of the Popes, 
and imprisoned and murdered two Popes, Benedict VI. (972) and 
John XIV. (984), within these walls. In 996 another lawful Pope, 
Gregory V., calling in the Emperor Otho to his assistance, took the 
castle, and beheaded Cencio, though he had promised him life if he 
would surrender. From this governor the fortress long held the 
name of Castello de Crescenzio, or Turris Crescentii, by which it 
is described in mediaeval writings. A second Cencio supported 
another anti-pope, Cadolaus, here in 1063 against Pope Alexander II. 
A third Cencio imprisoned Gregory VII. here in 1084. From this 
time the possession of the castle was a constant point of contest 
between popes and anti-popes. In 1313 Arlotto degli St^aneschi, 
having demolished most of the other towers in the city, arranged 
the same fate for S. Angelo, but it was saved by cession to the 
Orsini. It was from hence, on December 15, 1347, that Rienzi 
fled to Bohemia, at the end of his first period of power, his wife 
having previously made her escape disguised as a friar. 

' The cause of final ruin to this monument ' is described by Nibby 
to have been the resentment of the citizens against a French 
governor who espoused the cause of the anti-pope (Clement VII.) 
against Urban VI. in 1378. It was then that the marble casings 
were all torn from the walls and used as street pavements. 

A drawing of Sangallo of 1465 shows the ' upper part of the 
fortress crowned with high square towers and turreted buildings ; 
a cincture of bastions and massive square towers girding the 
whole ; two square-built bulwarks flanking the extremity of the 
bridge, which was then so connected with these outworks that 
passengers would have immediately found themselves inside the 
fortress after crossing the river. Marlianus, 1588, describes its 
double cincture of fortifications — a large round tower at the inner 
extremity of the bridge ; two towers with high pinnacles, and the 
cross on their summits, the river flowing all around.^ 

1 llemans' Story of Mmiuments in Jiottie. 

Castle of S. Angelo 155 

The castle began to assnine its present aspect under Boniface IX. 
in 1395. John XXIII., 1411, commenced the covered way to 
the Vatican, which was finished by Alexander VI., and roofed by 
Urban VIII. in 1630. By the last-named Pope the great outworks 
of the fortress were built under Bernini, and furnished with cannon 
made from the bronze roof of the Pantheon. Under Paul III. the 
interior was decorated with frescoes, and a colossal marble angel 
erected on the summit, in the place of a chapel (S. Angelo inter 
Nubes) built by Boniface IV. The marble angel was exchanged by 
Benedict XIV. for the existing angel of bronze, by a Dutch artist, 

'Paul HL, voulant justifler le nom donn^ a cette forteresse, fit placer au 
sommet de I'ediflce une statue de marbre, representant nn ange tenant a la main 
nne epee nne. Cet onvrage de Eaphael de ilontelupo a ete remplace, du temjis 
de Benoit XIY., par une statue de bronze qui foumit cette belle rejwnse a un 
offlcier fran^ais assise dans le fort: " Je me rendrai qnand I'ange remettra son 
epee dans le fourreau." 

' . . . Cet ange a I'air naif d'une jenne flUe de dix-huit ans, et ne cherche qa'k 
bien remettre son ep^ dans le fourreau." — Stendhal, i. 33. 

' I suppose no one ever looked at this statue critically — at least, for myself, 
I never could ; nor can I remember now whether, as a work of art, it is above 
or below criticism ; perhaps both. With its vast wings, i)oised in air, as seen 
against the deep blue skies of Kome, or lighted up by Uie golden sunset, to me 
it was ever like what it was intended to represent— like a vision.' — Jameton't 
'Saered Art,' p. 98. 

Of the castle, as we now see it externally, only the qnadrangnlar 
basement and the lower part of the round tower are of the time of 
Hadrian ; the upper part was added by Paul III. The four round 
towers of the outworks, called after the four Evangelists, were of 
Nicholas V., 1447. The noble outer bastions of the castle, which, 
with their solitary cypress, were famiUar in all views of S. Angelo, 
were partly demolished in 1887 to make an approach to some of 
the frightful streets of modern Rome. In the spring of 1890 
all Europe united in interceding that the interesting tower of 
Nicholas V. facing the river might be spared, and that S. Angelo 
might still abut upon the river as one of the few remaining orna- 
ments of the city ; but remonstrance was in vain ; the road along the 
Tiber was driven in front of the castle, and the poetry, beauty, and 
interest of S. Angelo were destroyed for ever. 

The interior of the fortress can be visited daily from 9-11 and 1-3 
with a permission, given at the office of the Commandant, 24 Via 
della PUotta.^ Excavations made in 1825 have laid open the sepul- 
chral chamber in the midst of the basement. Here stood, in the 
centre, the porphyry sarcophagus of Hadrian, which was stolen by 
Pope Innocent II. to be used as his own tomb in the Lateran, where 
it was destroyed by the fire of 1360, the cover alone escaping, which 
was used for the tomb of Otho II. in the atrium of S. Peters, and 
which, after filling this oflice for seven centuries, is now the baptismal 

1 An order lor S. Angelo may usually be obtained at the hotels. 

156 Walks in Rome 

font of that basilica. A spiral passage, thirty feet high and eleven 
wide, up which a chariot could be driven, gradually ascends through 
the solid mass of masonry. There is wonderfully little to be seen 
except the saloon of the time of Paul III. , designed by Raffaello da 
Montelupo and Antonio da Sangallo, adorned with frescoes of the 
life of Alexander the Great, and other decorations by Pierino del 
Vaga, Marco da Siena, and Giulio Romano. This room would have 
been used by the Popes in case of their having had to take refuge 
in S. Angelo. An adjoining room, adorned with a stucco frieze of 
Tritons and Nereids, is that in which Cardinal Carafia was strangled ^ 
(1561) under Pius IV., for alleged abuses of authority under his uncle, 
Paul IV. — his brother, the Marquis Caraffa, being beheaded in the 
castle the same night. The reputed prison of Beatrice Cenci is 
shown, but it is very uncertain that she was ever confined here ; 
also the prison of Cagliostro, and that of Benvenuto Cellini, who 
escaped, and broke his leg in trying to let himself down by a rope 
from the ramparts. The statue of the angel by Montelupo is to be seen 
stowed away in a dark corner. Several horrible fraioccAeite (oubliettes) 
are shown. 

On the roof, from which there is a beautiful view, are many 
modern prisons, where prisoners suffer terribly from the summer 
sun beating upon their flat roofs. 

Among the sculptures found here were the Barberini Faun, now 
at Munich ; the Dancing Faun, at Florence ; and the bust of 
Hadrian, at the Vatican. The sepulchral inscriptions of the 
Antonines existed till 1572, when they were cut up by Gregory XIII. 
(Buoncompagni), and the marble used to decorate a chapel in 
S. Peter's ! The magnificent Easter display of fireworks (from an 
idea of Michelangelo, carried out by Bernini), called the girandola, 
is exhibited here. From 1849 to 1870 the castle was occupied by 
French troops, and their banner floated here, except on great 
festivals, when it was exchanged for that of the Pope. Nothing 
remains of the Circus of Hadrian, which lay to the north-west of 
the mausoleum. 

Punning behind, and crossing the back streets of the Borgo, in 
the walls of Leo IV. is the covered passage — Corridojo di Castcllo 
— intended for the escape of the Popes to the castle. It was used 
by Alexander VI. when invaded by Charles VIII. in 1494, and twice 
by Clement VII. (Giulio de' Medici), who fled in 1529 from Mon- 
cada, viceroy of Naples, and in May 1527, during the terrible sack 
of Rome by the troops of the Constable de Bourbon. 

' Pendant que Ton se Itattait, Clement VII. d-tait en priures devant I'autel de 
sa chapelle an Vatican, detail singidier chez iin lioninie qui avait coinmencti sa 
carriere par Otre niilitaire. Lorscjue le.s oris des mourants lui annonccrent la 
prise de la ville, il s'enfuit du A'atican au chateau S. Ange par le lonf; corridor 
qui s'eleve au-dessus des plus hautes maisons. L'historien Paul-Jove, ((ui 
suivait Cl<iment VII., relevait sa longue robe poui' qu'il put marcher plus vite, 

1 The execution of this cardinal was the single violation of the law (of 1434) 
that no legal prosecution should be instituted against any cardinal, even by the 
Pope, without the consent and assistance of all the rest. 

The Borgo 157 

et lorsqne le pape fut arriT^ an pont qni le laissait i decoavert pour nn instant, 
PauW^ove le couvrit de son manteau et de son chapean violet, de peur qu'il ne 
fut reconnu a son rochet blanc et ajuste par quelque soldat bon tireor. 

' Pendant cette longne fuite le long du corridor, Clement VTL apercevait au- 
dessons de lui, par las petifces fenetres, ses snj%ts pouisnivis pai lea soldats vain- 
qneoTS qui deja se repandaient dans les mes. Us ne faisaient aucnn quartier k 
personne, et tnaient i coups de pique tout ce qu'Us jwuvaient atteindre.' — 
Stendhal, L 388. 

' The Escape ' consists of two passages ; the upper open like a 
loggia, the lower covered, and only lighted by loopholes. The keys 
of both were kept by the Pope himself. 

Near this, in May 1889, was discovered the tomb of Crepereia 
Tryphaena, containing her skeleton, the myrtle wreath on her 
brow, and her engagement ring and its inscription, indicating that 
she died on the eve of her marriage to one Philetns. With her 
jewels was her favourite doU, which, according to the custom of 
young ladies of the time of the Antonines, would have been 
offered to Venus or Diana on her wedding-day. 

S. Angelo is at the entrance of the Borgo, falsely promised at the 
Italian invasion of September 1870 as the sanctuary of the Papacy, 
the tiny sovereignty where the temporal sway of the Popes should 
remain undisturbed! The Borgo Civitas Leoniana, or the Leonine 
City, called ' S. Peter's Porch ' in the Middle Ages, is surrounded by 
walls of its own, which were begun in A.D. 846 by Pope Leo IV., for 
the better defence of S. Peter's from the Saracens, who had been 
carrying their devastations up to the very walls of Rome, and had 
caused the death of Pope Sergius II., from his grief at their destruc- 
tion of the Constantinian basilicas of S. Pet«r and S. Paul. These 
walls, 10,800 feet in circumference, were completed in four years by 
labourers summoned from every town and monastery of the Roman 
states. Pope Leo himself daily encouraged their exertions by his 
presence. In 852 the walls were solemnly consecrated by a vast 
procession of the whole Roman clergy barefooted, their heads strewn 
with ashes, who sprinkled them with holy water, while the Pope 
offered a prayer composed by himself ^ at each of the three gates. 

The Piazza Pia, at the entrance of the Borgo, is decorated with a 
fountain erected by Pius IX. The principal of the streets which 
meet here is the Via del Borgo Nuovo, the main artery to S. Peter's. 
On its right is the Church of S. Maria Traspontiiia, buUt 1566, con- 
taining two columns which bear inscriptions stating that they were 
those to which S. Peter and S. Paul were respectively attached when 
they suffered flagellation by order of Nero ! 

This church occupies the site of the Pyramid — Meta di Borgo — 
supposed to have been erected to Scipio Africanus, who died at 
Litemum, B.C. 183, and which was regarded in the Middle Ages as 

1 'Dens, qni apostolo tno Petro coUatis clavibus regni coelestis ligandi et 
solvendi pontiflcium tradidisti, concede ut intercessionis ejus auxilio a pecca- 
tonnn noetromm legibns liberemur : et banc civitatem, qiiam te adjuvante fun- 
davimns, iac ab ira tua in i>erpetnnm permanere securam, et de hostibus, quorum 
cansa conatracta est, novos et mnltipUcatos babere triom^os, per Dcnninam 
nostmm,' &c 

158 Walks in Rome 

the tomb of Romulus. Its sides were once coated with marble, 
which was stripped off by Bonus I. This pyramid is mentioned 
by Petrarch as ' Memoria Romuli ' in one of his Epistles. It was 
destroyed by Alexander VI. in 1495. 

Close by was a circular structure of marble called the Terebinth of 
Nero, destroyed by Pope Bonus when building the portico of S. 

A little farther is the Palazzo Giraud, now belonging to Prince 
Torlonia. It was built by Bramante for Cardinal Adriano da Cor- 
neto,i and was given in 1504 by Cardinal Castellari to Henry VII. of 
England. Henry VIII. gave it to Cardinal Campeggio, when it 
became for a short time the residence of the English ambassador 
before the Reformation. Innocent XII. converted it into a college 
for priests, by whom it was sold to the Marquis Giraud. 

Facing this palace is the Piazza Scossa Cavalli, with a pretty 
fountain. Its name bears witness to a curious legend, which tells 
how when S. Helena returned from Palestine, bringing with her the 
stone on which Abraham was about to sacrifice Isaac, and that on 
which the Virgin Mary sate down at the time of the presentation of 
the Saviour in the Temple, the horses drawing these precious relics 
stood still at this spot, and refused every effort to make them move. 
Then christian people, 'recognising the finger of God,' erected a 
church on this spot — S. Giacomo Scossa Cavalli — where the stones 
are still to be seen. 

The Strada del Borgo Santo Spirito contains the immense Hospital 
of Santo Spirito, running along the bank of the Tiber. The name 
Santo Spirito in Sassia commemorates the hospice of the Anglo- 
Saxon pilgrims who occupied what was then called the Burgos 
Saxonum. This establishment was founded in 1198 by Innocent III. 
Sixtus IV., in 1471, ordered it to be rebuilt by Baccio Pintelli, who 
added a hall 376 feet long by 44 high and 37 wide. The octagonal 
cupola is one of the best works executed under Sixtus, whose life 
is represented in decaying frescoes in the hall. These works, of 
earlier date than the great introduction of Italian artists for the 
Sistine Chapel, are of great interest, especially the fresco which 
represents the Pope giving a dowry to his adopted daughter Sophia 
Palaeologus on her marriage with the Czar Ivan of Russia. Under 
Benedict XIV., Ferdinando Fuga built another great hall. The altar 
in the midst of the great hall is the only work of Andrea Palladio in 
Rome. The church was designed by IBaccio Pintelli, but built by 
Antonio di San Gallo under Paul III. Under Gregory XIII. Ottaviano 
Mascherino built the palace of the governor which unites the hospital 
with the church. The Anglo-Saxon kings Ina and Burrhed of 
Mercia, and Aethelburga, queen of the former, dying at Rome, 
were buried here. 

The institution comprises a hospital for every kind of disease, con- 
taining in ordinary times 1620 beds, a number which can be almost 

1 The same whom Alexander VI. had intended to poison when he poisoned 
himself instead. 

ObeUsk of S. Peter's 159 

doubled in time of necessity ; a lunatic asylum containing an average 
of 450 inmates ; and a foundling hospital. Upwards of 3000 found- 
lings pass through the hospital annually. The person who wishes to 
deposit an infant rings a bell, when a little bed is turned towards the 
grille near the door, in which the baby is deposited. Close to this 
is another grille, without any apparent use. ' What is that for ? ' you 
ask. ' Because when nurses come in from the country they might 
be tempted to take the children for money, and yet not feel any 
natural tenderness towards them ; but by looking through the second 
grille they can see the child, and discover if it is simpatieo, and if 
not, they can go away and leave it.' 

At the end of the street one enters the Piazza Rnsticncci (where 
Raffaelle died), from which, in this remotest corner of the city, open 
the magnificent colonnades of Bernini, leading the eye up to the facade 
of S. Peter's, while the middle distance is broken by the silver spray 
of its glittering fountains. The whole external effect of S. Peter's 
depends upon the sudden entrance into the sunlit piazza from the 
gloomy street ; yet it is proposed (1896) to demolish the whole central 
block of buildings between the church and the Ponte S. Angelo ! 

' The piazza, with Bernini's colonnades, and the gradual slope upwards to the 
mighty temple, gave me always a sense of having entered some millennial new 
Jerusiilem, where aU small or shabby things were unknown.' — George Eliot, 1860. 

The Colonnades have 284 columns, are sixty-one feet wide and 
sixty-four high ; they enclose an area of 777 English feet ; they were 
built by Bernini for Alexander VII.. 1657-67. In the centre is the 
famous red granite Obelisk of the Vatican, brought to Rome from 
Heliopolis by Caligula, in a ship which Pliny describes as being 
' nearly as long as the left side of the port of Ostia .' It was used to 
adorn the Circus of Nero, and is therefore of unrivalled interest. 

' On the left of the Via Cornelia was a circus, begun by Calignla, and finished 
by Nero. Tliis circus was the scene of the first snSferings of the Christians, de- 
scribed by Tacitus in the well-known passage of the " Annals," xv. 45. Some of 
the Christians were covered with the skins of wild beasts, so that savage Aogs 
might tear them to pieces ; others were l)esmeared with tar and tallow, and 
burnt at the stake ; others were crucified, while Xero in the attire of a vulgar 
auriga ran his races around the goals. This took place A.D. 65. Two years later 
S. Peter, the leader of the Christians, shared the same fate at the same place. 
He was affixed to a cross like the others, and we know exactly where. A tradi- 
tion current in Rome from time immemorial says S. Peter was executed inter 
duag metag (between the two metae). that is, in the gpiiia or middle line of Jf ero's 
circus, at an equal distance from the two end goals ; in other words, he was 
executed at the foot of the obelisk which now towers in front of his great 
chiuch. For many centuries after the peace of Constantine, the exact spot of 
S. Peter's execution was marked by a chapel called the chapel of the ' ' Crucifixion. " 
The meaning of the name, and its origin, as well as the topographical details 
connected with the event, were lost in the darkness of the Middle Ages. The 
memorial chapel lost its identity and was Ijelieved to belong to "Him who was 
crucified," that is, to Christ Himself. It disappeared seven or eight centuries 
ago.' — Lanciani. 

' S. Peter, when he was come to the place of execution, requested of the 
officers that he might be crucified with his head downwards, alleging that he 
was not worthy to suffer in the same manner his Divine Master had died before 
him. He had preached the cross of Christ, had borne it in his heart, and its 

160 Walks in Rome 

marks in his body, by sufferings and mortification, and he had the happiness to 
end his life on the cross. The Lord was pleased, not only that he should die for 
His love, but in the same manner Himself had died for us, by expiring on 
the cross, which was the throne of His love. Only the apostle's humility 
made a difference, in desiring to l)e crucified with his head downward. His 
Master looked towards heaven, which by His death He opened to men : but he 
judged tliat a sinner formed from dust, and going to return to dust, ought rather 
in confusion to look on the earth, as unworthy to raise his eyes to heaven. 
S. Ambrose, S. Austin, and S. Prudentius ascribe this his petition partly to his 
humility, and partly to his desire of suffering more for Clirist. Seneca mentions 
that the Romans sometimes crucified men witli their heads downward ; and 
Eusebius testifies that several martyrs were put to that cruel death. Accordingly, 
the executioners easily granted the apostle his extraordinary request. S. Chi-y- 
sostom, S. Austin, and S. Austerius, say that he was nailed to the cross ; 
Tertullian mentions that he was tied with cords. He was probably both nailed 
and bound with ropes.' — Alban Butler. 

The obelisk itself was brought from a position near the present 
sacristy of S. Peter's by Sixtus V. in 1586. It was elevated here 
by Domenico Fontana, who estimated its weight at 963,537 Roman 
pounds, and employed 800 men, 150 horses, and 46 cranes in its 

The obelisk was first exorcised as a pagan idol, and then dedicated 
to the Cross, Its removal was preceded by high mass in S. Peter's, 
after which Pope Sixtus bestowed a solemn benediction upon Fontana 
and his workmen, and ordered that none should speak, upon pain of 
death, during the raising of the obelisk. The immense mass was slowly 
rising upon its base when suddenly it ceased to move, and it was 
evident that the ropes were giving way. An awful moment of sus- 
pense ensued, when the breathless silence was broken by a cry of 
' Acqua alle f uni ! ' {throw water on the ropes), and the workmen, acting 
on the advice so unexpectedly received, again saw the monster move, 
and gradually settle on its base. The man who saved the obelisk 
was Bresca, a sailor of Bordighera, a village of the Riviera di Ponente, 
and Sixtus V., in his gratitude, promised him that his native village 
should ever thenceforth have the privilege of furnishing the Easter 
palms to S. Peter's. A vessel laden with palm-branches, which 
abound in Bordighera, was, while the Papal power lasted, annually 
sent to the Tiber in the week before Palm Sunday, and the palms, 
after being prepared and plaited by the nuns of S. Antonio Abbate, 
were used in the ceremonial in S. Peter's. The obelisk was formerly 
called ' S. Peter's Needle' — 'aguglia S. Petri.' 

The height of the whole obelisk is 132 feet, that of the shaft 
83 feet. Upon the shaft is the inscription to Augustus and Tiberius : 
— AUGUSTA. SACRUM.' The inscriptions on the base show its modern 
dedication to the Cross ^ — 'Ecce Crux Domini— Fugite partes ad- 
versae — Vicit Leo de tribu Juda.' 

' Sixte-Quint s'applaudissait du succfes, comme de I'oDUvre la plus gigantesque 
des temps niodernes ; des midailles fiU'eut frappdes ; Fontana fut cr66 noble 

1 At the time of its erection, Sixtus V. conceded an indulgence of ten years to 
all who, passing beneath the obelisk, should adore the cross on its summit, 
repeating a ' Paternoster.' 

The Piazza S. Pietro 161 

romain, chevalier de I'Eperon d'or, et re^ut une gratification de 5000 ^us, ind^- 
pendamment des materiaux qui avaient servi a I'entreprise, et dont la valeur 
s'elevait a 20,000 ecus (108,000 fr.) ; entin des poemes, dans toutes les langues, sur 
ce nouveau triomphe de la croix, fui-ent adresses aux ditfereuts souverains de 
I'Europe.' — Gounierie, 'Rome Chretienne,' ii. 232. 

' In summer the great square basks Ln unalluring magnificence in the midday 
sun. Its tall obelisk sends but a slim shadow to travel round the oval plane, 
like the gnomon of a huge dial ; its fountains murmur with a delicious dreami- 
ness, sending up massive jets like blocks of crystal into the hot sunshine, and 
receiving back a broken spray, on which sits serene an unbroken iris, but present 
no " cool grot," where one may enjoy their freshness ; and, in spite of the shorter 
path, the pilgrim looks with dismay at the dazzling pavement and long flight of 
unsheltered stei)s between him and the church, and prudently plunges into the 
forest of columns at either side of the piazza, and threads his way through their 
uniting shadows, intended, as an inscription i tells him, for this express purpose. 
—Cardinal Wimman. 

'Un jour Pie V. traversait, avec I'ambassadeur de Pologne, cette place du 
Vatican. Pris d'enthousiasme au souvenir du courage des martyrs qui I'ont 
arrosee de leurs larmes, et fertUisee par leur sang, il se baisse, et saisissant dans 
sa main ime poignee de poussiere : " Tenez," dit-il au representant tie cecte noble 
nation, "prenez cette poussiere formee de la cendre des saints, et impregnee du 
sang des martyrs." 

' L'ambassadeur ne portait pas dans son cceur la foi d'un pape, ni dans son ame 
les illuminations d'un saint ; U re<;ut pourtaut avec respect cette relique etrange 
a ses yeux : mais revenu en son palais, retirant, d'une main indifferente peut- 
etre, le linge qui la contenait, U le trouva ensanglante. 

' La poussiere avait disparu. La foi du pontife avait evoque le sang des 
martyrs, et ce sang gen^reux reparaissait a cet appel pour attester, en face de 
I'heresie, que I'Eglise romaine, au xvi« siecle, etait toujours celle pour laquelle 
ces heros avaient donne leur vie sous >'eron.' — Une Chretienne a Rome. 

In the Jubilee of 1500, Cesare Borgia, son of the reigning Pope, 
Alexander VI., enclosed the piazza as a bull-ring, and slew six bulls 
there — Spanish fashion— with his own hand. 

No one can look upon the Piazza of S. Peter's without associating 
it with the great religious ceremonies with which it has been con- 
nected, especially that of the Easter Benediction, 

' Out over the great balcony stretches a white awning, where priests and at- 
tendants are collected, and where the Pope will soon be seen. Below, the piazza 
is alive with moving masses. In the centre are drawn up long lines of soldiery, 
with yellow and red pompons, and glittering helmets and bayonets. These are 
surrounded by crowds on foot, and at the outer rim are packed carriages filled 
and overrun with people, mounted on the seats and boxes, \yhat a sight it is I — 
above us the great dome of S. Peter's, and below, the grand embracing colonnade, 
and the vast space, in the centre of which rises the solemn obelisk thronged with 
masses of living beings. Peasants from the Campagna and the mountains are 
moving ab<jut everywhere. Pilgi'ims in oU-cloth cape and with iron staff demand 
charity. On the steps are rows of purple, blue, and brown umbrellas, for there 
the sun blazes fiercely. Everywhere crop forth the white hoods of Sisters of 
Charity, collected in groups, and showing, among the parti-coloured dresses, like 
beds of chrysanthemums in a garden. One side of the massive colonnade easts 
a grateful shadow over the crowd beneath, that fill up the intervals of its columns ; 
but elsewhere the sun bums down and flashes everywhere. Mounted on the 
colonnade are crowds of i)eople leaning over, beside the colossal statues. Through 
all the heat is heard the constant plash of the simlit fountains, that wave to and 
fro then- veUs of white spray. At last the cl(x;k strikes. In the far balcony are 
seen the two great showy peacock fans, and between them a figure clad in white, 

1 The inscription is from Isaiah iv. 6 : 'A tabernacle for a shade in the day- 
time from the heat, and a seciuity and covert from the whirlwind and from the 

VOL. n. L 

162 Walks in Rome 

that rises from a golden chair, and spreads his great sleeves like wings as he raises 
his arms in benediction. That is the Pope, Pius the Ninth. All is dead silence, 
and a musical voice, sweet and penetrating, is heard chanting from the balcony ; 
the people bend and kneel ; with a cold grey flash, all the bayonets gleam as the 
soldiers drop to their knees, and rise to salute as the voice dies away, and the two 
white wings are again waved ;— then thunder the cannon— the bells clash and 
peal— a few white papers, like huge snowflakes, drop wavering from the Ijalcony ; 
— these are Indulgences, and there is an eager struggle for them below ;— then 
the Pope again rises, again gives his l)enediction,i waving to and fro his right 
hand, three fingers open, and making the sign of the cross— and the peacock fans 
retire, and he between them is borne away— and Lent is over.' — Stoiy's 'Roba di 

The first church which existed on or near the site of the present 
building was the oratory founded on the Via Cornelia in A.D. 90 by 
Anacletus, Bishop of Rome, who is said to have been ordained by 
S. Peter himself, and who thus marked the spot where many chris- 
tian martyrs had suffered in the Circus of Nero, and where S. Peter 
was buried after his crucifixion. 

' For the archaeologist the presence and execution of SS. Peter and Paul in 
Rome are facts established beyond a shadow of doubt by purely mon\miental 
evidence. There was a time when persons belonging to different creeds made it 
almost a case of conscience to affirm or deny a priori those facts, according to 
their acceptance or rejection of the tradition of any particular Church. This state 
of feeling is a matter of the past, at least for those who have followed the progress 
of recent discoveries and of critical literature.' — Lanciani. 

In 324 Constantine the Great yielded to the request of Pope 
Sylvester, and began the erection of a basilica on this spot, labouring 
with his own hands at the work, and himself carrying away twelve 
basket-loads of earth, in honour of the twelve apostles.^ Anastasius 
describes how the body of the great apostle was exhumed at this 
time, and re-interred in a shrine of silver, enclosed in a sarcophagus 
of gilt bronze. The early basilica measured 395 feet in length by 
212 in width. Its naves and aisles were divided by eighty-six 
marble pillars of different sizes, in great part brought from the 
Septizonium of Severus, and it had an atrium, and a paradisus, or 
quadrangular portico, along its front.^ Though only half the size 
of the present cathedral, still it covered a greater space than any 

1 It may not be uninteresting to give the actual words of the benediction : — 

' May the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, in whose power and dominion we trust, 
pray for us to the Lord ! Amen. 

' Through the prayers and merits of the blessed Mary, ever Virgin, of the 
blessed Archangel Michael, the blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter 
and Paul, and all saints— may the Almighty God have mercy upon you, may your 
sins be forgiven you, and may Jesus Christ lead you to eternal life. Amen. 

' Indulgence, absolution, and forgiveness of all sins — time for true repentance, 
a continual penitent heart and amendment of life— may the Almighty and merciful 
God grant you these ! Amen. 

'And may the blessing of Almighty God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, descend 
upon you, and remain with you for ever. Amen.' 

2 ' Exuens se chlamyde, et accipiens bidentem, ipse primus terram aperuit ad 
fundamenta basilicae Sancti Petri eonstruenda ; delude, in numero duodecim 
apostolorum, duodecim cophinos plenos suis humeris superimpositos bajulans, de 
eo loco, ubi fundamenta basilicae Apostoli erant jacienda.' — Cod. Vat. Santa 
Caeeil. 7-2. 

3 The fa<;ade of the old basilica is seen in Rjiffaelle's fresco of the Incendio del 
Borgo, and its interior in that of the Coronation of Charlemagne. 

The Building of S. Peter's 163 

mediaeval cathedral except those of Milan and Seville, with which 
it ranked in size.^ 

The old basilica suffered severely in the Saracenic invasion of 
846, when some authorities maintain that even the tomb of the great 
apostle was rifled of its contents ; but it was restored by Leo IV., who 
raised the fortifications of the Borgo for its defence. On its south 
side were two small round churches, S. PetronUla and S. Maria deUa 
Febbre. To the former the relics of the legendary daughter of S. Peter 
were brought from the Via Ardeatina, and the Emperors Honorius 
(423), his wife Maria, and Theodosius II. (451) were buried there. 

Among the most remarkable of its early filgrims were Theodosius, 
who came to pray for a victory over Eugenius; Valentinian, emperor 
of the East, with his wife Eudoxia, and his mother Galla Placidia ; 
Belisarius, the great general under Justinian ; Totila ; Caedwalla, 
king of the West Saxons, who came for baptism, and died immedi- 
ately afterwards — 'candidus inter oves Christi;' Cenred, king of 
the Mercians, who came to remain as a monk, having cut off and 
consecrated his long hair at the tomb of S. Peter ; Luitprand, king 
of the Lombards ; Ina of Wessex, who founded a church here in 
honour of the Virgin, that Anglo-Saxons might have a place of 
prayer, and those who died a grave ; Carloman of France, who came 
for absolution and remained as a monk, first at S. Oreste (Soracte), 
then at Monte Cassino ; Richard of England ; Bertrade, wife of 
Pepin, and mother of Charlemagne ; Offa, the Saxon, who made his 
kingdom tributary to S. Peter ; Charlemagne (four times), who was 
crowned here by Leo III. ; Lothaire, crowned by Paschal I. ; and, in 
the last year of the reign of Leo IV. , Ethelwolf , king of the Anglo- 
Saxons, who was crowned here, remaining a year, and who brought 
with him his boy of six years old, afterwards the great Alfred. 

Of the old basilica, the crypt is now the only remnant, and there 
are collected the few relics preserved of the endless works of art 
with which the church was filled, and which for the most part were 
lost or wilfully destroyed when it was pulled down. Its destruction 
was first planned by Nicholas V. (1450), but was not carried out till 
the time of Julius II. 

' Men may praise at the present day the magnificence of S. Peter's ; they forget 
what was destroyed to make room for it No more wanton or barbarous act of 
destruction was ever deliberately committed ; no bishop was ever so untrue as was 
Julius II. to his duty as keeper of the fabric of his church. The chiu-ch which he 
strove to raise never met with the reverence which had been paid to the venerable 
building which he overthrew ; it was never to be the great central church of the 
Germanic peoples.' — Creighton. 

In 1506 Julius II. began the new S. Peter's from designs of Bra- 
mante, whose plans and theories influenced the designs of all the 
succeeding architects of the church.'- The four great piers and 
their arches above were completed before the deaths of both 
Bramante and Pope Julius interrupted the work. The next Pope, 

1 See Fergusson's Haiuibook of Architecture, vol. ii. 

2 See ProjeU Primiti/s pour la Basilique de S. Pierre, \)ai Le Bon Henry de 
Gaym tiller. 

164 Walks in Rome 

Leo X., obtained a design for a church in the form of a Latin cross 
from Eaffaelle, which was changed after his death (on account of 
expense) to a Greek cross by Ealdassare Peruzzi, who only lived 
to complete the tribune. Paul IlL (1534) employed Antonio di 
Sangallo as an architect, who returned to the design of a Latin 
cross, but died before he could carry out any of his intentions. 
Giulio Komano succeeded him, and died also. Then the Pope, 
'being inspired by God,' says Vasari, sent for Michelangelo, then in 
his seventy-second year, who continued the work under Julius IIL, 
returning to the plan of a Greek cross, enlarging the tribune and 
transepts, and beginning the dome on a new plan, which he said 
would 'raise the Pantheon in the air.' The dome designed by 
Michelangelo, however, was very different to that which we now 
admire, being much lower, flatter, and heavier. The present dome 
is due to Giacomo della Porta, who brought the great work to a 
conclusion in 1590, under Sixtus V., who devoted 100,000 gold 
crowns annually to the building. In 1605 Paul V. destroyed all 
that remained of the old basilica, and employed Carlo Maderno as 
his architect, who once more returned to the plan of the Latin 
cross, and completed the present ugly fa9ade in 1614. The church 
was dedicated by Urban VIIL, 18th November 1626 ; the colon- 
nade added by Alexander VII., 1667, the sacristy by Pius VI., in 
1780. The building of the present S. Peter's extended altogether 
over 176 years, and its expenses were so great that Julius II. and 
Leo X. were obliged to meet them by the sale of indulgences, 
which led to the Keformation. The expense of the main building 
alone has been estimated at £10,000,000. The annual expense of 
repairs is £6300. 

' The rebuilding of S. Peter's alone, from the pontificate of Martin V. to that 
of Pius VII., caused more destruction, did more injury to ancient classic re- 
mains, than ten centuries of so-called barbarism. Of the huge and almost in- 
credible mass of marbles, of every natiu-e, colour, value, and description, used 
in building S. Peter's, until the beginning of the nineteenth centui-y, not an 
inch, not an atom (except in the case of a few columns of cottanello) comes from 
modem quarries ; they were all removed from classic buildings, many of which 
were levelled to the ground for the sake of one or two pieces only.'— Lanciani, 
' Ancient Home.' 

' S. Pierre est une sorte de ville ii part dans Rome, ayant son climat, sa tem- 
perature propre, sa lumiere trop vive pour etre religieuse, tantot deserte, tantot 
travers6e par des soci^tes de voyageurs, ou remplie d'une foule attirie par les 
ceremonies religieuses (a I'epoque des jubiles le nombre des pelerins s'est parfois 
(ilev6, a Rome, jusqu'ii 400,000). EUe a ses reservoirs d'eau, sa fontaine coulant 
perpetuellement au pied de la graiide coupole, dans uu liassin de plomb, pour la 
commodite des travaux ; ses rampes, par lesquelles les betes de sonmie peuvent 
monter ; sa population fixe, liabitant ses terrasses. Les San Pietrini, ouvriers 
charges de tous les travaux qu'exige la conservation d'un aussi precieux ddiflce, 
s'y succedent de pere en flls, et forment une corporation qui a ses lois et sa 
police.'—^. Du Pays. 

The fagade of S. Peter's is 357 feet long and 144 feet high. It is 
surmounted by a balustrade six feet in height, bearing statues of 
the Saviour and the Twelve Apostles. Over the central entrance is 
the loggia where the Pope is crowned, and whence he gives the 
Easter Benediction. The huge inscription runs — ' In . Honorem . 

The Navicella 165 

Principis . Apost. . Paulus V . Burghesius . Romanus . Pont. . 
Max. . A . MDCXII . Pont. VII.' 

The amount of space which Paul V. occupies in the inscription gave rise to 
the pasquinade : — 

' Angulus est Petri, Pauli frons tota. Quid inde 1 
Non Petri, Paulo stat fabricata domus.' 

' I don't like to say the facade of the church is ugly and obtrusive. As long 
as the dome overawes, that facade is supportable. You advance towards it 
through— oh, such a noble court ! with fountains flashing up to meet the sun- 
beams ; and right and left of you two sweeping half-crescents of great columns ; 
but you pass by the courtiers and up to the steps of the throne, and the dome 
seelns to disappear behind it. It is as if the throne were upset, and the king had 
toppled oyer.'— Thackeray, 'The Neiccomes.' 

A wide flight of steps leads by five entrances to the Vestibule, 
which is 468 feet loDg, 66 feet high, and 50 feet wide. At its foot 
are statues of S. Peter by De Fabius, and S. Paul by Tadolini. 

' There is no doubt that the likenesses of SS. Peter and Paul have been carefully 
preserved in Rome ever since their lifetime, and that they were familiar to every 
one, even to school-children. These portraits have come down to us by scores. 
They are painted in the eubiculi of the catacombs, engravetl in gold leaf in the 
socalletl retri cemeteriali, cast in bronze, hammered in silver or copper, and 
designed in mosaic. Tlie type never varies— S. Peter's face is full and strong, 
with short curly hair and beard, while S. Paul appears more wiry and thin, 
slightly bald, with a long pointed beard. The antiiiuity and the genuineness 
of both types cannot be doubted.' — Laneiani. 

Closing the vestibule on the right is a statue of Constantino by 
Beimini, on the left that of Charlemagne by Cornacchini. Over the 
principal entrance (facing the door of the church) is the celebrated 
Mosaic of the Navicella, executed in 1298 by Giotto and his pupU, 

Pietro Cavallini. 

' For the ancient basilica of S. Peter, Giotto executed his celebrated mosaic of 
the Xaricella, which has an allegorical foundation. It represents a ship, with 
the disciples, on an agitated sea ; the winds, personified as demons, storm 
against it ; above appear the Fathers of the Old Testament speaking comfort to 
the sufferers. According to the early christian symbolisation, the ship denoted 
the Chiu-ch. Xearer, and on the right, in a firm attitude, stands Chi-ist, the Rock 
of the Church, raising Peter from the waves. Opposite sits a fisherman in 
tranquil expectation, denoting the hope of the believer. The mosaic has fre- 
quently changed its place, and has undergone so many restorations that the 
composition alone can be attributed to Giotto. The fisherman and the figures 
hovering in the air are, in their present form, the work of Marcello Provenzale." 
—Kugler, i. 127. 

' This mosaic is ill-placed and ill-seen for an especial reason. Early converts 
from Paganism retained the heathen custom of turning round to venerate the 
sun before entering the church, so that in the old basilica, as here, the mosaic 
was thus placed to give a fitting object of worship. The learned Cardinal 
Baronius never, for a single day, during the space of thirty years, failetl to bow 
before this synibol of the primitive Church, tossed on the stormy sea of persecu- 
tion and of sin, saying, "Lord, save me from the waves of sin, as Thou didst 
Peter from the waves of the sea." ' — Mrs. EUiot'a ' Historical Pictures.' 

The magnificent central door of bronze is a remnant from the old 
basilica, and was made in the time of Eugenius IV., 1431-39, by 
Antonio Filarete and Simone di Ghini. The bas-reliefs of the com- 
partments represent the martyrdoms of SS. Peter and Paul, and the 
principal events in the reign of Eugenius — the Council of Florence, 

166 Walks in Rome 

the coronation of Sigismund, Emperor of Germany, &c. The bas- 
reliefs of the framework are entirely mythological ; Ganymede, 
Leda and her Swan, &c. , are to be distinguished. 

' Corinne fit remarquer k Lord NeMl que sur les portes otaient repr^sentds en 
bas-relief les mdtamorphoses d'Ovide. On ne se scandalise point k Rome, lui 
dit-elle, des images du paganisme, quand les beaux-arts les ont consacrees. Les 
nierveilles du g6nie portent toujoiu's h Vkme une impression religieuse, et nous 
faisons hommage au culte chr6tien de tous les chefs-d'oeuvre que les autres cultes 
ont inspires.'— Jfjn«. de Stael. 

Let into the wall between the doors are three remarkable inscrip- 
tions : 1. Commemorating the donations made to the church by 
Gregory II., of certain olive-grounds to provide oil for the lamps ; 2. 
ThebuUof Boniface VIII. (1300), granting the indulgence proclaimed 
at every jubilee ; 3. In the centre the Latin epitaph of Adrian I. 
(Golonna, 772-795), by Charlemagne,^ one of the most ancient 
memorials of the Papacy : — 

' The father of the Church, the ornament of Rome, the famous writer Adrian, 

the blessed Pope, rests in peace : 
God was his life, love was his law, Christ was his glory ; 
He was the apostolic shepherd, always ready to do that which was right. 
Of noble birth, and descended from an ancient race, 
He received a still greater noljility from his virtues. 
The pious soul of this good shepherd was ahvays bent 
Upon ornamenting the temples consecrated to God. 
He gave gifts to the churches, and sacred dogmas to the people ; 
And showed us all the way to heaven. 
Liberal to the poor, his charity was second to none, 
And he always watched over his people in prayer. 
By his teachings, his treasures, and his buildings, he raised, 
illustrious Rome, thy monuments, to be the honour of the town and of the 

Death could not injure him, for its sting was taken away by the death of Christ ; 
It opened for him the gate of the better life. 

I, Charles, have written these verses, while weeping for my father ; 
O my father, my beloved one, how lasting is my grief for thee. 
Dost thou think upon me, as I follow thee constantly in spirit ; 
Now reign blessed with Christ in the heavenly kingdom. 
The clergy and people have loved you with a heart-love. 
Thou wert truly the love of the woild, excellent priest. 
O most illustrious, I unite our two names and titles, 
Adrian and Charles, the king and the father. 
O thou who readest these verses, say with pious heart the prayer : 
O merciful God, have pity upon them both. 

Sweetly slumbering, friend, may thy earthly body rest in the grave, 
And thy spirit wander in bliss with the saints of the Lord. 
Till the last trumpet sounds in thine ears, 
ITien arise with Peter to the contemplation of God. 
Yes, I know that thou wilt hear the voice of the merciful judge 
Bid thee to enter the paradise of thy Saviour. 
Then, O great father, think upon thy son. 
And ask, that witli the father the son may enter into joy. 
Go, l)lessed father, enter into the kingdom of Christ, 
And thence, as an intercessor, help tliy people with thy prayers. 
Even so long as the sun rolls iii>on its flery axis. 
Shall thy glory, O heavenly father, remain in the world. 

' Adrian the Pope, of blessed memory, reigned for three-and-twenty years, ten 
months, and seventeen days, and died on the 2.'jth of December.' 

1 As in the jwrtico of the Temple of Mars were preserved the veraes of the 
poet Attius upon Junius Brutus. 

The Porta Santa 167 

The body of Adrian I., with those of Leo the Great and Gregory 
the Great, were removed from the vestibule to the interior of the 
old basilica in the seventh century. At that time the vestibule also 
contained many other Papal tombs, with those of Honorius and his 
nieces, Maria and Theramantia, daughters of Stilicho ; Helpis, first 
wife of the philosopher Boethius ; Caedwalla, king of the West 
Saxons, and many other illustrious persons. 

The walled-up door on the right is the Porta Santa, only opened 
for the jubilee, which has taken place every twenty-fifth year (tUl 
1850) since the time of Sixtns IV. The Pope himself gave the signal 
for the destruction of the wall on the Christmas Eve before the 
sacred year. 

' After preliminary prayers from Scripture singularly apt, the Pope goes down 
from his throne, and, armed with a silver hammer, strikes the wall in the door- 
way, which, having been cut round from its jambs and lintel, falls at once in- 
wanls, and is cleared away in a moment by the San Pietrini. The Pope, then, 
bareheaded and torch in band, first enters the door, and is followed by his 
cardinals and his other attendants to the high altar, where the first vespers of 
Christmas Day are chanted as usual. The other doors of the church are then 
flung open, and the great queen of churches is filled.'— Cardinal Wiseman. 

' Arretez-vous im moment ici, dit Corinne i Lord Xelvil, comme U etait dej4 
sous le jiortique de I'eglise ; arretez-vous, avant de soulever le rideau qui couvre 
la porte du temple ; votre ccenr ne bat-il pas a I'approche de ce sanctuaire? et 
ne ressentez-vous pas, an moment d'entrer, tout ce que ferait 6pronver I'attente 
d'un evenement 8olennel?'—Jf in*, de SUul. 

We now push aside the heavy double curtain, and enter the 

'Hilda had not always been adequately impressed by the grandeur of this 
mighty cathedral. When she first lifted the heavy leathern curtains, at one of 
the doors, a shadowy edifice in her imagination had been dazzled out of sight by 
the reality.' — Hawthorne. 

' The interior burst u i>on our astonished gaze, resplendent in light, magnificence, 
and Ijeauty, beyond all that imagination can conceive. Its apparent smallness 
of size, however, mingled some degree of surprise, and even disappointment, 
with my admiration ; but as I walked slowly up its long nave, empanelled with 
the rarest and richest marbles, and adorned with every art of sculpture and 
taste, and caught through the lofty arches opening views of chapels, and tomle, 
and altars of surpassing splendour, I felt that it was, indeed, unparalleled in 
beauty, in magnitude, and magnificence, and one of the noblest and most won- 
derful of the works of man.' — Eaton's ^ Rome.' 

' S. Peter's, that glorious temple— the largest and most beautiful, it is said, in 
the world — produced upon me the impression rather of a christian pantheon than 
of a christian church. The aesthetic intellect is edified more than the God-loving 
or God-seeking soul. The exterior and interior of the building appear to me 
more like an apotheosis of the Popedom than a glorification of Christianity and 
its doctrine. Monuments to the popes occupy too much space. One sees all 
round the walls angels flying upwards with papal portraits, sometimes merely 
with papal tiaras.'— jPr^d^^n'ika Bremer. 

' L'architecture de S. Pierre est une musique fi.xee.' — Madame de Stael. 

'The building of S. Peter's surpasses all powers of description. It appears 
to me like some great work of nature, a forest, a mass of rocks, or something 
similar ; for I never can realise the idea that it is the work of man. You strive 
to distinguish the ceiling as little as the canopy of heaven. You lose your way 

168 Walks in Rome 

in S. Peter's ; j'ou take a walk in it, and ramble till you are quite tired ; wlien 
divine service is performed and chanted there, you are not aware of it till you 
come quite close. The angels in the Baptistery are enormous giants — the doves, 
colossal birds of prey ; you lose all sense of measurement with the eye or pro- 
portion ; and yet who does not feel his heart' expand when standing under the 
dome and gazing up at it? ' — Mendelssohn's Letters.-, 

' But thou, of temples old or altars new, 
Standest alone— with nothing like to thee — 
Worthiest of God, the holy and the true. 
Since Zion's desolation, when that He 
Forsook His former city, what could be 
Of earthly structures, in His honour piled, 
Of a sublimer aspect ? Majesty, 
Power, Glory, Strength, and Beauty— all are aisled 
In this eternal ark of worship undefiled. 

Enter : its grandeur overwhelms thee not ; 
And why ? it is not lessened ; but thy mind, 
Expanded by the genius of the spot, 
Has grown colossal, and can only find 
A fit abode wherein appear enshrined 
Thy hopes of immortality ; and thou 
Shalt one day, if found worthy, so defined. 
See thy God face to face, as thou dost now 
His Holy of Holies, nor be blasted by His brow.' 

Byron, 'Childe Harold.' 

' On pousse avec peine une grosse portiere de cuir, et nous voici dans Saint- 
Pierre. On ne pent qu'adorer la religion qui produit de telles choses. Rien du 
monde ne peut etre compare h I'interieur de Saint-Pierre. Apr6s un an de s(5jour 
h. Rome, j'y allais encore passer des heures enti^res avec plaisii.'—Fontana, 
'Tempio Vaticano lllustrato.' 

' Tandis que, dans les eglises gothi((ues, I'impression est de s'agenouiller, de 
joindre les mains avec un sentiment d'humble priere et de profond regret ; dans 
Saint-Pierre, an contraire, le mouvement involontaire serait d'ouvrir les bras en 
signe de joie, de relever la tete avec bonheur et (Spanouissement. II semble que 
lii, le p(5che n'accable plus ; le sentiment vif du pardon par le triomphe de la 
r6surrection remplit seul le coeur.' — Eugenie de la Ferronays. 

' In this church one learns how art as well as nature can set aside every standard 
of measurement.' — Goethe. 

' The temperature of S. Peter's seems, like the happy islands, to experience no 
change. In the coldest weather, it is like summer to your feelings, and in the 
most oppressive heats it strikes you with a delightful sensation of cold — a luxury 
not to be estimated but in a climate such as this.'— Eaton's 'Home.' 

On each side of the nave are four pillars with Corinthian pilasters, 
and a rich entablature supporting the arches. The roof is vaulted, 
coffered, and gilded. The pavement is of coloured marble, inlaid 
from designs of Giacomo della Porta and Bernini. In the centre of 
the floor, immediately within the chief entrance, is a round slab of 
porphyry, upon which the emperors were crowned. 

The enormous size of the statues and ornaments in S. Peter's does 
away with the impression of its vast size, and it is only by observing 
the living, moving figures that one can form any idea of its colossal 
projDortions. A line in the pavement is marked with the compara- 
tive size of the other great christian churches. According to this, the 
length of S. Peter's is 613J feet ; of S. Paul's, London, 520^ feet ; 
Milan Cathedral, 443 feet ; S. Sophia, Constantinople, 360^ feet. The 

Interior of S. Peter's 169 

height of the dome in the interior is 405 feet ; on the exterior, 448 
feet. The height of the baldacchino is 94^ feet. 

The first impulse will be to go up to the shrine, at which a circle 
of eighty-six gold lamps is always burning around the tomb of the 
poor fisherman of Galilee, and to look down into the Confession, 
where there is a beautiful kneeling statue of Pope Pius VI. (Braschi, 
1785-1800) by Canova.^ Hence one can gaze up into the dome with 
its huge letters in purple-blue mosaic upon a gold ground (each six 
feet long).^ ' Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram aedificabo ecclesiam 
meam, et tibi dabo claves regni coelorum.' Above this are four 
colossal mosaics of the Evangelists from designs of the Cav. 
d'Arpino ; the pen of S. Luke is seven feet in length. 

' The cni)ola Is glorious, viewed in its design, its altitude, or even its decorations ; 
viewed either as a whole or as a part, it enchants the eye, it satisfies the taste, it 
expands the soul. The very air seems to eat up all that is harsh or colossal, and 
leaves us nothing but the sublime to feast on— a sublime peculiar as the genius 
of the immortal architect, and comprehensible only on the spot.'— Farsyth. 

' Ce dome, en le considerant meme d'en bas, fait eprouver une sorte de terreur ; 
on croit voir des abimes suspendus sur sa tete.' — Mme. de Stael. 

' But when, having traversed the length of the nave without uttering a word, he 
passed from under the gilded roofs, and the spacious dome, lofty as a flmiament, 
expanded itself alK)ve him in the sky, covered with tracery of the celestial glories, 
and brilliant with mosaic and stars of gold ; when, opening on all sides to the wide 
transepts, the limitless pavement stretched away beyond the reach of sense; 
when, beneath this vast work and finished effort of man's devotion, he saw the 
high altar, brilliant with lights, surmounted and enthroned by its panoply of 
clustering columns and towering cross ; when all around him, he was conscious 
of the hush and calmness of worship, and felt in his inmost being the sense of 
vastness, of splendour, and of awe ; — he may be pardoned if, kneeling upon the 
polished floor, he conceived for a moment that this was the house of God, and 
that the gate of heaven was here.' — John Inglexant. 

The Baldacchino, designed by Bernini in 1633, is of bronze, with 
gilt ornaments, and was made chiefly with bronze taken from the 
roof of the Pantheon. A niece of Urban VIII. promised the pillars 
if she were safely delivered of a son. All the months of her preg- 
nancy are quaintly portrayed on the pedestals, and the last is 
represented by a beautiful babe. The baldacchino covers the high 
altar, which is only used on the most solemn occasions. Only the 
Pope can celebrate mass there, or a cardinal who is authorised by a 
Papal brief. 

' Without a sovereign priest ofiiciating before and for his people, S. Peter's is 
but a grand aggregation of splendid churches, chapels, tombs, and works of art. 
With him, it becomes a whole, a single, peerless temple, such as the world never 
saw before. That central pile, with its canopy of bronze as lofty as the Famese 
Palace, with its deep-diving stairs leading to a court walled and paved with pre- 
cious stones, that yet seems only a vestibule to some caveni or catacomb, with 
its simple altar, that disdains ornament in the presence of what is beyond the 
reach of human price— that which in truth forms the heart of the great body, 

1 The Pope, on the third Sunday in Advent, used to go down and perform a 
service in the con/esmo, seated t» subgellio. See Ordo Romanxis Benedicti in 
Mabillon, Mu». Ital. ii. 122. 

2 These letters are in real mosaic. Those in the nave and transepts are in 
paper— to complete them in mosaic would have been too expensive. 

170 Walks in Rome 

placed just where the heart should be, Is then animated, and surrounded by living 
and moving sumptuousness. The immense cupola above it ceases to be a dome 
over a sepulchre, and becomes a canopy over an altar ; the quiet tomb beneath 
is changed into the shrine of relics below the place of sacrifice— the saints under 
the altar ; the quiet spot at which a few devout worshippers at most times 
may be found, bowing under the hundred lamps, is crowded by rising gi'oiips, 
beginning from the lowest step, increasing in dignity and in richness of sacred 
robes, till, at the summit and in the centre, stands supreme the Pontiff himself, 
on the very spot which becomes him, the one living link in a chain, the first ring 
of which is riveted to the shrine of the Apostle below. . . . S. Peter's is only itself 
when the Pope is at the high altar, and hence only by or for him it is used.' — 
Cardinal Wiseman. 

The four huge piers which support the dome are used as shrines 
for the four great relics of the church : viz., 1. The lance of 
S. Longinus, the soldier who pierced the side of our Saviour, pre- 
sented to Innocent VIII. by Pierre d'Aubusson, Grand-Master of the 
Knights of Rhodes, who had received it from the Sultan Bajazet ; ^ 
2. The head of S. Andrew, said to have been brouglit from Achaia 
in 1460, when its arrival was celebrated by Pius II. ; 3. A portion of 
the true cross, brought by S. Helena ; 4. The napkin of S. Veronica, 
said, doubtless from the affinity of names, to bear the impression — 
vera-iconica — of our Saviour's face. 

' The " Volto-Santo," said to be the impress of the countenance of our Saviour 
on the handkerchief of S. Veronica, or Berenice, which wiped His l)row on the 
way to Calvary, was placed in the Vatican by John VII. in 707, and afterwards 
transferred to the Church of Santo Spirito, where six Roman noblemen had 
the care of it, each taking charge of one of the keys with which it was locked 
up. Among the privileges enjoyed for this office was that of receiving every 
year, from the Hospital of Santo Spirito at the feast of Pentecost, two cows, 
whose flesh, an ancient chronicle says, "si mangiavano li, con gran festa." In 
1440 this picture was carried back to S. Peter's, whence it has not since been 
moved. When I examined the head on the Veronica handkerchief, it struck me 
as undoubtedly a work of early Byzantine art, perhaps of the seventh or eighth 
century, painted on linen. It is with implicit acceptance of its claims that 
Petrarch alludes to it — " verendam populis Salvatoris Imaginem " (Ep. ix. lib. 2). 
During the Republican domination in 1849, it was rumom'ed that, about Easter, 
the canons of S. Peter saw the Volto-Santo turn pale, and ominously change 
colour while they gazed upon it.' — Ilemans' 'Catholic Italy,' vol. i. 

The ceremony of exhibiting the relics from the balcony above 
the statue of S. Veronica takes place on Holy Thursday, Good 
Friday, and Easter Day, but the height is so great that nothing 
can really be distinguished. 

' To-day we gazed on the Veronica— the holy impression left l)y our Saviour's 
face on the cloth S. Veronica presented to Him to wipe His brow, bowed under 
the weight of the Cross. We had looked forward to this sight for days, for 
seven thousand years of indulgence from penance are attached to it. 

' But when the moment came we could see nothing but a black board hung 
with a cloth, before which another white cloth was held. In a few minutes 
this was withdrawn, and the groat moment was over, the glimpse of the sacred 
thing on which hung the fate of seven thousand years.' — Schiinberg-Cotta 

1 Innocent sent two bishops to receive it at Ancona, two cardinals to receive 
It at Narni, and went himself, with all his court, to meet it at the Porta del 

The Statue of S. Peter 171 

The niches in the piers are occupied by fonr statues of S. Lon- 
ginus, S. Andrew, S. Helena, and S. Veronica holding the napkin 
or 'sudarium,' 'flourishing a marble pocket-handkerchief.'^ 

' Malheureusement toutes ces statues pechent par le gout. Le rococo, mis i 
la mode par le Bemin, est siu^;out execrable dans le genre colossal. Mais la 
presence du genie de Bramante et de Michel-Ange se fait tellement sentir, que 
les choses ridicules ne le sont plus ici ; elles ne sont qu'insigniflantes. Les statues 
colossales des piliers representent : S. Andre, par Francois Quesnoy (Fiammingo), 
elle excita la jalousie du Bemin ; S. V<?rouique par M. Mochi, dent il blamait 
les draperies volantes (dans iin endroit elos). Un plaisant lui repondait que 
leur agitation provenait du vent qui soufflait par les crevasses de la coupole, 
depuis qu'il avait affaibli les piliers par des niches et tribunes. S. Helfene par 
A. Bolgi, S. Longin par Bemin.' — A. Dtt Pays. 

Not very far from the confession, against the last pier on the 
right of the nave, stands the statue of S. Peter, long said to have 
been cast by Leo the Great from the old statue of Jupiter Capito- 
linus, to commemorate the deliverance of Rome from the invasion 
of Attila, but — 

' The statue is not the Capitoline Jupiter transformed into an apostle ; nor 
was it cast with the bronze of that figure ; it never held the thunderbolt in the 
place of the keys of heaven. The statue was cast as a portrait of S. Peter ; the 
head lielongs to the body ; the keys and the uplifted fingers of the right hand 
are essential and genuine details of the original composition." — Laneiani. 

The figure is of very rude workmanship. Its extended foot is 
eagerly kissed by Roman Catholic devotees, who then rub their 
foreheads against its toes. Protestants wonder at the feeling which 
this statue excites. Gregory II. wrote of it to Leo the Isaurian : 
'Christ is my witness, that when I enter the temple of the Prince 
of the Apostles, and contemplate his image, I am filled with such 
emotion, that tears roll down my cheeks like the rain from heaven.' 
On high festivals this statue is dressed up in a mitre and pontifical 

' La contume antique chez les Grecs dTiabiller et de parer les statues sacrees 
s'etait conserve d Rome et s'y conserve encore. Tout le nionde a vii la statue de 
Saint-Pierre revetir dans les grandes solennites ses niagnifiques habits de pape. 
On lavait les statues des dieux, on les frottait, on les frisait comme des poupees. 
Les divinites du Capitole avaient un nombreux domestique attach^ a leiu" per- 
sonne et qui etait charge de ce soin. L'usage romain a subsists chez les popula- 
tions latines de I'Espagrie, et elles I'ont porte justiu'au Mexique, oii j'ai vu, i 
Puebla, la veille d'une fete, une femme de chambre faire une toUette en r^le i 
une statue de la Viei^e.' — Ampere, Hist. Horn. iv. 91. 

Above the statue of S. Peter is the mosaic picture of Pius IX., 
erected by the clergy of the Vatican in 1871, to commemorate the 
length of his reign, which had then equalled that of the supposed 
episcopate of S. Peter, a period it was hitherto believed no Pope 
could survive. 

Along the piers of the nave and transepts are ranged statues of 
the different founders of religious Orders, male and female. 

Returning to the main entrance, we wiU now make the tour of 

1 Eaton's Rome. 

172 Walks in Rome 

the basilica. Those who expect to find monuments of great his- 
torical interest will, however, be totally disappointed. Scarcely 
anything remains above ground which is earlier than the sixteenth 
century. Of the tombs of the eighty -seven Popes who were buried 
in the old basilica, the greater part were totally lost at its destruction 
— a few were removed to other churches (those of the Piccolomini 
to S. Andrea della Valle, &c. ), and some fragments are still to be 
seen in the crypt. Only two monuments were replaced in the new 
basilica, those of the two Popes who lived in the time and excited 
the indignation of Savonarola — 'Sixtus IV., with whose cordial 
concurrence the assassination of Lorenzo de' Medici was attempted, 
and Innocent VIII., the main object of whose policy was to secure 
place and power for his illegitimate children.' 

' The side-chapels are splendid, and so large that they might serve for inde- 
pendent churches. Tlie monuments and statues are numerous, but all are stib- 
ordinate, or unite harmoniously with the large and beatitiful proportions of the 
chief temple. Everytliing tliere is harmony, light, beauty— an image of tlie 
church-triumphant, but a very worldly, earthly image ; and whilst the mind 
enjoys its splendour, the soul cannot, in the higher sense, be edified by its 
symbolism. ' — Frederika Bremer. 

The first chapel on the right derives its name from the Pieta of 
Michelangelo, representing the dead Saviour upon the knees of 
the Madonna, a work of the great artist in his twenty-fourth year, 
upon an order from the French ambassador. Cardinal Jean de 
Villiers, Abbot of S. Denis. The sculptor has inscribed his name 
(the only instance in which he has done so) upon the girdle of the 
Virgin. When critics observed to Michelangelo that his Madonna 
was too young, he answered that 'Purity enjoys eternal youth.' 
Francis I. attempted to obtain this group from Michelangelo in 
1507, together with the statue of Christ at the Minerva, 'comme de 
choses que Ton m'a assure estre des plus exquises et excellentes en 
votre art. ' The Pietk was first placed in a chapel of the old basilica 
dedicated to ' La Madonna della Febbre,' and in front of it the 
corpse of Rodrigo Borgia lay in state— 'the most repulsive, mon- 
strous, and deformed corpse which had ever yet been seen.'^ 
Opening from this chapel are two smaller ones. That on the right 
has a crucifix by Pietro Cavallini ; the mosaic, representing S, 
Nicholas of Bari, is by Cristofori. That on the left is called Cap- 
pella della Colonna Santa, from a column said to have been brought 
from Jerusalem, and to have been that against which our Saviour 
leant when He prayed and taught in the Temple. It was formerly 
used for the exorcism of evil spirits, and was enclosed in a marble 
pluteus by Cardinal Orsini in 1438. It is inscribed : ^ — 

'Haec est ilia columna in qua DNS N' Jesus XPS appodiatus dum populo 
praedicabat et Deo piio preces in templo efftuidebat adhaerendo, stabatque una 
cum aliis undecim hie circumstantibus. De Salomonis templo in triuniphum 

1 Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian. 

2 The real interest of tlie column consists in its having been one of the 138 
columns used in the Chui'ch of Constantine. Of these, eight others ornament 
the balconies under the dome, and two the altar of S. Mauritius. 

Monuments of S. Peter's 173 

hujus Basilicae hie locata fuit : demones expellit et immundis spiritibas vexatos 
liberos reddit et multa miraciila cotidie facit. P. reTerendissimam prem et 
Domiuum Dominum Card, de Ursinis. A.D. MDCCCXXvm.' 

A more interesting object in this chapel is the sarcophagus (once 
used as a font) of Auicus Probus, a prefect of Eome in the fourth 
century, of the great family of the Anicii, to which S. Gregory the 
Great belonged. Its five compartments have bas-reliefs represent- 
ing Christ and the Apostles. 

Returning to the aisle, on the right is the tomb of Leo XII., 
Annibale della Genga (1823-29), by Fabris ; on the left is the tomb 
of Christina of Sweden, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, who died 
at Rome, 1689, by Carlo Fontana, with a bas-relief by Tcudon, re- 
presenting her abjuration of Protestantism in 1655 in the Cathedral 
of Innspruck. 

On the right is the altar of S. Sebastian, with a mosaic copy of 
Domenichino's picture at S. Maria degli Angeli ; beyond which is 
the tomb of Innocent XII., Antonio Pignatelli (1691-1700). This 
was the last Pope who wore the martial beard and moustache, which 
we see represented in his statue.^ Pignatella is Italian for a little 
cream-jug ; in allusion to this we may see three little cream-jugs 
in the upper decorations of this monument, which is by F Hippo 

'Son nom, ses armes sont des pots, 
Une Caraffe etait sa mere.' 

M. de Coidanges to Mine, de Sevigni. 

' C'etait un grand et saint pape, vrai pasteur et vrai pere commun, tel qa'il ne 
s'en voit plus que bien rarement 8ur la chaire de Saint-Pierre, et qui emporta les 
regrets universels, comble de benedictions et de merite.' — 5. Simon, ' Mimoires,' 

On the left is the tomb, by Bernini, of the Countess Matilda, 
foundress of the temporal power of the Popes, who died in 1115, 
was buried in a monastery near Mantua, and transported hither by 
Urban YIIl. in 1635. The bas-relief represents the absolution of 
Henry IV. of Germany, by HUdebrand, which took place at her 
intercession, and in her presence. 

We now reach, on the right, the large Chapel of the Santissimo 
Sacramento, decorated with a fresco altar-piece, representing the 
Trinity, by Pictro da Cortona, and a tabernacle of lapis-lazuli and 
gilt bronze, copied from Bramante's little temple at S. Pietro in 
Montorio. Here is the magnificent tomb of Sixtus IV., Francesco 
della Rovere (1471-81), removed from the choir of the old S. Peter's, 
where it was erected by his nephew. Cardinal Giulio della Rovere, 
afterwards Pope Julius II. He was of such lowly origin that he 
had no name of his own, and took that of the Rovere family in 
Piedmont, with whom he lived as tutor. His reign was entirely 

1 This Pope either foi^ot to inscribe his family amongst the Koman aristocracy, 
or thou<iht that they were above it. Consequently no place is reserved for the 
PiguateUi amongst the Roman princes in the ceremonies of the Sistine. They 
were, however, always noble, and can proudly say, ' We gave a Pope to the 
Church, but aie not of Papal origin." 

174 Walks in Rome 

occupied with politics, and lie was secretly involved in the con- 
spiracy of the Pazzi at Florence ; he was the first Pope who carried 
nepotism to such an extent as to found a principality (Imola and 
Forli) for his nephew Girolamo Riario. liattista Mantovano de- 
scribes the venality of his times — 

' Venalia nobis 
Templa, sacerdotes, altaria, sacra, coronae, 
Ignes, thura, preces, coeluni est venale 
— Be Calamitatibus Temporum, 1, iii. 
'Son pontiflcat colcriiiue, impudent, effr^ne, passe tous les rocits de Suetoue." 
— Michelet, ' Uwt. de France.' 

The tomb is a beautiful work of the Florentine artist, Antonio 
PoUajuolo, in 1493. The figure of the Pope reposes upon a bronze 
couch, surrounded, in memory of his having taught successively in 
the six great universities of Italy, with allegorical bas-reliefs of 
Arithmetic, Astrology, Philology, Rhetoric, Grammar, Perspective, 
Music, Geography, Philosophy, and Theology, which last is repre- 
sented like a pagan Diana with a bow and a quiver of arrows on 
her shoulders. Close to this monument of his uncle, a flat stone 
in the pavement marks the grave of Julius II., for whom the grand 
tomb at S. Pietro in Vincoli was intended. 

Returning to the aisle, we see on the right the tomb of 
Gregory XIII., Ugo Buoncompagni (1572-85), during whose reign 
the new calendar was invented, an event commemorated in a bas- 
relief upon the monument, which was not erected till 1723, and is 
by Camillo Rusconi. The figure of the Pope (he died aged eighty- 
four) is in the attitude of benediction : beneath are Wisdom, re- 
presented as Minerva, and Faith, holding a tablet inscribed, 'Novi 
opera hujus et fidem.' Opposite this is the paltry tomb of Gregory 
XIV., Nicolo Sfondrati (1590-91). 

'Le tombeau de Gregoire XIII., que le massacre de Saint-Bartbdlemy r^jouit 
si fort, est de marbre. Le tombeau de stuc on d'abord il avait et6 place, a 6t6 
accordc, apres son depart, aux cendres de Grdgoii'e XTV .'—Stendhal. 

On the left, against the great pier, is a mosaic copy of Domeni- 
chino's Communion of S. Jerome. On the right is the chapel of 
the Madonna, founded by Gregory XIII., and built by Giacomo 
della Porta. The cupola has mosaics by Girolamo Muziano. 
Beneath the altar is buried S. Gregory Nazianzen, removed hither 
from the Convent of S. Maria in the Campo Marzo by Gregory XIII. 

S. Gregory Nazianzen (or S. Gregory Tlieologos) was son of S. Gregory and S. 
Nouna, and brotlier of S. Gorgonia and S. Cesarua. He was born c. A.D. 328. In 
his childhood he was influenced by a vision of the two virgins. Temperance and 
Chastity, summoning him to pursue them to the joys of Paradise. Being 
educated at Athens (together with Julian the Apostate), he formed there a great 
friendship with S. Basil. He became first the coadjutor, afterwards the suc- 
cessor of his father, in the bishopric of Nazianzen, but removed thence to 
Constantinople, where he preached against the Arians. By the influence of 
Tlieodosius, he was ordained Bishop of Constiuitinople, but was so worn-out 
by the cabals and schisms in the Church, that he resigned his.ofllce, and retired 
to his paternal estate, where he passed the remainder of his life in the composi- 
tion of Greek hymns and poems. He died May 9, A.D. 390. 

Monmnents of S. Peter's 175 

On the right is the tomb of Benedict XIV., Prospero Lambertini 
(1743-58), by Pietro Bracci, a huge and ugly monument in which 
'mannerism pushed to an extreme point caused a wholesome 
reaction in art.' On the left is the tomb of Gregory XVI., Mauro- 
Cappellari (ISSl-ie), by Amici, erected in 1855 by the cardinals he 
had created. 

Turning into the right transept (used as a council-chamber, for 
which purpose it proved thoroughly unsatisfactory, 1869-70), we 
find several fine mosaics from pictures : viz., the Martyrdom of SS. 
Processus and Martinianus from the Valentin at the Vatican ; the 
Martyrdom of S. Erasmus from Poussin ; S. Wenceslaus, king of 
Bohemia, from Caroselli ; our Saviour walking on the sea to the 
boat of S. Peter, from Lanfranco. The south apse occupies the 
site of a church of S. Petronilla or S. Pamel, said to have been 
built where a temple of ApoUo once stood. 

Opposite to the last-named mosaic is the famous monument of 
Clement XIII., Carlo Rezzonico (1758-69). This tomb, the greatest 
work of Canova, was uncovered April 4, 1795, in the presence of an 
immense crowd, with whom the sculptor mingled, disguised as an 
abbe, to hear their opinion. The Pope (aged 75) is represented 
devoutly kneeling in prayer upon a pedestal, beneath which is the 
entrance to a vault, guarded by two grand marble lions ; ' for a 
dead pope must always have a couple of lions or of young women 
at his feet.'^ On the right is Religion, standing erect with a 
cross ; on the left the Genius of Death, holding a torch reversed. 
The beauty of this work of Canova is only felt when it is compared 
OTth the monuments of the seventeenth century in S. Peter's ; 
' then it seems as if they were separated by an abyss of cen- 
turies.' - 

Beyond this are mosaics from the S. Michael of Guido at the 
Cappuccini, and from the Martyrdom of S. Petronilla, of Guercino, 
at the Capitol. Each of these large mosaics has cost about 150,000 

Now, on the right, is the tomb of Clement X., Gio. Battista 
Altieri (1670-76), by Rossi, the statue by Erode Perrata ; and, on 
the left, is a mosaic of S. Peter raising Tabitha from the dead, by 

Ascending into the tribune, we see at the end of the church, 
beneath the very ugly window of yeUow glass, the ' Cathedra 
Petri' of Bernini, supported by figures of the four Fathers of 
the Church, Augustine, Ambrose, Chrysostom, and Athanasius. 
Enclosed in this is a very ancient wooden senatorial chair, en- 
crusted with ivory, which is believed to have been the episcopal 
throne of S. Peter and his immediate successors. Late Roman 
Catholic authorities (Mgr. Gerbet, &c.) consider that it may 
perhaps have been originally the chair of the senator Pudens, 
with whom the Apostle lodged. A magnificent festival in honour 

' Forsy-th. 
2 Gregoro«us, Grabmuler der Pdpgte. 

176 Walks in Rome 

of S. Peter's Chair ('Natale Petri de Cathedra') has been annually 
celebrated here from the earliest times, and is mentioned in a 
calendar of Pope Liberius of a.d. 354. It used to be said that if 
any pope were to reign longer than the traditional years of the 
government of S. Peter, S. Peter's chair would be again brought 
into use ; but this occurred in the case of Pius IX., and nothing 

On the right of the chair is the tomb of Urban VIII. , Matteo 
Barberini (1623-44), who was chiefly remarka'ole from his passion 
for building, and who is perpetually brought to mind through the 
immense number of his erections which still exist. The tomb 
is by Bernini, the architect of his endless fountains and public 
buildings, and has the usual fault of this sculptor in overloading 
his figures (except in that of Urban himself, which is very fine^) 
with meaningless drapery. Figures of Charity and Justice stand 
by the black marble sarcophagus of the Pope, and a gilt skeleton is 
occupied in inscribing the name of Urban on the list of Death. 
The whole monument is alive with the bees of the Barberini. 
The pendent tomb on the left is that of Paul III., Alessandro 
Farnese (15-54-50), in whose reign the Order of the Jesuits was 
founded. This Pope (the first Roman who had occupied the throne 
for 103 years, since Martin V.) was learned, brilliant, and witty. 
He was adored by his people, in spite of his intense nepotism, 
which induced him to form Parma into a duchy for his natural son 
Pierluigi, to build the Farnese Palace, and to marry his grandson 
Ottavio to Marguerite, natural daughter of Charles V., to whom he 
gave the Palazzo Madama and the Villa Madama as a dowry. His 
tomb, by Guglielmo della Porta, perhaps the finest in S. Peter's, 
cost 24,000 Roman crowns ; it was erected in the old basilica just 
before its destruction in 1562, and in 1574 was transferred to this 
church, where its position was the source of a quarrel between the 
sculptor and Michelangelo, by whose interest he had obtained his 
commission.^ It was first placed on the site where the Veronica 
now stands, whence it was moved to its present position in 1629. 
The noble figure of the aged Pope is of bronze. He seems to be 
absorbed in thought. In its former place four marble statues 
adorned the pedestal ; two (Abundance and Tenderness) are now 
removed to the Farnese Palace : those which remain, of Prudence 
and Justice, were once entirely nude, but were draped by Bernini. 
The statue of Prudence is said to represent Giovanna Caiitani da 
Sermoneta, the mother of the Pope, and that of Truth his infamous 
sister, Giulia Bella, the mistress of Alexander VI., to whom he 
owed his promotion to the purple. There is a covert satire in the 
representation of her as Truth, as in that of her mother as 

' On a dit de ces figures que c'otait le Rubena en sculpture.'— ji. Du Pays. 

1 There is a fine portrait of Urban VIII. by Pietro da Cortoua, in the Capitol 

'■i See Vasari, vi. 261. 

Monuments of S. Peter's 177 

Near the steps of the tribune are two marble slabs on which 
Pius IX. immortalised the names of the cardinals and bishops 
who, on December 8, 1854, accepted, on this spot, his dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception. 

Taming towards the left transept ; — on the left is a mosaic of 
S. Peter healing the lame man, from Mancini. On the right is the 
tomb of Alexander VIII., Pietro Ottobuoni (1689-91), by Giuseppe 
Verlosi and Angela Hossi, gorgeous in its richness of bronze, mar- 
bles, and alabasters. Beyond this is the altar of Leo the Great, 
over which is a huge bas-relief by Algardi, representing S. Leo 
calling down the assistance of SS. Peter and Paul against the 
invasion of Attila. 

' The king of the Huns, terrified by the apparition of the two apostles in the 
air, turns his back and flies. We have here a pictiu-e in marble, with all the 
faults of taste and style which prevailed at that time, but the workmanship is 
excellent ; it is, perhaps, the largest bas-relief in existence, excepting the rich 
sculpture of the Indians and Egyptians— at least fifteen feet in height.'— ^fflm«- 
son's ' Sacred Art,' p. 685. 

Next to this is the CappeUa deUa Colonna, possessing a much 
revered Madonna from a pillar of the old basilica, and beneath it an 
ancient christian sarcophagus containing the remains of Leo II. 
(ob. 683), Leo III. (ob. 816), and Leo IV. (ob. 855). In the pave- 
ment near these two altars is the slab tomb of Leo XII. (ob. 1828), 
with an epitaph illustrating Invocation of Saints, but touching 
in its humility : — 

' Commending myself, a suppliant, to my great celestial patron Leo, I, Leo 
Xn., his humble client, unworthy of so great a name, have chosen a place of 
sepulture near his holy ashes.' 

Over the door known as the Porta S. Marta (from the church in 
the square behind S. Peter's, to which it leads) is the tomb of 
Alexander VII., Fabio Chigi (1655-67), the last work of Bernini, 
who had built for this Pope the Scala Kegia and the Colonnade of 
S. Peter's. This is, perhaps, the worst of all the Papal monuments 
— a hideous figure of Death is pushing aside the alabaster curtain 
and exhibiting his hour-glass to the kneeling Pope. 

Opposite to this tomb is an oil-painting on slate, by Francesco 
Vanni, of the Fall of Simon Magus. The south transept has a 
series of mosaic pictures : the Incredulity of S. Thomas from 
Camuccini, the Crucifixion of S. Peter and a S. Francis from Guido, 
and, on the pier of the cupola, Ananias and Sapphira from the 
Roncalli at S. Maria degli Angeli, and the Transfiguration from 

Opposite the mosaic of Ananias and Sapphira is the tomb which 
has been last erected in S. Peter's, that of Pius VIII., Francesco 
Castiglione (1827-31), by Tenerani. It represents the Pope kneeling, 

1 This mosaic occupied ten men constantly for nine years, and cost 60,000 


178 Walks in Rome 

and above him the Saviour in benediction, with SS. Peter and Paul. 
It is of no great merit. 

The Cappella Clementina has the miracle of S. Gregory the Great 
from the Andrea Sacchi at the Vatican. Close to this is the tomb 
of Pius VII., Gregorio Chiaramonte (1800-23), who crowned Napoleon 
— who suffered exile for seven years for refusing to abdicate the 
temporal power — and who returned in triumph to die at the 
Quirinal, after having re-established the Order of the Jesuits. His 
monument is the work of Thorwaldsen, graceful and simple, though 
perhaps too small to be in proportion to the neighboui-ing tombs. 
The figure of the Pope, a gentle old man (he died at the age of 
eighty-one, having reigned twenty-three years), is seated in a chair ; 
figures of Courage and Faith adorn the pedestal. The tomb was 
erected by Cardinal Consalvi, the faithful friend and minister of 
this Pope (who died very poor, having spent all his wealth in 
charity), at an expense of 27,000 scudi. 

Turning into the left aisle ; — on the right is the tomb of Leo XI., 
Alessandro de' Medici (1605), to which one is inclined to grudge so 
much space, considering that the Pope it commemorates only reigned 
twenty-six days. The tomb, in allusion to this short life, is sculptured 
with flowers, and bears the motto Sic Florui. It is the work of 
Algardi. The figures of Wisdom and Abundance, which adorn the 
pedestal, are fine specimens of this allegorical type. 

Opposite is the tomb of Innocent XI., Benedetto Odescalchi 
(1676-89), by Etienne Monot, with a bas-relief representing the raising 
of the siege of Vienna by King John Sobieski. 

Near this is the entrance to the Cappella del Coro, the very 
inconvenient chapel (decorated with gilding and stucco by Giacomo 
della Porta), in which the vesper services are held. The altar-piece 
is a mosaic copy of the Conception by Pietro Bianchi at the Angeli. 
In the pavement is the gravestone of Clement XI., Giov. Francesco 
Albani (1700-21). 

Under the next arch of the aisle, on the left, is the interesting 
tomb of Innocent VIII., Gio. Battista Cib6 (1484-92), by Pietro and 
Antonio Pollajuolo. The Pope is represented asleep upon his sarco- 
phagus, and a second time above, seated on a throne, his right 
hand extended in benediction, and his left holding the sacred lance 
of Longinus (said to have been that which pierced the side of our 
Saviour), sent to him by the Sultan Bajazet.^ It is supposed that 
it was owing to the representation of this relic, that this tomb 
alone (except those of Paul III. and of Sixtus IV., uncle of the 
destroyer) was replaced after the destruction of the old basilica. 
Upon the sarcophagus of the Pope (wrapt for burial in a Persian 
robe), in allusion to the name of Innocent, is inscribed the 11th 
verse of the 26th Psalm, ' In InnocentiS. me.1 ingressus sum, redime 
me, Domine, et miserere mei.' Some, however, find in the epitaph 
an allusion to the fact that, when Innocent VIII. was dying, 

1 Formerly preserved in the magnificent renaissance shrine— ciborio della 
santa lancia. 

Monuments of S. Peter's 179 

three young boys, to each of whom one dncat was paid, were 
forced, as a last resource, to infuse their young blood into his 
stiffening veins. The discoveries of his reign enabled him to 
present John II. of Portugal with 'the lands of Africa, whether 
known or unknown.' He had had sixteen children, and his chief 
\-irtue was that he continued to be a good father of his family. 
Bacon says that ' he knew himself to be lazy and unprofitable.' 

'Avide pour les siens et corrompu, Innocent tolerait tons les crimes des 
autres. II n'y eut plus de siirete. Vol et viol, tout devint permis dans Rome. 
Des dames nobles etaient enlev^es le solr, rendues le matin : le pape riait. 
Quand on le vlt si bon, on commenQa i tuer : 11 ne s'emut pas davantage. Un 
homme avait tue deux fllles, ix ceux qui denongaient le fait, le camerier du pape 
dit gaiement : "Dieu ne veut pas la mort du pecheur, mais qu'il paye et qu'U 
Vive."' — Michelet, 'Hut. de France.' 

' If we reflect that, besides the importance of this monument in the history of 
art, it brings back to our memory the fall of Constantinople and Granada, the 
discovery of the new world, the flgiu-es of Bayazid, Ferdinand, and Christopher 
Columbus, we have a subject for meditation, as well as aesthetic enjoyment.' — 

Opposite the tomb of Innocent VIII. is one which is a kind of 
Memento Mori to the living Pope, which always bears the name 
of his predecessor, and in which his corpse will be deposited till his 
real tomb is prepared. 

Passing the Cappella della Presentazione, which contains a mosaic 
from the ' Presentation of the Virgin ' by RomanelU, we reach the 
last arch, which contains the tombs of the Stuarts. On the right 
is the monument, by Filippo Bariaioni, of Maria Clementina Sobieski, 
wife of James Francis Edward, called in the inscription ' Queen of 
Great Britain, France, and Ireland ' ; on the left is that by Canova 
to the three Stuart princes, James III.^ and his sons, Charles Edward 
and Henry — Cardinal York. The calzoni on the figures of the angel 
guardians were added by the folly of Leo XII. The monument (in 
which the royal titles are given) was erected at the expense of 
George IV. It bears the inscription : 










'George TV., fidMe h sa reputation du gentleman le plus accompli des trois 
royaumes, a voulu honorer la cendre des princes malheureux que de leur vivant 
il eut envoyes i I'echafaud s'ils fussent tombes en son pouvoir.' — Stendhal. 

' Beneath the imrivalled dome of S. Peter's lie mouldering the remains of what 
was once a brave and gallant heart ; and a stately monument from the chisel of 
Canova, and at the charge, as I believe, of the House of Hanover, has since 

1 ' n Serenissimo Pretendente,' contemporary Italian newspapers used to call 
him. See Gray's Works, Letter xx. 

180 Walks in Rome 

arisen to the memory of James the Third, Charles the Third, and Henry the 
Ninth, Kings of England— names which an Englishman can scarcely read with- 
out a smile or a sigh. Often at the present day does the British traveller turn 
from the sunny crest of the Pincian, or the carnival throng of the Corso, to gaze, 
in thoughtful silence, on that mockery of human greatness, and that last record 
of ruined hopes ! The tomb Ijefore him is of a race justly expelled ; the magni- 
ficent temple that enshrines it is of a faith wisely reformed ; yet who at such a 
moment would harshly remember the errors of either, and might not join in the 
prayer even of that erring Church for the departed, " Requiescant in pace"?' — 
Lord Mahon. 

The last chapel is the Baptistery, and contains, as a font, the 
ancient porphyry cover of the sarcophagus of Hadrian, which was 
afterwards used for the tomb of the Emperor Otho II. The mosaic 
of the Baptism of our Saviour is from Carlo Maratta. 

Distributed around the whole basilica are confessionals for every 
christian tongue. 

' Au milieu de toutes les creations hardies et splendides de I'art dans la basilique 
de S. Pierre, il est une impression morale qui saisit I'esprit, .'i la vue des con- 
fessionnaux des diverses langues. II y a li encore une autre espece de grandeur.' 
— A. Du Pays. 

The last important service held here was on the last day of the 
Papal rule, when Monte Mario was white with the tents of the 
70,000 Piedmontese who were about to bombard the city. All Rome, 
. in tears and in deepest mourning, met to pray that the Pope might 
be preserved from his enemies, and when the solitary white figure 
of Pius IX. appeared through the dense throng, his face streaming 
with tears^ — such a wail of anguish and sympathy arose from the 
whole vast multitude as can never be forgotten by those who 
heard it. 

An order to visit The Crypt of S. Peter's can be obtained from 
Cardinal Ledockowsliski, Palazzo della Cancelleria, between 9 and 
11. The entrance is near the statue of S. Veronica. The visitor 
is terribly hurried in his inspection of this, the most historically 
interesting part of the basilica, and the works of art it contains are 
so ill arranged as to be difficult to investigate or remember. The 
crypt is divided into two portions, the Grotte Nuove, occupying the 
area beneath the dome, and opening into some ancient lateral chapels 
— and the Grotte Vecchie, which extended under the whole nave of 
the old basilica, and reach as far as the Cappella del Coro of the 
present edifice. We may believe tliat they enclose the sacred plot 
of ground in which S. Peter was buried close to his place of exe- 

'In 1615, when Paul V. built the stairs leading to the Confession and the 
crypts, "several bodies were found lying in coffins, tied with linen bands, as we 
read of Lazarus in the Gospel : ligatus pedibus et manilms institis. One body 
only was attired in a sort of pontifical robe. Notwithstanding the absence of 
written indications, we thought they were the graves of the ten bishops of Rome 
buried in Vaticano." So speaks Giovanni Severano In his book " Mcmorie sacre 
delle sette chiese di Roma," which was printed in 1629. Francesco Maria 
Torrigio, who witnessed the exhumations with Cardinal Evangelista Pallotta, 
adds that the linen bands were from two to three inches wide, and that they 
must have been soaked in aroniatics. One of Uie coffins bore, however, the name 

Crypt of S. Peter's 181 

Linns. Let us now refer to the "Liber Pontiflcalis," the authority of which, as 
a historical text-book, cannot be doubted, since the critical publication of Louis 
Duchesne. After describing the " deposition " of S. Peter in the Vatican, near the 
Circus of Xero, between the Via Amelia and the Via Triumphalis, jtixta locum 
ubi ervcijixus est (near the place of his execution), it proceeds to say that Linus 
"was buried side by side with the remains of the blessed Peter in the Vatican, 
October 24." Even if we are disposed to doubt Torrigio's correctness in copying 
the name of the second Bishop of Rome, the fact of his burial in this place seems 
to he certain, because Hjabanus Maurus, a poet of the ninth century, speaks of 
Linus's tomb as visible and accessible in the year 822.' — Lanciani. 

The first portion of the crypt which is entered is a corridor in 
the Grotte Nuove. Hence open, on the right, two ancient chapels. 
The first, S. Maria in Portico, derives its name from a picture of 
the Virgin, attributed to Simone Memmi, which stood in the portico 
of the old basilica ; it contains an ancient marble copy of the bronze 
statue of S. Peter, seated on a gothic throne which was once 
occupied by the statue of Benedict XII., by Paolo da Siena, which is 
seen close by. Several statuettes here come from the magnificent 
monument of Nicholas V., which perished with the old church. 
Here also is a statue of S. Peter which stood in the portico, and the 
cross which crowned its summit. The second chapel, S. Maria delle 
Partorienti, has a statue of Boniface VIII., attributed to A ndrca 
Pisano ; a mosaic of our Saviour in benediction, from the tomb of 
Otho II. ; a mosaic of the Virgin, of the eighth century ; several 
ancient inscriptions ; and at the entrance, statues of the two apostles 
James, from the tomb of Nicholas V. Behind this chapel were pre- 
served the remains of Leo II., III., and IX., till they were removed 
to the upper church by Leo XII. 

The visitor is hurried through the neighbouring corridor with no 
time to examine the precious fragments of inscriptions, mosaics, and 
statuettes, chiefly from the tombs of the mediaeval Popes, by which 
it is encrusted. 

Entering the Grotte Vecchie we find a nave and aisles separated 
by pilasters with low arches. Following the south aisle, we are first 
arrested by the marble inscription on the left relating to the donation 
of lands made by the Countess Matilda to the church in 1102. Near 
this is the Altare del Salvatore, close to which are a bas-relief of 
the Virgin and Child by Arnolfo, which once decorated the tomb 
of Boniface VIII., — and the grave of Charlotte, Queen of Cjrpriis, 
who died in 1487. Following the south aisle, we reach the sepulchral 
urns of the three Stuart princes, commemorated in the upper church ; 
then the epitaph of Nicholas V. (867), and the tombs of Cardinal 
Tebaldeschi (1-378) and the deacon Felix (495). At the west end 
of the aisle is an early christian sarcophagus used as the tomb 
of Pope Gregory V. (999), and the huge sarcophagus of the Emperor 
Otho I. , who died at Rome in A.D. 983 ; this formerly stood in the 
portico of the basilica. 

Close by, at the end of the central aisle, is the empty tomb 
of Alexander VI., Rodrigo Borgia (1492-1503), the wicked and 
avaricious father of Caesar and Lucretia, who is believed to have 
died of the poison which he intended for one of his cardinals. 

182 Walks in Rome 

' All Rome ran with indescribable gladness to visit the corpse. Men could not 
satiate their eyes with feeding on the carcase of the serpent, who, by his un- 
bounded ambition and pestiferous perfidy, by every demonstration of horrible 
cruelty, monstrous lust, and unheard-of avarice, selling without distinction 
things sacred and profane, had filled the world with yenom.'—Guiceiardini. 

The body of this Pope was not allowed to rest in peace. Julius 
II., the bitter enemy of the Borgias, turned it out of its tomb, and 
had it carried to S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, whence, when that 
church was dismantled, it was taken to S. Maria di Monserrato. 
The empty sarcophagus is surmounted by the figure of Alexander, 
who was himself a handsome old man, and in whose features may 
be traced the lineaments of the splendid Caesar Borgia, known to 
us from the picture formerly in the Borghese Palace. 

At the end of the central nave is the sarcophagus of Christina of 
Sweden, who has a monument in the upper church. 

We now reach the huge tomb of Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare, 
1154-59), the only Englishman who ever occupied the Papal throne, 
who began life as a beggar-boy, and for whom the great Barbarossa 
afterwards held the stirrup.^ He it was who hanged and burnt 
Ainold of Brescia, and crowned Frederick Barbarossa. He is buried 
in a pagan sarcophagus of red granite, adorned with Medusa heads 
in relief, and without any inscription. 

Beyond this are two early christian sarcophagi appropriated as 
the tombs of Pius II., Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (1458-64), and 
Pius III., Antonio Todeschini Piccolomini (1503), whose monuments 
are removed to S. Andrea della Valle. 

Next comes a noble fragment of the tomb of Boniface VIIL, 
Benedetto Caetani (1294-1303). 

The last prince of the Church who understood the Papacy in the sense of 
universal dominion, in the spirltof Gregory VII., of Alexander and Innocent III. 
Two kings held the bridle of his palfrey as he rode from S. Peter's to the Lateran 
after his election. He received Dante as the ambassador of Florence ; in 1300 he 
instituted the jubilee ; and his reign— filled with contests with Philip le Bel of 
France and the Colonnas— ended in his being taken prisoner in his palace at 
Anagni by Sciarra Colonna and William of Nogaret, and subjected to the most 
cruel indignities. He was rescued by his fellow-citizens and conducted to Rome 
l)y the Orsini, but he died thirty-seven days after of grief and mortification. 
The Ghibelline story relates that he sate alone silently gnawing the top of his 
staff, and at length dashed out his brains against the wall, or smothered himself 
with his own pillows. But the contemporary verse of the Cardinal S. George 
describes him as dying quietly in the midst of his cardinals, at peace with the 
world, and having received all the consolations of the Church.— See Milman's 
'Latin Chriistianity,' vol. v. 

The character of Boniface has ever been one of the battle-fields of 
history. He was scarcely dead when the epitaph, ' He came in like 
a fox, he ruled like a lion, he died like a dog,' was proclaimed to 
Christendom, He was consigned by Dante to the lowest circle of 
hell ; yet even Dante expressed the universal shock with which 
Christendom beheld 'the fleur-de-lis enter Anagni, and Christ 

1 He had been Bishop of S. Albans, and a missionary for the conversion of 

Crypt of S. Peter's 183 

again captive in his Vicar — the mockery, the gall and vinegar, the 
crucifixion between living robbers, the cruelty of the second Pilate.' 
In later times, Tosti, Drumann, and, lastly, Cardinal "Wiseman, have 
engaged in his defence. 

Boniface VIII., with whom the mediaeval Papacy came to an end, 
was buried with the utmost magnificence in a splendid chapel, which 
he had built himself, and adorned with mosaics, and where a grand 
tomb was erected to him. Of this nothing remains now but the 
sarcophagus, which bears a majestic figure of the Pope by Arnolfo 
del Camhio. 

' The head is unusually beautiful, severe and noble in its form, and corresponds 
perfectly with the portrait which we have (at the Lateran) from the hand of 
Giotto, which represents his face as beardless and of the most perfect oval. 
His head is covered by a long, pointed mitre, like a sugar-loaf, decked with 
two crowns. This proud man was indeed the first who wore the double crown 
— all his predecessors having been content with a simple crowned mitre. This 
new custom existed till the time of Urban V., by whom the third crown was 
added.' — Grejoronus, ' Grabmaler der Pcipste.' 

Passing the tomb of a nephew of Boniface VIII., we reach, against 
the north wall, a sarcophagus bearing the figure of Nicholas V., 
Tommaso di Sarzana (1447-55), being nearly all that has been pre- 
served of the glorious tomb of that Pope, who founded the Vatican 
library, collected around him a court of savants and poets, and ' with 
whom opened the age of Papacy to which belonged the times of 
Julius II. and Leo X.' His epitaph, attributed to Pius II., is by his 
secretary, Mafeo Vegio : — 

' The lx)nes of Xicholas V. rest in this grave, 
Who gave to thee, O Rome I thy golden age. 
Famous in counsel, more famous in shining virtue. 
He honoitfed wise men, who was himself the wisest of all. 
He gave healing to the world, long wounded with schism, 
And renewed at once its manners and customs, and the buildings 

and temples of the city. 
He gave an altar to S. Bernardino of Siena 
When he celebrated the holy year of jubilee. 
He crowned with gold the fo(ihead of Frederick and his wife. 
And gave order to the affairs of Italy by the treaty which he made. 
He translated many Greek writings into the Latin tongue ; — 
Then offer incense to-day at his holy grave.' 

Next comes a remnant of the tomb of Paul II., Pietro Barbo 
(1464-71), chiefly remarkable for his personal beauty, of which he 
was so vain that, when he issued from the conclave as Pope, he 
wished to take the name of Formosus. This pontiff built the 
Palazzo S. Marco, where he collected a marvellous museum of 
precious works of art, and he gave a name to the Corso, by estab- 
lishing the races there. He also prepared for himself one of the 
most splendid tombs in the old basilica, for which he obtained 
Mino da Fiesole as an architect. It was his wish to lie in the 
porphyry sarcophagus of S. Costanza, which he stole from her 
church for this purpose ; hence the simplicity of the existing sar- 
cophagus, which bears his effigy. Beyond this are sarcophagi of 
Julius III., Gio. Maria Ciocchi del Monte (1550-55) builder of the 

184 Walks in Rome 

Villa Papa Giulio ; and Nicholas III., Gaetano Orsini (1277-81), who 
made a treaty with Rudolph of Hapsburg, and obtained from him 
a ratification of the donation of the Countess Matilda. Dante finds 
him by a burning gulf, the head within, the feet without, red with 
the flames of hell. 

'Le pontificat de Nicolas III. est rarch(5type du nepotisme, devenu depuls 
endemique dans la papaut(§. D'aiitres, avant lui, avaient essayi d'agrandir leurs 
lamilles et de les rapprocher des maisons souveraines par la possession du pouvoir 
ou I'acquisition de la richesse ; le premier, Gaetano Orsini 6rigea le nepotisme en 
systenie, lui donna un but precis, le soumit k des regies et en fit une des supremes 
sciences de la cour de l&oiae.'— Alexis de Saint-Priest, 'Hist, de la Conquete de 

Next comes the sarcophagus of Urban VI. , Bartolommeo Prignani 
(1378-87), the sole relic of a most magnificent tomb of this cruel 
Pope, who is believed to have died of poison. It bears his figure, 
and, in the front, a bas-relief of him receiving the keys from 
S. Peter. The sarcophagus, emptied of its contents, was used as a 
water receptacle by the workmen employed in building the present 
S. Peter's. Its epitaph runs : — 

'Here rests the just, wise, and noble prince, 
Urban VI., a native of Naples. 

He, full of zeal, gave a safe refuge to the teachers of the faith. 
That gained for him, noble one, a fatal poison cup at tlie close of the repast. 
Great was the schism, but great was his courage in opposing it. 
And in the presence of this mighty Pope Simony sate dumb. 
But it is needless to reiterate his praises upon earth. 
While heaven is shining with his immortal glory.' 

' Sepelitur in beatiPetri Basilica, paucis admodumejus mortem, utpote hominis 
rustici et inexorabilis, flentibus. Hujus autem sepulchrum adhuc visitur cum 
epitaphio satis rustico et inepto.' — Platina. 

We next see the sarcophagi of Innocent VII., Cosmato de 
Miliorati (1404-6), bearing his figure; of Marcellus II., Marcello 
Cervini (1555), who only reigned twenty-five days, and was buried 
in a gold mitre ; and of Innocent IX., Giov. Antonio Facchinetti 
(1591-92), who only reigned sixty. 

. Passing the tombs of Cardinal Fonseca, Cardinal della Porta 
(1434), and Cardinal Eruli, each with a statue, and the grave of 
Archbishop Piccolomini, we reach the monument of Agnese Caiitani 
Colonna, the only lady not of royal birth buried in the basilica. 

Hence we return to the corridor of the Grotte Nuove, containing 
a number of mosaics and statues detached from different Papal 
tombs, the best being those from that of Nicholas V. (Tommaso 
Parentucelli of Sarzana) and that of Paul II. by Mino da Fiesole (a 
figure of Charity is especially beautiful), and a bas-relief of the 
Virgin and Child, by Arnolfo, from the tomb of Benedict VIII. 

Near the entrance of the shrine are marble reliefs of the martyr- 
doms of S. Peter and S. Paul. Opposite to the entrance is the 
magnificent sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, christian prefect of 
Rome, who died A.D. 359. It was discovered near its present site 
in 1595. It is adorned with admirable sculptures from the Old and 
New Testament. 

Shrine of SS. Peter and Paul 185 

Opening from the centre of the circular passage is the Confession 
or Shrine of SS. Peter and Paul, which contains the sarcophagus 
brought from the catacomb near S. Sebastiano in 257, and which 
the Roman Catholic Church has always revered as that of S. Peter. 
On the altar, consecrated in 1122, are two ancient pictures of 
S. Peter and S. Paul. Only half the bodies of the saints were held 
to be preserved here, the other portion of that of S. Peter being at 
the Lateran, and of S. Paul at S. Paolo f uori le Mura. 

To the Roman Catholic mind this is naturally one of the most 
sacred spots in the world, since it holds literally the words of 
S. Ambrose, that ' where Peter is, there is the Church — and where 
the Church is, there is no death, but life eternal.' ^ 

' From this place Peter, from this place Paul, shall be caught up in the resur- 
rection. Oh, consider with trembling that which ilome wUl behold when Paul 
suddenly rises with Peter from this sepulchre, and is carried up into the air to 
meet tlie Lord.' — S. John Chrysostom, ^Homily on the Epistle to the Romans.' 

' Among the cemeteries ascribed by tradition to apostolic times, the crypts of 
the Vatican would have the first claim on our attention, had they not been 
almost destroyed by the foundations of the vast basilica which guards the tomb 
of S. Peter. . . . The Liber Pontificalis says that Anacletus, the successor of 
Clement in the Apostolic See, '■^ built and adorned the sepulchral monument 
{construxit memoriam) of blessed Peter, since he had l)een ordained priest by S. 
Peter, and other burial-places where the bishops might be laid." It is added 
that he himself was buried there ; and the same is recorded of Linus and Cletus 
and of Evaiistus, Sixtus I., Telesephorus, Hyginus, Pius I., Eleutherius, and 
Victor, the last of whom was buried a.d. 263 ; and after S. Victor, no other jwn- 
tiff is recorded to have been buried at the Vatican untU Leo the Great was laid 
in S. Peter's, A.D. 461. The idea conveyed by the words congtruxit memoriam 
is that of a monument above ground, according to the usual Boman custom ; 
and we have seen that such a monument, even though it covered the tomb of 
christian bishops, would not be likely to be distm-bed at any time during the 
first or second century. For the reason we have already stated, it is impossible 
to confront these ancient notices with any existing monuments. It is worth 
mentioning, however, that De Rossi believes that the sepulchre of S. Linus was 
discovered in this very place early in the seventeenth century, bearing simply 
the name of Linus.' — Sorthcote and Broicnlow, ' Roma Sotterranea.' 

The ascent of the Dome of S. Peter's is only allowed on Thursdays 
(not being festivals) from 3 to 10 a.m., and not more than twenty 
persons are permitted to ascend at the same time. The entrance 
is from the first door on the left aisle, near the tomb of Maria 
Clementina Sobieski. The ascent is by an easy staircase « cordoni, 
the walls of which bear memorial tablets to all the royal personages 
who have ascended it. The aspect of the roof is exceedingly curious 
from the number of small domes and houses of workmen with which 
it is studded — quite a little village in themselves. 

' We climl)ed up to the roof of the church, where one finds the image of a well- 
built town in miniature — houses and shops, fountains (in semblance, at least), 
churches, and a great temple— all in tlie air, and beautiful walks between.' — 

1 The principal authorities for the fact of S. Peter being at Kome — so often 
denied by ultra-Protestants— are : S. Jerome, Catalo^j^ts Scriptarum Ecelesiasti- 
contm, in Petro ; Tertullian, De Prceseriptionibus, cap. xixvi ; and Eusebius, 
Historia Ecciesiastiea, lib. ii. cap. 24. 

186 Walks in Borne 

A chamber in one of the pillars which support the dome contains 
a model of the ancient throne of S. Peter, and a model of the 
church, by Michelangelo and his predecessor, Antonio di Sangallo. 
The dome is 300 feet above the roof, and 613.^ feet in circumference. 
An iron staircase leads thence to the ball, which is capable of con- 
taining sixteen persons. 

' " Oette hauteur fait fr^niir," (lit Beyle, " quand on songe aux tremblements de 
terre qui agitent frequemment I'ltalie, et qu'un instant pent vous priver du plus 
beau monument qui existe. Certainement jamais il ue serait relev6 : nous sommes 
trop raisonnables." 

' De Brosses raconte que deux moines espagnols, qui se trouvaieut dans la boule 
de S. Pierre lors de la secousse de 1730, eurent une telle peur, que I'un d'eux 
mourut sur la place.'— ^. Du Pays. 

The Sacristy of S. Peter's, which is entered by a grey marble 
door on the left, before turning into the south transept, was built 
by Pius VI. in 1755, from designs of Carlo MarcJiionc. It consists 
of three halls with a corridor adorned by columns and inscriptions 
from the old church, and by statues of SS. Peter and Paul which 
stood in front of it, and were executed by Paolo, the favourite 
sculptor of Pius II. The central hall, Sagrestia Commune, is de- 
corated with eight fluted pillars of grey marble {higio) from 
Hadrian's Villa. On the left is the Sagrestia dei Canonici, with the 
Cappella clei Canonici, which has two pictures, the Madonna and 
Saints (Anne, Peter, and Paul), by Francesco Penni, and the Madonna 
and Child, Giulio Romano. Hence opens the Stanza Capitolare, con- 
taining an interesting remnant of the many works of Giotto in the 
old basilica under Boniface VIII. (for which he received 3020 gold 
florins), in three panel pictures belonging to the ciborium for the 
high altar ordered by Cardinal Stefaneschi, and representing — 
Christ with that Cardinal — the Crucifixion of S. Peter — the Execu- 
tion of S. Peter — and on the back of the same panel, another 
picture, in which Cardinal Stefaneschi is offering his ciborium to 
S. Peter. 

' The fragments which are preserved of the painting which Giotto executed for 
the Church of S. Peter cannot fail to make us regret its loss. The fragments are 
treated with a grandeur of style which has led Rumohr to suspect that the sus- 
ceptible imagination of Giotto was unable to resist the impression which the 
ancient mosaics of the christian basilicas must have produced upon him.' — Jiio, 
' Poetry of Christian Art.' 

Here also are several exquisitely beautiful fragments of the 
frescoes by Melozzo da Forli, which existed in the former dome 
of the SS. Apostoli, and of which the finest portion is now at the 
Quirinal Palace. On the right is the Sagrestia dei Bencfiziati, which 
contains a picture of the Saviour giving the keys to S. Peter, by 
Muziano, and an image called La Madonna della Febbre, which stood 
in the old Sacristy. Opening hence is the Treasury of S. Peter's, 
containing many ancient jewels, crucifixes, and candelabra, by 
Benvenuto Cellini and Michelangelo, and amongst its glorious 
collection of church vestments the famous sacerdotal robe called 
the Dalmatica di Papa San Leone, ' said to have been embroidered at 

Sacristy of S. Peter's 187 

Constantinople for the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of the 
West, but fixed by German criticism as a production of the twelfth 
or the early part of the thirteenth century. The emperors, at least, 
have worn it ever since while serving as deacons at the Pope's altar 
during their coronation mass.' 

' It is a large robe of stiff brocade, falling in broad and unbroken folds in front 
and behind— broad and deep enough for the Goliath-like stature and the herculean 
chest of Charlemagne himself. On the breast, the Saviour is represented in glory, 
on the back the Transfiguration, and on the two shoulders Christ administering 
the Eucharist to the Apostles. In each of these last compositions, oiu* Saviour, 
a stilf but majestic figure, stands l^ehind the altar, on which are deposited a 
chalice and a paten or basket containing crossed wafers. He gives, in the one 
case, the cup to S. Paul, in the other the bread to S. Peter— they do not kneel, 
but bend reverently to receive it ; five other disciples await their tiu^n An each 
instance — all are standing. 

' I do not apprehend your being disappointed with the Dalmatica di San Leone, 
or your dissenting from my conclusion that a master, a Michelangelo I would 
almost say, then flourished at Byzantium. 

' It was in this Dalmatica— then semie all over with peai-ls and glittering in 
freshness — that Cola di Bienzi robed himself over his armour in the sacristy 
of S. Peter's and thence ascended to the Palace of the Popes, after the manner 
of the Caesars, with sounding trumpets and his horsemen following him — his 
truncheon in his hand and his crown on his head — "terribile e fantastico," as 
his biographer describes him — to wait upon the Legate.' — Lord Lindsay's ' Chris- 
tian Art,' i. 137. 

Above the Sacristy are the Archives of S. Peter's, containing, 
among many other ancient MSS., a life of S. George, with minia- 
tures by Giotto. The entrance to the Archivio, at the end of the 
corridor, is adorned with fragments of the chains of the ports of 
Smyrna and Tunis. Here, also, is a statue of Pius VI., by Agostino 

It is quite worth while to leave S. Peter's by the Porta S. Marta, 
beneath the tomb of Alexander VII., in order to examine the exterior 
of the church from behind, where it completely dwarfs all the sur- 
rounding buildings. Among these are the Church of S. Stefano, 
built by Abyssinian Christians, with a fine door composed of 
antique fragments ; and the dismal Church of S. Marta, which con- 
tains several of the Roman weights known as 'Pietre di Paragone,' 
said to have been used in the martyrdoms, but really mensae pon- 
derariae, verified standard measures of weight. Beyond the Sacristy 
is the pretty little Cimeterio del Tedeschi, the oldest of christian 
burial-grounds, said to have been set apart by Constantino and 
filled with earth from Calvary. It was granted to the Germans in 
1779 by Pius VI. Close by is the Church of S. Maria della Pieta 
in Campo Santo. 

Not far from hence (in a street behind the nearest colonnade) 
is the Palazzo del Santo Uflizio— or of the Inquisition. This body 
was established here in 1536 by Paul III., acting on the advice of 
Cardinal Caraffa, afterwards Paul IV., for inquiry into cases of 
heresy and the punishment of ecclesiastical offences. It was by 
the authority of the ' Holy Oflice ' that the ' Index ' of prohibited 
books was first drawn up. Paul IV., on his death-bed, summoned 
the cardinals to his side, and recommended to them this ' Santis- 

188 Walks in Rome 

simo Tribunale,' as he called it, and succeeding Popes protected and 
encouraged it. Even in the last years of Papal rule the Inquisition 
frequently exercised its powers with extreme severity. The tribunal 
was formally abolished by the Roman Assembly in February 1849, 
but was re-established by Pius IX. in the following June : its meet- 
ings now take place in the Vatican. 

In the interior of the building is a lofty hall, with gloomy frescoes 
of Dominican saints, and many terrible dungeons and cells in which 
the victim is unable to stand upright, having their vaulted ceilings 
lined with reeds to deaden sound ; but all this is seldom seen. When 
the people rushed into the Inquisition at the revolution, a number 
of human bones were found in these vaults, which so excited the 
popular fury, that an attack on the Dominican convent at the 
Minerva was anticipated. Ardent defenders of the Papacy maintain 
that these bones had been previously transported to the Inquisition 
from a cemetery, to get up a sensation. ^ 

Built up into the back of this palace is the tribune of the Church 
of S. Salvatore in Torrione or in Macello, whose foundation is 
ascribed to Charlemagne (797). Senerano ('Sette Chiese') supposes 
that the French had here their schola or special centre — Schola 
Francorum — for worship and assemblage. The windows of this 
building are among the few examples of gothic in Rome, and there 
are good terra-cotta mouldings. It may best be seen from the Porta 
Cavalleggieri, which was designed by Sangallo, and derives its name 
from the cavalry barracks close by. 

A short distance from the lower end of the colonnade is the 
Church of S. Michele in Sassia, whose handsome tower is a relic of 
the church founded by Leo IV. (who built the walls of the Borgo), 
especially for funeral masses for the souls of those who fell in the 
defence of Rome against the Saracens. Raphael Mengs is buried 
in the modern church. 

The name of this church commemorates the Saxon settlement 
'called Burgus Saxonum, Vicus Saxonum, Schola Saxonum, and 
simply Saxia or Sassia,'^ founded c. 727 by Ina, king of Wessex, and 
enlarged in 794 by Offa, king of Mercia, when he made a pilgrimage 
to Rome in penance for the murder of Ethelbert, king of East Anglia. 
Ina founded here a church, ' S. Maria quae vocatur Schola Saxonum,' 
which is mentioned as late as 854. Dyer ('Hist, of the City of 
Rome ') says that ' when Leo IV. enclosed this part of the city, it 
obtained the name of Borgo from the Burgus Saxonum, and one of 
the gates was called Saxonum Posterula.' 

1 See Ilenians' Catholic Italy, vol. i. 

- See Dyer's Hist, of the City of Home, p. 358. 



History of the "Vatican Quarter and of the Palace— Scala Eegia— Paoline Chapel 
— Sistine Chapel — Sala Dueale — The Stanze — Chapel of S. Lorenzo — The 
Lo^e — The Picture Gallery— The Sala a Croce Greca — Sala deUa Biga — 
GaUeria dei Candelabri — Galleria degli Arazzi — Sala Rotonda — Sala degli 
Animali — Cortile del Belvidere — The Vestibules — Museo Chiaramonti — 
Braccio Nuovo — Museo Lapidario — Librarj' — Appartamento Borgia— Etrus- 
can Museum— i^yptian Museum— hardens — "Villa Pia. 

THE hollow of the Janiculum between S. Onofrio and the Monte 
Mario is believed to have been the site of Etruscan di\-ination. 

'Faoni vatesqne canebant.' 


Hence the name, which is now only used in regard to the Papal 
palace and the Basilica of S. Peter, but which was once applied to 
the whole district between the foot of the hill and the Tiber near 
S. Angelo. 

' ... Ft patemi 
Flnminis ripae, simul et jocosa 
Bedderet laudes tibi "Vatican! 
Montis imago.' 

Horace, Od. i. 20. 

Tacitus speaks of the unwholesome air of this quarter. In this 
district was the Circus of Caligula, adjoining the gardens of his 
mother Agrippina, decorated by the obelisk which now stands in 
the front of S. Peter's, near which many beUeve that S. Peter 
suffered martyrdom.! 

'Supervenit autem populus inflnitus ad locum qui appellatur Kanmachia 
iurta obeliscum Xeronis. Illic enim crux posita est.' — Acta SS. Petri e Pauli. 

Here Seneca describes that while Caligula was walking by torch- 
light he amused himself by the slaughter of a number of distin- 
guished persons — senators and Roman ladies. Afterwards it 
became the Circus of Nero, who from his adjoining gardens used 
to watch the martyrdom of the Christians- — mentioned by 
Suetonius as ' a race given up to a new and evil superstition ' — 

1 Pliny, XXXV. 15. 2 Tac. Ann. xv. 44. 


190 Walks in Rome 

and who used their living bodies, covered with pitch and set on 
fire, as torches for his nocturnal promenades. 

The first residence of the Popes at the Vatican was erected by 
S. Symmachus (a.d. 498-514) near the forecourt of the old S. 
Peter's, and here Charlemagne is believed to have resided on the 
occasion of his several visits to Eome during the reigns of Adrian I. 
(772-795) and Leo III. (795-816). During the twelfth century this 
ancient palace having fallen into decay, it was rebuilt in the thir- 
teenth by Innocent III. It was greatly enlarged by Nicholas III. 
(1277-81) ; but the Lateran continued to be the Papal residence, 
and the Vatican palace was only used on state occasions, and for 
the reception of any foreign sovereigns visiting Kome. After the 
return of the Popes from Avignon, the Lateran palace had fallen 
into decay, and, for the sake of the greater security afforded by 
the vicinity of S. Angelo, it was determined to make the pontifical 
residence at the Vatican, and the first Conclave was held there in 
1378. In order to increase its security, John XXIII. constructed 
the covered passage to S. Angelo in 1410. Nicholas V. (1447-55) 
had the idea of making it the most magnificent palace in the world, 
and of uniting in it all the government offices and dwellings of the 
cardinals. He wished to make it for Christendom that which the 
Milliarium Aureum in the Forum was to the Roman empire, the 
centre whence all the messengers of the spiritual empire should 
go forth, bearing words of life, truth, and peace.^ Unfortunately 
Nicholas died before he could carry out his designs. The building 
which he commenced was finished by Alexander VI., and still 
exists under the name of Tor di Borgia. In the reign of this Pope, 
his son Cesare murdered Alphonso, Duke of Bisceglia, husband of 
his sister Lucrezia, in the Vatican (August 18, 1500). To Paul II. 
was due the Court of S. Damasus. In 1473 Sixtus IV. built the 
Sixtine Chapel, and in 1490 'the Belvedere' was erected as a 
separate garden-house by Innocent VIII. from designs of Antonio 
da Pollajuolo. Julius II., with the aid of Bramante, united this 
villa to the palace by means of one vast courtyard, and erected 
the Loggie around the Court of S. Damasus ; he also laid the 
foundation of the Vatican Museum in the gardens of the Belvedere. 
The Loggie were completed by Leo X. ; the Sala Regia and the 
Paoline Chapel were built by Paul III. Sixtus V. divided the great 
court of Bramante into two by the erection of the library, and 
began the present residence of the Popes, which was finished by 
Clement VIlI. (1592-1605). Urban VIII. built the Scala Regia; 
Clement XIV. and Pius VI., the Museo Pio-Clementino (for which 
the latter pulled down the chapel of Innocent VIII., full of precious 
frescoes by Mantegna) ; Pius VII., the Braccio Nuovo ; Leo XII., 
the picture-gallery ; Gregory XVI., the Etruscan Museum, and 
Pius IX., the handsome staircase leading to the court of Bramante. 

'What is the Papacy hut the ghost of the deceased Roman empire sitting 
crowned upon the grave tliereof ?' — Ilobbes. 

1 See Bio. 

Sala Regia 191 

The length of the Vatican palace is 1151 English feet ; its 
breadth, 767. It has eight grand staircases, twenty courts, and is 
said to contain 11,000 chambers of different sizes. 

'H faut se figurer plusieurs palais se succedant, dont tous les et^es sont 
remplis de chefs-d'cEUvre antiques et modemes.'— Jean-Jacques Ampere. 

(Tlie Pictorial Treasures of the Vatican— the Sistine Chapel, the Stanze and 
Loggie of Raffaelle, and the Pinacoteca or Gallery of Pictures may be visited 
daily from 9 to 3, except on Saturdays and festivals, and are reached by the 
'Portone di Bronzo,' on the left in ascending the Scala Regia. 

On Monday mornings a iwrtion of the Pinacoteca is closed, on account of the 
Papal audiences, which are held in the rooms beneath.) 

The greater jwrtion of the Collection of Sculpture in the Vatican maybe visited 
from 9 to 3, except on festivals, and on Thui-sdays and Saturdays. On Thursdays 
only a small portion of the galleries are open, comprising the Galleria dei Can- 
delabri, the Arazzi, and the Etruscan and Egyptian antiquities : these portions 
are closed on other days. 

The present entrance to all the Sculpture Galleries is by the Garden Gate 
(Cancello del Giardino) which is reached by the Via dei Fondamenti at the back 
of S. Peter's. A coachman should always be directed to drive to the Cancello 
del Giardino, which is at a great distance from the front entrance to the 

(Open daily. Entrance 1 fr. Free on Saturdays.) 
The principal entrance to the Vatican is at the end of the right 
colonnade of S. Peter's. Hence a door on the right opens upon the 
staircase leading to the Cortile di S. Damaso, and is the nearest way 
to all the collections, and the one by which visitors were admitted 
until the fall of the Papal government. The fountain of the Cortile, 
designed by Algardi in 1649, is fed by the Acqua Damasiana, due 
to Pope Damasus in the fourth century. 

Following the great corridor, and passing on the left the entrance 
to the portico of S. Peter's, we reach the Scala Begia, a magnificent 
work of Bernini, watched by the picturesque Swiss guard of the 
Pope. Hence we enter the Sala Regia, built in the reign of Paul III. 
by Antonio di Sangallo, and used as a hall of audience for ambas- 
sadors. It is decorated with frescoes illustrative of the history of 
the Popes. 

Entrance Wall : 

Vasari : Alliance of the Venetians with Paul V. against the Turks, and 
Battle of Lepanto, 1571. 

Right Wall : 

Federigo and Taddeo Zucchero : Absolution of the Emperor Henry IV. by 
Gregory VII. 

Left WaU : 

Vasari : The Triumph of the Church in the Massacre of S. Bartholomew. 
The death of Admiral Coligny is represented in 'Cedis Colignl et 
sociorum ejus," and the approval of the massacre by Charles IX— ' Rex 
Coligni necem probat.' 

Opposite Wall towards the Sala Regia : 
Return of Gregoiy XI. from Avignon. 

Giuseppe Porta : Benediction of Frederick Barbaroasa by Alexander III. 
in the Piazza of S. Marco. 

192 Walks in Rome 

On the right is the entrance of the Faoline Chapel (Cappella 
Paolina), also built (1540) by Antonio di Sangallo for Paul III. Its 
decorations are chiefly the work of Sabhatini and F. Zucchero, but it 
contains two frescoes by Michelangelo. 

' Two excellent frescoes, executed by Michelangelo on the side wall of the 
Pauline Chapel, are little cared for, and are so much blackened by. the smoke of 
lamps that they are Seldom mentioned. The Crucifixion of S. Peter, under the 
large window, is in a most unfavourable light, but is distinguished for its grand, 
severe composition. That on the opposite wall — the Conversion of S. Paul— is still 
tolerably distinct. The long train of his soldiers is seen ascending in the back- 
ground. Christ, surrounded by a host of angels, bursts upon his sight from the 
storm-flash. Paul lies stretched on the ground — a noble and finely-developed 
form. His followers fly on all sides, or are struck motionless by the thunder. 
The arrangement of the groups is excellent, and some of the single figures are 
very dignified ; the composition has, moreover, a principle of order and repose, 
which, in comparison with the Last Judgment, places this picture in a very 
favourable light. If there are any traces of old age to be found in these works, 
they are at most discoverable in the execution of details.' — Kiigler, p. 308. 

. On the left of the approach from the Scala Eegia is the Sixtine 
Chapel (Cappella Sistina), built by Baccio Pintelli in 1473 for 
Sixtus IV. 1 

' Una sorte de salle rectangulaire, trfes haute, avec sa fine cloison de marbre 
qui la coupe aux deux tiers, la partie oil se tiennent les invites, les jours de 
grande c6remonie, et le choour oii s'assoient les cardinaux sur de simples bancs 
de chSne, taudis que les prelats restent debout, derrifere. Le trone pontifical, 
sur une estrade basse, est k droite de I'autel, d'une richesse sobre. A gauche, 
dans la muraille, s'ouvre I'l^troite loge, A balcon de marl)re, reservde aux chanteurs. 
II faut lever la tete, il faut que les regards montent de I'lmmense fresque du 
Jngement dernier, qui occupe la parol entiferedu fond, auxpeintures de lavoftte, 
qui descendent jusqu'ii la corniche, entre les douze fenetres claires, six de chaque 
c6t6, pour que, brusqucment, tout s'elargisse, tout s'6carte et s'envole, en plein 
infini. '—Zola. 

The lower part of the walls of this wonderful chapel was formerly 
hung on festivals with the tapestries executed from the cartoons of 
Rallaelle ; the upper portion is decorated in fresco by the great 
Florentine masters of the fifteenth century. 

' It was intended to represent scenes from the life of Moses on one side of the 
chapel, and from tlie life of Christ on the other, so that the old law might be con- 
fronted by the new — the type by the typified.'— Lanzi. 

The following is the order of the frescoes, type and antitype 
together, six scenes from the life of Moses having six from the life 
of Christ opposite to them. 

Over the altar — now destroyed to make way for the Last Judgment : 

1. Penigino ; Moses in the Bulrushes. | 1. Perugino : Christ in the Manger. 

(Between these was the Assumption of the Virgin, in which Pope Sixtus IV. 
was introduced kneeling : Perugino.) 

1 Travellers are often only admitted by a small door on the staircase to 
the Stanzc, which is reached by the Portone di Bronze, on the left of the Scala 

Cappella Sistina 193 

On the left wall, still existing : On the right wall, still existing : 

2. Luca Siffiwrelli: Moses and Zip- j 2. Pinturieehio: The Baptism of 
porah on the way to Egypt, and the j Christ. 

circumcision of their son. i 

3. Sandro Botticelli: Moses killing I 3. Sandro Botticelli: The Tempta- 
the Egyptian, and driving away the tion of Christ. 

shepherds from the well. I 

4. Cogimo Rosselli: Moses and the ! 4. Doinenico Ghirlandajo : The Call- 
Israelites after the passage of the Red I ing of the Apostles on the Lake of 
Sea. I Gennesareth. 

5. Cosinio Rosselli : Moses giving the 5. Cogimo RosselU : Christ's Sermon 
Law from the Mount. on the Mount. 

6. Sandro Botticelli: The punish- I 6. Perugino: The institution of the 
ment of Korah, Dathau, and Abiram, ] Christian Priesthood. Christ giving the 

who aspired uncalled to the priesthood. 

7. Lxica Signorelli: The last inter- 
view of Moses and Joshua. 

keys to Peter. Tliis is perhaps the best 
work of Perugino ; but an attempt has 
been made to prove it to have been 
executed by I'ra Diamante, an inferior 
artist of the middle of the fifteenth 
7. Cogimo Bosselli : The Last Supper. 

On the entrance wall : 

8. Cecchino Salviati : yiichAel hears 8, Domenico Ghirlandajo, restoredhy 

away the body of Moses (Jude 9). ■ Arrigo Fiamingo : The Resurrection. 

On the pillars between the windows are the fignres of twenty-eight 
Popes, by Sandro Botticelli. 

' Vasari says that the two works of Luca Signorelli surpass in beauty all those 
which surround them— an assertion which is at least questionable as far as re- 
gards the frescoes of Perugino ; but with respect to all the rest, the superiority of 
Signorelli is evident, even to the most inexperienced eye. Tlie subject of the first 
picture is the journey of Moses and Zipporah into Egypt : the landscape is 
charming, although evidently ideal ; there is great depth in the aerial perspective ; 
and in the various groups scattered over the different parts of the picture there 
are female forms of such beauty that they may have afforded models to Raffaelle. 
The same graceful treatment is also perceptible in the representation of the death 
of Moses, the mournful details of which have given scope to the poetical imagi- 
nation of the artist. The varied group to whom Moses has just read the Law for 
the last time, the sorrow of Joshua, who is kneeling before the man of God, the 
charming landscape, with the river Jordan threading its way between the moun- 
tains, which are made singularly beautiful, as if to e.xplain the regrets of Moses 
when the angel announces to him that he will not enter into the promised land 
— all form a series of melancholy scenes perfectly in hannony with one another, 
the only defect being that the whole is crowded into too small a space.' — Rio, 
^Poetry of Christian Art.' 

The avenue of pictures is a preparation for the surpassing grandeur 
of the ceiling. 

' The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel contains the most perfect works done by 
Michelangelo in his long and active life. Here his great spirit appears in its 
noblest diguity, in its highest purity ; here the attention is not disturlied by that 
arbitrary display to which his great power not unfrequeutly seduced him in other 
works. I'he ceiling forms a flattened arch in its section ; the central portion, 
which is a plain surface, contains a series of large and small pictures, representing 
the most important events recorded in the book of Genesis — the Creation and 
Fall of Man, with its immediate consequences. In the large triangular compart- 
ments at the springing of the vault are sitting figures of the prophets and Sibyls, 
as the foretellers of the coming of the Saviour. In the soffits of the recesses 
between these compartments, and in the arches imdemeath, immediately above 

194 Walks in Rome 

the windows, are the ancestors of the Virgin, the series leading the mind directly 
to the Saviour. The external connection of these numerous representations is 
formed by an architectm-al framework of peculiar composition, which encloses 
the single subjects, tends to make the principal masses conspicuous, and gives to 
the whole an appearance of that solidity and support so necessary, but so seldom 
attended to, in sofBt decorations, which may be considered as if suspended. A 
gi-eat number of figures are also connected with the framework : those in unim- 
portant situations are executed in the colour of stone or bronze ; in the more 
important, in natural coloui-s. These serve to support the architectural forms, 
to fill up and to connect the whole. They may be best described as the living 
and embodied genii of architecture. It required the unlimited power of an archi- 
tect, sculptor, and painter to conceive a structm-al whole of so much grandeur, 
to design the decorative figures with the significant repose required by the 
sculpturesque character, and yet to preserve their subordination to the principal 
subjects, and to keep the latter in the proportions and relations best adapted to 
the space to be filled.' — Kugler, p. 301. 

' Cette voftte obscure et solitaire, dans laquelle il passa au moins cinq ans (1507- 
1512), f ut jjour Michel- Ange I'antre du Carmel, et il y v^cut comme Elie. II y avait 
un lit, sur lequel il peignait pendu :i la vov'ite, la tete renversce. Nulle compagnie 
que les proph^tes et les sennons de Savonarole.' — Michelet. 

The pictures from the Old Testament, beginning from the altar, 
are: — 

1. The Separation of Light and Darkness. 

2. The Creation of the Sun and Moon. 

3. The Creation of Trees and Plants. 

4. The Creation of Adam. 

5. The Creation of Eve. 

6. The Fall and the Expulsion from Paradise. 

7. The Sacrifice of Noah. 

8. The Deluge. 

9. The Intoxication of Noah. 

' The scenes from Genesis are the most sublime representations of these sub- 
jects ; — the Creating Spirit is unveiled before us. The peculiar type which the 
painter has here given of the form of the Almighty Father has been frequently 
imitated by his followers, and even by Raffaelle, but has been surpassed by none. 
Michelangelo has represented Him in majestic flight, sweeping through the air, 
surrounded by genii, partly supporting, partly borne along with Him, covered by 
His floating drapery ; they are the distinct syllables, the separate virtues of His 
creating word. In the first (large) compartment we see Him with extended hands, 
assigning to the sun and moon their respective paths. In the second, he awakens 
the first man to life. Adam lies stretched on the verge of the earth, in the act 
of raising himself ; the Creator touches him with the point of His finger, and 
appears thus to endow him with feeling and life. This picture displays a wonder- 
ful depth of thought in the composition, and the utmost elevation and majesty 
in the general treatment and execution. The thii'd subject is not less important, 
representing the Fall of Man and his Expulsion from Paradise. The tree of 
knowledge stands in the midst, the serpent (the upper part of the body being 
that of a woman) is twined around the stem ; she bends down towards the guilty 
pair, who are in the act of plucking the forbidden fruit. The figures are nobly 
graceful, particularly that of Eve. Close to the serpent hovers the angel with 
the sword, ready to drive the fallen beings out of Paradise. In this double action, 
this union of two separate moments, there is something peculiarly poetic and 
significant : it is guilt and punishment in one picture. The sudden and lightning- 
like appearance of the avenging angel behind the demon of darkness has a most 
impressive effect.' — Kugler, p. 304. 

' It was the seed of Eve that was to bruise the serpent's head. Hence it is that 
Michelangelo made the Creation of Eve the central subject on the ceiling of the 
Sistine Chapel. He had the good taste to suggest, and yet to avoid, that literal 
rendering of the bililical story whicli in the ruder representations borders on the 
grotesque, and wliicli Milton, with all his pomp of words, could scarcely idealise.' — 
Mrs. Jameson, 'History of our Lord.' 

Cappella Sistina 195 

The lower portion of the ceiling is divided into triangles occupied 
by the Prophets and Sibyls in solemn contemplation, accompanied 
by angels and genii. Beginning from the left of the entrance, their 
order is — 

1. Joel. 6. Sibylla Libyca. 

2. Sibylla Erythraea. 

3. Ezekiel. 

4. Sibylla Persica. 

5. Jonah. 

7. Daniel. 

8. Sibylla Ciunaea. 

9. Isaiah. 

10. Sibylla Delphica. 

' The prophets and sibyls in the triangular compartments of the curved portion 
of the ceiling are the largest figures in the whole work ; these, too, are among the 
most wonderful forms that modem art has called into life. They are all repre- 
sented seated, employed with lx>oks or rolled manuscripts : genii stand near or 
Ijehind them.' These mighty beings sit before us pensive, meditative, inquiring, 
or looking upwards with inspired coimtenances. Their forms and movements, 
indicated by the grand lines and masses of the drapery, are majestic and digni- 
fied. ^Ve see in them beings who, while they feel and bear the sorrows of a corrupt 
and sinful world, have power to look for consolation into the secrets of the future. 
Yet the greatest variety prevails in the attitudes and expression — each figure is 
full of individuality. Zacharias is an aged man, busied in calm and circumspect 
investigation ; .Jeremiah is bowed down absorbed in thought — the thought of deep 
and bitter grief ; Ezekiel turns with hasty movement to the genius next to him, 
who points upwards with joyful expectation, &c. The sibyls are equally charac- 
teristic : the Persian— a lofty, majestic woman, very aged ; the Erythraean— full 
of iwwer, like the warrior-goddess of wisdom ; the-Delphic— like Cassandra, youth- 
fully soft and graceful, but with strength to bear the awful seriousness of revela- 
tion.'— fi^w^fer, p. 304. 

'The belief of the Roman Catholic Church in the testimony of the Sibyl is 
shown by the well-known hymn, said to have been composed by Pope Innocent III. 
at the close of the thirteenth century, beginning with the verse :— 
" Dies irae, dies ilia, 
Solvet saeclum in favilla ; 
Teste David cimi Sibylla." 
It may be inferred that this hymn, admitted into the liturgy of the Eoman Church, 
gave sanction to the adoption of the Sibyls into christian art. They are seen from 
tliis time accompanying the prophets and apostles in the cyclical decorations of 
the Church. . . . But the highest honour that art has rendered to the Sibyls has 
been by the hand of Michelangelo on the ceUing of the Sistine Chapel. Here, in 
the conception of a mysterious order of women, placed above and without all con- 
siderations of the graceful or the individual, the great master was peculiarly in 
his element. They exactly fitted his standard of art, not always sj-mpathetic, nor 
comprehensible to the average hiuuan mind, of which the grand in form and the 
abstract in expression were the last and first conditions. In this respect the 
Sibyls on the Sistine ceiling are more Michelangelesque than their companions 
the Prophets. For these, while types of the highest monumental treatment, are 
yet men, while the Sibyls belong to a distinct class of beings, who convey the 
impression of the very obscurity in which their history is wrapt — creatures who 
have lived far from the abodes of men, who are alike devoid of the expression 
of feminine sweetness, human sympathy, or sacramental beauty ; who are neither 
Christians nor Jewesses, AVitches nor Graces, yet living, grand, beautiful, and 
true, according to laws revealed to the great Florentine genius only. Thus their 
figures may be said to be unique, as the offspring of a peculiar sympathy between 
the master's mind and his subject. To this synipathy may be ascriljed the 
prominence and size given them — both Prophets and Siljyls— as compared to their 
usual relation to the subjects they environ. They sit here in twelve throne-like 
niches, more like presiding deities, each wrapt in self-contemplation, than as 
tributary witnesses to the truth and omnipotence of Him they are intended to 
announce. Thus they form a gigantic framework round the subjects of the 
Creation, of which the birth of Eve, as the tj-pe of the Nativity, is the intentional 
centre. For some reason, the twelve figures are not Prophets and Sibyls alter- 
nately—there being only five Sibyls to seven Prophets— so that the Prophets come 
together at one angle. Books and scrolls are given indiscriminately to them. 

196 Walks in Rome 

' The Sibylla Perslca, supposed to be the oldest of the sisterhood, holds the book 
close to her eyes, as if from dimness of sight, which fact, contradicted as it is by 
a frame of obviously herculean strength, gives a mysterious in ten tn ess to the 

' The Sibylla Libyca, of equally powerful proportions, but less closely draped, 
is grandly wringing herself to lift a massive volume from a height al)ove her head 
on to her knees. 

' The Sibylla Cumana, also aged, and with her head covered, is reading with 
her volume at a distance from her eyes. 

' The Sibylla Delphica, with waving hair escaping from her turban, is a beauti- 
ful young being— the most human of all— gazing into vacancy or futurity. She 
holds a scroll. 

' The Sibylla Erythraca, grand bare-headed creature, sits reading intently with 
crossed legs, about to turn over her book. 

' The Prophets are equally grand in structure, and though, as we have said, not 
more than men, yet they are the only men that could well bear the juxtaposition 
with their stupendous female colleagues. Ezekiel , between Erytbraea and I'ersica, 
has a scroll in his hand that hangs by his side, just cast down, as he turns eagerly 
to listen to some voice. 

' Jeremiah, a magnificent figure, sits with elbow on knee and head on hand, 
rapt in the meditation appropriate to one called to utter lamentation and woe. 
He has neither Ijook nor scroll. 

' Jonah is also without either. His position is strained and ungraceful— look- 
ing upwards, and apparently remonstrating with the Almighty upon the destruc- 
tion of the gourd, a few leaves of which are seen above him. His hands are 
placed together with a strange and trivial action, supposed to denote the count- 
ing on his fingers the number of days he was in the fish's belly. A formless 
marine monster is seen at his side. 

' Daniel has a book on his lap, with one hand on it. He is young, and a piece 
of lion's skin seems to allude to his history.' — Lady EasUake, 'History of our 
Lord; i. 248. 

' le d6sespoir de Jeremie qui laisse tomber sa tote dans sa main, et n'est plus 
que le gigantesque soupir de tout un i>eui>le.'—Michelet 

In the recesses between the Prophets and Sibyls are a series of 
lovely family groups representing the Genealogy of the Virgin, and 
expressive of calm expectation of the future. The four corners of 
the ceiling contain groups illustrative of the power of the Lord 
displayed in the especial deliverance of His chosen people. 

Near the altar are : 

liight.— The deliverance of the Israelites by the brazen serpent. 
Le/t.—The execution of Hamau. 

Near the entrance are : 

Right.— Judith and Holofernes. 
//e/f.— David and Goliath. 

Only 3000 ducats were paid to Michelangelo for all his great work 
on the ceiling of the Sistine ; less than a common decorator obtains 
in the nineteenth century. 

It was when Michelangelo was already in his sixtieth year that 
Clement VII. formed the idea of effacing the three pictures of 
Perugino at the end of the chapel, and employing him to paint the 
vast fresco of The Last Judgment in their place. It occupied the 
artist for seven years, and was finished in 1541, when Paul III. was 
on the throne. During this time Michelangelo frequently read and 
re-read the wonderful sermons of Savonarola, to refresh his mind, 

Cappella Sistina 197 

and that he might drink in the inspiration of their ovsn religious 
awe and Dantesque imagination. To induce him to pursue his work 
with application, Paul III. went himself to his house attended by 
ten cardinals ; ' an honour,' says Lanzi, ' unique in the annals of 
art.' The Pope wished that the picture should be painted in oil, to 
which he was persuaded by Sebastian del Piombo, but Michelangelo 
refused to employ anything but fresco, saying that oil-painting was 
work for women and for idle and lazy persons. 

' In the upper half of the picture we see the Judge of the world, surrounded 
by the apostles and patriarchs ; beyond these, on one side, are the martjTS ; on 
the other, the saints and a numerous host of the blessed. Above, under the two 
arches of the vault, two gi-oups of angels bear the instruments of the Passion. 
Below the Saviour another group of angels holding the books of life sound the 
trampets to awaken the dead. On the right is represented the resun-ection ; and 
higher, the ascension of the blessed. On the left, hell, and the fall of the con- 
demned, who audaciously strive to press to heaven. 

' The day of wrath (" dies irae ") is before us— the day of which the old hymn 
says, — 

" Quantus tremor est futurus, 
Quando judex est ventiuTis, 
Cuncta strict^ discussurus." 

The Judge turns in wrath towards the condemned and raises His right hand with 
an expression of rejection and condemnation ; beside Him the Virgin veils her- 
self with her drapery, and turns with a countenance full of anguish towards the 
blessed. The martjTS, on the left, hold up the instruments and proofs of their 
martyrdom, in accusation of those who had occasioned their temporal death : 
these the avenging angels drive from the gates of heaven, and fulfil the sentence 
pronounced against them. Trembling and anxious, the dead rise slowly, as if 
still fettered by the weight of an earthly nature ; the pardoned ascend to the 
blessed ; a mysterious horror pervades even their hosts — no joy, nor peace, nor 
blessedness, are to be found here. 

' It must be admitted that the artist has laid a stress on this view of his sub- 
ject, and this has produced an unfavourable effect upon the upper half of his 
picture. We look in vain for the glory of heaven, for beings who bear the stamp 
of divine holiness and renunciation of human weakness ; everywhere we meet 
with the expression of human passion, of human efforts. "We see no choir of 
solemn, tranquU forms, no harmonious unity of clear, grand lines, produced by 
ideal draperies ; instead of these, we find a confused crowd of the most varied 
movements, naked bodies in violent attitudes, unaccompanied by any of the 
characteristics made sacred by holy tradition. Christ, the principal figure of the 
whole, wants every attribute but that of the Judge : no expression of di>ine 
majesty reminds us that it is the Saviour who exercises this office. Tlie upper 
part of the composition is in many parts heavy, notwithstanding the masterly 
boldness of the drawing ; confused, in spite of the separation of the principal 
and accessory groups ; capricious, notwithstanding a grand arrangement of the 
whole. But, granting for a moment that these defects exist, still this upper 
portion, as a whole, has a very impressive effect, and, at the great distance from 
which it is seen, some of the defects alluded to are less offensive to the eye. 
The lower half deserves the highest praise. In these groups, from the languid 
resuscitation and upraising of the pardoned, to the despair of the condemned, 
every variety of expression, anxiety, anguish, rage, and despair is powerfully 
delineated. In the convulsive struggles of the condemned with the evil demons, 
the most passionate energy displays itself, and the extraordinary skill of the 
artist here finds its most appropriate exercise. A peculiar tragic grandeur per- 
vades alike the beings who are given up to despair and their hellish tormentors. 
The representation of all that is fearful, far from being repulsive, is thus 
invcstetl with that true moral dignity which is so essential a condition in Uie 
higher aims of &rt.'—Kxt{jler, p. 308. 

' Tlie Last Judgment is now more valuable as a school of design than as a fine 
painting, and it will be sought more for the study of the artist, than the delight 

198 Walks in Eome 

of the amateur. Beautiful it is not — but it is sublime ; — sublime in conception, 
and astonishing in execution. Still, I believe, there are few who do not feel 
that it is a laliour rather than a pleasure to look at it. Its blackened surface — 
its dark and dingy sameness of colouring— the obscurity which hangs over it — 
the confusion and multitude of naked figures wliich compose it— their unnatural 
position suspended in tlie air, and the sameness of form and attitude, confound 
and bewilder the senses. These were, perhaps, defects inseparable from the 
subject, although it was one admirably calculated to call forth the powers of 
Michelangelo. To merit in colouring it has confessedly no pretensions, and I 
think it is also deficient in expression — that in the conflicting passions, hopes, 
fears, remorse, despair, and transport, that must agitate the breasts of so many 
thousands in that awful moment, there was room for powerful expression which 
we do not see here. But it is faded and defaced : the toiiches of immortal 
genius are lost for ever ; and from what it is we can form but a faint idea of 
what it was. Its defects daily become more glaring — its beauties vanish ; and, 
could the spirit of its great author behold the mighty work upon which he spent 
the unremitting labour of seven years, with what grief and mortification would 
he gaze upon it now. 

' It may be fanciful, but it seems to me that in this, and in every other of 
Michelangelo's works, you may see that the ideas, beauties, and peculiar excel- 
lences of statuary were ever present to his mind ; that they are the conceptions 
of a sculptor embodied in painting. 

' . . . S. Catharine, in a green gown, and somelwdy else in a blue one, are 
supremely hideous. Paul IV., in an unfortunate flt of prudery, was seized with 
the i-esolution of wliitewashing over the whole of the Last Judgment, in order to 
cover the scandal of a few naked female figures. With difficulty was he pre- 
vented from utterly destroying the grandest painting in the world, but he could 
not be dissuaded from ordering these poor women to be clothed in this unbe- 
coming drapery. Daniel da Volterra, whom he employed in this office (in the 
lifetime of Michelangelo), received, in consequence, the name of II Braghettone 
(the breeches-maker).' — Eaton's ' Rome.' 

Michelangelo avenged himself upon Messer Biagio da Cesena, 
master of the ceremonies, who first suggested the indelicacy of the 
naked figures to the Pope, by introducing him in hell, as Midas, 
with ass's ears. When Cesena begged Paul IV. to cause this 
figure to be obliterated, the Pope sarcastically replied, 'I might 
have released you from purgatory, bub over hell I have no power.' 

'Michel-Ange est extraordinaire, tandis qu'Orcagnai est religieux. Leurs 
compositions se resument dans les deux Christs qui jugent. L'un est un 
qui foudroie, I'autre est un monarque qui eondamne en montrant la plaie sacr6e 
de son c6t6 pour justifler sa sentence.' — Cartier, ' Vie du Pbre Angelico.' 

' The Apostles in Michelangelo's Last Judgment stand on each side of the 
Saviour, who is not here Saviour and Redeemer, l)ut inexorable Judge. They 
are grandly and artificially grouped, all without any drapery whatever, with 
forms and attitudes which recall an assemblage of Titans holding a council of 
war, rather than the glorified companions of Christ.' — Jameson's ' Sacred and 
Legendary Art,' i. 179. 

The Sistine Chapel is associated in the minds of all Roman 
sojourners with the great ceremonies of the Church, but especially 
with the Miserere of Passion Week. 

'On Wednesday afternoon began the Miserere in the Sixtine Chapel. . . . The 
old cardinals entered in their magnificent violet-coloured velvet cloaks, with 
their white ermine capes ; and seated themselves side by side, in a great half- 
circle, within the barrier, whilst the priests who had carried their trains seated 
themselves at their feet. By the little side door of the altar the holy father now 

1 In the Campo-Santo of Pisa. 

Cappella Sistina 199 

entered in his purple mantle and silver tiara. He ascended his throne. Bishops 
swung the vessels of incense around him, whilst young priests in scarlet vest- 
ments knelt, with lighted torches in their hands, I)€fore him and the high altar. 
' The reading of the lessons began.i But it was Impossible to keep the eyes 
fixed on the lifeless letters of the missal — they raised themselves, with the 
thoughts, to the vast universe which Michelangelo had breathed forth in colours 
upon the ceiling and the walls. I contemplated his mighty sibyls and won- 
drously glorious prophets, every one of them a subject for a painting, ily eyes 
drank in the magnificent processions, the beautiful groups of angels ; they were 
not to me painted pictures, all stotxl lining before me. The rich tree of know- 
ledge, from which Eve gave the fruit to Adam : the Almighty God, who floated 
over the waters, not borne up by angels, as the older masters had represented 
Him — no, the company of angels rested upon Him and His fluttering garments. 
It is true I had seen these pictures before, but never as now had they seizetl 
upon me. lly e.xcited state of mind, the crowd of people, perhaps even the 
lyric of my thoughts, made me wonderfully alive to poetical impressions ; and 
many a poet's heart has felt as mine did ! 

' Ae bold foreshortenings, the determinate force with which every figure 
steps forward, is amazing, and carries one quite away ! It is a spiritual Sermon 
on the Mount in colour and form. Like Raffaelle, we stand in astonishment 
before the power of Michelangelo. Every prophet is a Moses like that which he 
formed in marble. A\Tiat giant forms are those which seize upon our eye and 
our thoughts as we enter I But, when intoxicated with this view, let us turn 
our eyes to the background of the chapel, whose whole wall is a high altar of 
art and thought The great chaotic picture, from the floor to the roof, shows 
itself there like a jewel, of which all the rest is only the setting. We see there 
the Last Judgment. 

' Christ stands in judgment upon the clouds, and the apostles and His mother 
stretch forth their hands beseeching for the jwor himian race. The dead raise 
the gravestones imder which they have lain ; blessed spirits float upwards, 
adoring, to God, whilst the abyss seizes its victims. Here one of the ascending 
spirits seeks to save his condemned brother, whom the abyss already embraces 
in its snaky folds. The children of despair strike their clenched fists upon their 
brows and sink into the depths ! In bold foreshortening, float and tumble whole 
legions between heaven and eaith. The sympathy of the angels ; the expression 
of lovers who meet ; the child that, at the sound of the trumpet, clings to the 
mother's breast, are so natural and beautiful, that one believes oneself to be 
among those who are waiting for judgment. Michelangelo has expressed in 
colours what Dante saw and has sung to the generations of the eai"th. 

'The descending sun. at that moment, threw his last beams in through the 
uppermost ^vindows. Christ and the blessed around Him were strongly lighted 
up ; whilst the lower part, where the dead arose, and the demons thrust their 
boat, laden with damned, from shore, was almost in darlcness. 

' Just as the sun went down the last Psalm was ended, and the last light which 
now remained was extinguished, and the whole picture-world vanished in the 
gloom from before me ; but, in that same moment, burst forth music and 
singing. That which colour had bodily revealed arose now in sound ; the day 
of judgment, with its despair and its exultation, resounded above us. 

' The father of the Church, stripped of his papal pomp, stood before the altar 
and prayed to the holy cross ; and upon the wings of the trumpet resounded the 
trembling quire, " Popule mens, quid feci tibi ? " Soft angel notes rose above the 
deep song, tones which ascended not from a human breast : it was not a man's 
nor a woman's : it belonged to the world of spirits : it was like the weeping of 
angels dissolved in melody.' — Andersen's ' Improvisator e.' 

' Le Miserere, c'est-a-dire, ayez pitif. de noug, est un psaume compose de 
versets qui se chantent altemativement d'une maniere tres diflerente. Tour a 
torn- une musique celeste se fait entendre, et le verset suivant, dit en recitatif, 
et murmure d'un ton sourd et presque rauque, on dirait que c'est la reponse des 
caracteres durs aus creurs sensibles, que c'est le reel de la vie qui vient fietrir 
et rejjousser les voeux des dmes genereuses ; et quand le choeur si doux reprend, 

1 fifteen Psalms are sung before the Miserere begins, and one light is extin- 
guished for each — the Psalms being represented by fifteen candles. 

200 Walks in Rome 

on renait k Tesperance ; mais lorsque le verset recite recommence, une sensa- 
tion de froid saisit de nouveau; ce n'est pas la terreiir qui la cause, mais le 
decouragemeut de I'enthousiasme. Eiifln le dernier morceau, plus noble et 
plus touchant encore que tons les autres, laisse au fond de I'.ame une im- 
pression douce et pure : Dieu nous accorde cette mfime impression avant de 

' On liteint les flambeaux ; la nuit s'avance ; les figures des prophfetes et des 
sibylles apparaissent comme des fantomes enveloppes du crepuscule. Le silence 
est profond, la parole ferait un mal insupportable dans cet etat de Tame, ou tout 
est in time et int^rieur ; etquand le dernier son s'eteint, chacun s'en va lentement 
et sans bruit ; chacun semble craindre de rentrer dans les int6rets vulgaires de ce 
monde." — Mad. de Stael. 

' Never lor a moment during the services in the Sistine are you allowed to 
forget that the highest potentate on this earth is present in the chapel ; never 
can you forget that you look on an aged being, living in the passing generation 
of the existing century, but laden with the traditions and courtesies, the super- 
stitions and falsehoods, of 1500 years.'— J.. P. Stanley. 

The fact that English and other foreigners are admitted to the 
Sistine when natives are turned back is the subject of a well-known 
pasquinade. Pasquino says to Marforio — 

' Where are you going, brother, with your black dress and sword ? ' 
Marforio. ' I am going to the Sistine Chapel to hear the Miserere." 
Pasquino. 'You will go in vain. Tlie Swiss Guard will turn you out, and the 

Pope's camerieri will send you about your business.' 
Marforio. ' There is no danger, brother ; I am certain to get in : I turned 

heretic yesterday.' 

Opposite the entrance of the Sistine Chapel in the Sala Regia is 
that of the Sala Ducale, in which the Popes formerly gave audience 
to foreign princes, and which is now used for the consistories for 
the admission of cardinals to the Sacred College. Its decorations 
were chiefly executed by Bernini for Alexander VII. The land- 
scapes are by Brill. This hall is used as a passage to the Loggie of 
Bramante. The finest ecclesiastical sight still to be seen in Rome 
is the carrying of the Pope through the Sala Ducale to the cere- 
monies of the Sistine Chapel. 

The small portion of the Vatican inhabited by the Pope is never 
seen except by those who are admitted to a special audience. The 
three rooms occupied by the pontiff are furnished with a simplicity 
which would be inconceivable in the abode of any other sovereign 
prince. The furniture is confined to the merest necessaries of life : 
strange contrast to Lambeth and Fulham 1 The apartment consists 
of the bare Green Saloon ; the Red Saloon, containing a throne 
flanked by benches ; and the bedroom, with yellow drax)eries, a large 
writing table, and a few pictures by old masters. The Papal life is 
a lonely one, as the dread of an accusation of nepotism has pre- 
vented any of the later Popes from having anj' of their family with 
them, and etiquette always obliges them to dine, &c., alone, 
Pius IX. seldom saw his family, but Leo XIII. is often visited 
twice a day by his relations — 'la Sainte Famiile,' as they are 
generally called. 

The Vatican 201 

' Des six heures, Lton XIII. est debout, dit sa messe dans sa chapelle parti- 
culfere, d^jeune d'un pen de lait. Puis, de huit heures a midi, c'est un defile 
ininterrompu de cardinaux, de prelats, toutes les affaires des congregations qui 
Ini passent sons les yeiix, U nest pas de plus nombreuses ni de plus compliquees. 
A midi, le plus souvent, ont Ueu les audiences publiques et collectives. A deux 
heures, il dine. Vient alors la sieste, qu'U a bien gagnee, on la promenade dans 
les jardins, jusqu'a six heures. Les audiences particulieres, parfois, le tiennent 
ensuite pendant une heure ou deux. II soupe d neuf heures, et il mange k 
peine, vit de rien, toujours seul a sa petite table. Depuis dLs-huit ans, il n'a 
pas un coniive, etemellement a I'ecart dans sa grandeur ! Et, a dix heures, apres 
avoir dit le Rosaire avec ses familiers, il s'enlerme dans sa chambre. Mais, s'il 
88 couche, il dort peu, il est pris de frequentes insomnies, se releve, appelle un 
secretaire, pour lui dieter des notes, des lettres. Lorqu'une affaire interessante 
I'occupe, il s'y donne tout entier, y songe sans cesse. C'est sa vie, sa sante meme ; 
une intelligence continuellement en eveU, en travaU, une force et ime autorite 
qui out le besoin de se depensei.'— Zola, ' Boma.' 

No one, whatever the difference of creed, can look npon this 
building, inhabited by the venerable men who have borne so im- 
portant a part in the history of Christianity and of Europe, without 
the deepest interest. 

' Je la vols, cette Rome, oii d'angostes vieillards, 
Heritiers d'lm apotre et vainqueurs des Cesars, 
Souverains sans armee et conqu^rants saus guerre, 
A leur triple couronne ont asservi la terre.'—Bacine. 

Peter's Pence, the sole stay and support of the Papacy, originated 
in a voluntary tribute first paid by the English kings in 701. The 
collection varies from six to seven million francs, of which two- 
thirds is provided by France, whilst poverty-stricken Ireland con- 
tributes twenty times more than Italy. In 1888 the convent of the 
Grande-Chartreuse sent the Pope half a million, a larger gift than 
that of any sovereign. 

' It is a common saying here, that " as long as the Tope can finger a pen, he can 
want no pence." ' — Howell, ' Familiar Letters,' 1621. 

It was Innocent III. who first assumed the name of Vicar of 
Christ. Two hundred and fifty-six Popes are reckoned from S. 
Peter to Leo XIII. inclusive. A famous prophecy of S. Malachi, 
first printed in 1595, is contained in a series of mottoes, one for each 
of the whole line of pontiffs untU the end of time. Following this, 
it will be seen that only nine more Popes are needed to exhaust the 
mottoes, and to close the destinies of Rome and of the world. The 
later ones run thus : — 

' Pius M;I. Aquila rapax. i ... Fides intrepida. 

Leo XIL Canis et coluber. I ... Pastor angelicus. 

Pius VIII. Vir religiosus. I ... Pastor et nauta. 

Gregory XVI. De Balneis Etmriae. ... Fl<:>s fionun. 

Pius IX. Crux de cruce. 1 . . . De medietate lunae. 

Le<i XIII. Lumen in coelo. ' . . . De labore solis. 

. . . Ignis ardens. I ... Gloria olivae. 

. . . ReUgio depopulata. I 

In persecutione extrema sacrae Romanae Ecclesiae sedebit PETRU.S Romanus, 
qui i>ascet ores in multis tribulationibus : quibus transactls, civitas septicollis 
diruetur, et JUDEX tremeudos judlcabit populam.' 

202 Walks in Rome 

' The Pope, for twenty years, has been living in the Vatican, surrounded by 
tlie cardinals, by the functionaries of the Church, inviolable and inviolate, a con- 
stant and incorrigible conspirator.'— Cri«/ji, 1890. 

The Cardinal ^ Secretary of State has rooms above the pontifical 
apartments. In the latter years of Pius IX. no less than 2348 
persons resided in the Vatican. 

To reach the Stanze (according to late regulations) we must ascend the Scala 
Regia to the first landing, and then turn to the left through an open door, and 
ascend a long staircase (on the right of which a door gives admission to the 
Sistine Chapel). 

The Stanze are entered through two rooms hung with modern 
pictures presented to Pius IX. : those in the second room represent 
the miracles or martyrdoms of those who were canonised in his 

Hence we reach a magnificent Chamber decorated under Pius IX. 
with frescoes by Fracassini, in honour of the recent dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception. The Proclamation of the Dogma ; the 
Adoration of the Image of the Virgin ; and the Reception of the 
News by the Virgin in Heaven from an angelic messenger, are duly 
represented ! These pictures, which are really fine works as to 
composition and colour, are interesting as a portrait gallery of 
ecclesiastics living at the time they were painted. Hence we enter 
the Stanze, three rooms built by Nicholas V., which Julius II. chose 
as his dwelling, and which were decorated under him and Leo X. 
with frescoes by Raffaelle, for each of which he received 1200 

The Stanza of the Incendio del Borgo is decorated with frescoes, 
illustrative of the triumphs of the Church, from events in the reigns 
of Leo III. and Leo IV. The roof has four frescoes by Perugino, 
illustrative of the Saviour in glory. 

Entrance Wall. — The Coronation of Charlemagne in the old S. Peter's. Leo X. 
is again represented as Leo III., and I'rancis I. as Charlemagne. This fresco is 
partly by Raffaelle, partly by Pierino del Vaga. On the socle is Charlemagne, 
by Polidoro da Caravaggio. 

Right Wall. — The ' Incendio del Borgo,' a fire in the Leonine City in 847, by 
Raffaelle. In the background Leo IV. is seen in the portico of the old S. Peter's 
arresting with a cross the progress of the flames, on their approach to the 
basilica. In the foreground is a group of fugitives by Giulio Romano, resembling 
Aeneas escaping from Troy with Anchises, followed by Ascanius and Creusa. 

1 The name Cardinal was applied in the fourth century to the minister of the 
court of Theodosius at Constantinople, and was probably adopted thence by the 
Papal court. They had no precedence over bishops at the time of the Coiuicil of 
Clermont, in 1005. The privilege of the election of a Pope was granted them at 
the Lateran Council of 1179. The scarlet hat was granted them by Innocent IV. 
at the Council of Lyons ; a share in the temporal power and state revenues by 
Eugenius IV. in 1434. John VIII. told the cardinals that their duties were those 
of the seventy elders chosen to assist Moses in his work. First in rank was the 
Cardinal Nepliew, whose duties were those of a prime minister ; then came the 
Cardinal Camerlingo (a post often sold by the Popes), wlio took possession of the 
])alace on the death of a pontiff, and remained supreme till the next election. 
The Cardinal Datari had the disposal of pensions and benefices. The Cardinal 
Vicar is acting Bishop of Rome. 

The Stanze 203 

Beneath are Godfrey de Bouillon and Astiilf (Ethelwolf), the latter with the 
inscription : ' Astulphus Rex sub Leone IV. Pont. Britanniam Beato Petro vecti- 
galem fecit.' 

Left Wall. — The Justification of Leo III. l)efore Charlemagne, by Pierino del 
Vatja. The Pope is a portrait of Leo X. ; the Emperor, of Francis I. 

Wall of Egre^. — The Victory of Leo IV. over the Saracens at Ostia, by Gio- 
vanni da Udiixe. from designs of Kaffaelle. The Pope is represented with the 
features of Leo X. ; Ijehind him are Cardinal Giulio de' Medici (Clement VII.), 
Cardinal Bibbiena, and others. The Castle of Ostia is seen in the background. 
Beneath are Ferdinand the Catholic and the Emperor Lothaire, by Polidoro da 

The Stanza della Segnatura is so called from a judicial assembly 
once held here. The frescoes in this chamber are illustrative of 
Theology, Philosophy, Poetry, and Jurisprudence, represented on 
the ceiling by Raffaelle, in the midst of arabesques by Sodoma. The 
Theology was the first picture he executed here. The square pic- 
tures by RaffaeUe refer — the Fall of Man to Theology ; the Study 
of the Globe to Philosophy ; the Flaying of Marsyas to Poetry ; and 
the Judgment of Solomon to Jurisprudence. 

Entrance Wall. — 'The Disputa,' the most beautiful representation of the 
christian world in existence, derives its name from an impression that it repre- 
sents a dispute upon the Sacrament. In the upper part of the composition the 
heavenly host are present : Christ between the Virgin and 8. John Baptist ; — on 
the left, S. Peter, Adam, S. John, David, S. Stephen, and another ; — on the right, 
S. Paul, Abraham, S. James, Moses, S. Laurence, and S. George. Below is an 
altar siurounded by the Latin fathers, Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, and Augustine. 
Near S. Augustine stand S. Thomas Aquinas, S. Anacletus with the pahn of 
a martyr, and Cardinal Buonaventura reading. In front is Innocent III., and 
in the teckground Dante, near whom a monk in a black hood is pointed out 
as Savonarola. The Dominican on the extreme left is supposed to be Fra 
-Angelico. The other figures are uncertain. 

' Raphael a bien juge Dante en plaf^ant parmi les Theologiens, dans la Dispute 
du Saint Sacreinent, celul pour la tombe duquel a 6t<i ecrit ce vers, aussi vrai 
qu'il est plat : 

" Theologns Dante, nuUius dogmatis expers."' 

Ampere, ' Voyage Dantesque.' 

The chiaroscuros on the socle beneath this fresco are by Pierino del Vaga 
(added under Paul III.) and represent : 1. A heathen sacrifice : 2. S. Augustine 
finding a child attempting to drain the sea ; 3. The Cumaean Sibyl and Augustus. 

Might Wall. — Above the window are Prudence, Fortitude, and Temperance. 
On the left, Justinian delivers the Pandects to Tribonian. On the right, 
Gregory IX. (with the features of Julius U.) delivers the Decretals to a jurist- ; 
Cardinal de" Medici, afterwards Leo X., Cardinal Famese, afterwards Paul III., 
and Cardinal del Monte, are represented near the Pope. In the socle beneath is 
Solon addressing the people of Athens. 

Left Wall.—' Parnassus,' Apollo surrounded by the Muses, on his right Homer, 
Virgil, and Dante. Below, on the right, Sappho, supposed to be addressing 
Corinna, Petrarch, Propertius, and Anacreon ; on the left, Pindar and Horace, 
Sannazzaro, Boccaccio, and others. Beneath this, in grisaille, are,— Alexander 
placing the poems of Homer in the tomb of Achilles, and Augustus preventing 
the burning of Virgil's Aeneid. 

Wall of Egrem. — ' The School of Athens.' Raffaelle consulted Ariosto as to 
the arrangement of its fifty-two figures. In the centre, on the steps of a portico, 
•are seen Plato and Aristotle ; Plato pointing" to heaven, and Aristotle to earth. 
On the left is Socrates conversing with his pupils, amongst whom is a young 
warrior, probably Alcibiades. Lying upon the steps in front is Diogenes.i To 
his left Pythagoras is writing on his knee, and near him, with ink and pen, 

1 In the cartoon at Milan, Diogenes does not appear, being apparently an 

204 Walks in Rome 

is Empedocles. The youth in the white mantle is Francesco Maria della 
Revere, nephew of Julius II. On the right is Archimedes, drawing a geome- 
trical problem upon the floor. The young man near him with uplifted hands 
is Federigo II., Duke of Mantua. Behind these are Zoroaster and Ptolemy, one 
with a terrestrial, the other with a celestial globe, addressing two figures which 
represent Raffaelle and his master Perugino. The architecture of the hall is 
modelled on Bramante's designs for S. Peter's. The drawing in brown upon 
the socle beneath this fresco is by Pierino del Vaga, and represents the death 
of Archimedes. 

'Raffaelle commenced his work in the Vatican by painting the ceiling and 
the four walls of the room called della Segnatura, on the surface of which he 
had to represent four gi'eat compositions, which embraced the principal divi- 
sions of the encyclopedia of that period, namely, Theology, Philosophy, Poetry, 
and Jurisprudence. 

' It will be conceived, that to an artist imbued with the traditions of the 
Umbrian school, the first of these subjects was an unparalleled piece of good 
fortune ; and Raffaelle, long familiar with the allegorical treatment of religious 
compositions, turned it here to the most admirable account ; and not content 
with the suggestions of his own genius, he availed himself of all the instruction 
he could derive from the intelligence of others. From these combined inspira- 
tions resulted, to the eternal glory of the catholic faith and of christian art, a 
composition without a rival in the history of painting, and we may also add 
without a name ; for to call it lyric or epic is not enough, unless, indeed, we 
mean, by using these expressions, to compare it with the allegorical epic of 
Dante, alone worthy to be ranked with this marvellous production of the pencil 
of Raffaelle. 

' And let no one consider this praise as idle and groundless, for it is Raffaelle 
himself who forces the comparison upon us, by placing the figure of Dante among 
the favourite sons of the Muses ; and, what is still more striking, by draping the 
allegorical figure of Theology in the very colours in which Dante has represented 
Beatrice, namely, the white veil, the red tunic, and the green mantle, while on 
her head he has placed the olive crown. 

' Of the four allegorical figures which occupy the compartments of the ceiling, 
and which were all painted immediately after Raffaelle's arrival in Rome, 
Theology and Poetry are incontestably the most remarkable. The latter would 
be easily distinguished by the calm inspiration of her glance, even were she 
without her wings, her starry crown, and her azure robe, all having allusion to 
the elevated region towards which it is her privilege to soar. The figure of 
Theology is quite as admirably suited to the siibject she personifies ; she points 
to the upper part of the grand composition, which takes its name from her, and 
in which the artist has provided inexhaustible food for the sagacity and enthu- 
siasm of the spectator. 

'This work consists of two grand divisions— Heaven and Earth— which are 
united to one another by that mystical bond, the Sacrament Of the Eucharist. 
The personages whom the Church has most honoured for learning and holiness 
are ranged in picturesque and animated groups on either side of the altar, on 
which the consecrated wafer is exposed. S. Augustine dictates his thoughts to 
one of his disciples ; S.- Gregory, in his pontifical robes, seems absorbed in the 
contemplation of celestial glory ; S. Ambrose, in a slightly different attitude, 
appears to be chanting the Te Deum ; while S. Jerome, seated, rests his hands 
on a large book, which he holds on his knees. Pietro Lombardo, Duns Scotus, 
S. Thomas Aquinas, Pope Anacletus, S. Buonaventura, and Innocent III. are no 
less happily characterised ; while, behind all these illustrious men, whom the 
Church and succeeding generations have agreed to honour, Raffaelle has ventured 
to introduce Dante with his laurel crown, and, with still greater boldness, the 
monk Savonarola, publicly burnt ten years before as a heretic. 

' In the glory, which forms the upper part of the picture, the Three Persons 
of the Trinity are represented, surrounded by patriarchs, apostles, and saints : 
it may, in fact, be considered in some sort as a rimme of all the favourite com- 
positions produced during the last hundred years by the Umbrian school. A 
great numl)er of the types, and particularly those of Christ and the Virgin, are 
to be found iu the earlier works of Raffaelle himself. The Umbrian artists, 
from having so long exclusively employed themselves on mystical subjects, had 
certainly attained to a marvellous perfection in the representation of celestial 

The Stanze 205 

beatitude, and of those ineffable things of which it has been said that the heart 
of man cannot conceive them, far less, therefore, the pencil of man portray ; 
and Kaffaelle, siirpassin": them in all, and even in this instance, whUe surpassing 
himself, appears to have fixed the limits beyond which christian art, properly so 
called, has never since been able to advance.' — Eio, 'Poetry of Christian Art.' 

The Stanza d'Eliodoro, entirely painted by Raffadle in 1511-14, 
shows the Church triumphant over her enemies, and the miracles 
by which her power has been attested. On the roof are four 
subjects from the Old Testament : the Covenant with Abraham ; 
the Sacrifice of Isaac ; Jacob's Dream ; Moses at the Burning Bush. 

Entrance Wail. — Tlie Flight of Attila. Leo I. (with the features of Leo X.) is 
represented on his white mule, with his cardinals, calling upon SS. Peter and 
Paul, who appear in the clouds, for aid against AttUa. The Coliseum is seen in 
the background. 

Bight Wall. — The Miracle of Bolsena. A priest at Bolsena, who refused to 
believe in the doctrine of transubstantiation, is convinced by the bleeding of the 
host. On the right kneels Julius II., with Cardinal Riario, founder of the 
Cancellaria. This was the last fresco executed by Kaffaelle under Julius II. 

Ije/t Wall.— Peter delivered from prison. A fresco by Pietro deUa Francesca 
was destroyed to make room for this picture, which is said to have allusion to 
the liberation of Leo X., while Legate in .Spain, after his captm-e at the battle 
of Bavenna. This fresco is considered especially remarkable for its four lights, 
those from the double representation of the angel, from the torch of the soldier, 
and from the moon. 

Wall o/2fyr<ws.— Heliodorus driven out of the temple (2 Maccabees iii-X In the 
background Onias the priest is represented praying for divine interposition ; in 
the foreground Heliodorus, pursued by two avenging angels, is endeavouring to 
bear away the treasiu^s of the Temple. The heavenly horseman is believed to 
be a reminiscence of the chieftain Astorre Baglioni, whom Kaffaelle had seen in 
his youth, in the street conflicts of his native Perugia, mounted on horseback, in 
gilt armour, with a falcon on his helmet — ' like ilars in bearing and in deeds.' 
Amid the group on the left is seen Julius II. in his chair of state, attended by 
his secretaries. The figure of the Pope gazing on the prostrate king marks the 
picture as allegorical of his success in expeUing the French from Italy.i One of 
the bearers in front is Marc-Antonio Raimondi, the engraver of KaffaeUe's 
designs. The man with the inscription, ' Jo. Petro de Folicariis Cremonen.,' was 
secretary of briefs to Pope Julius. 

' Here you may almost fancy you hear the thundering approach of the heavenly 
warrior and the neighing of his steed ; while in the different groups who are 
plundering the treasures of the Temple, and in those who gaze intently on the 
sudden consternation of Heliodorus, without being able to divine its cause, we 
see the expression of terror, amazement, joy, humility, and every passion to 
which himian nature is exposed.'— Z,a»iji. 

The next chamber is the Sala di Constantino, decorated under 
Clement VII. (Giulio de' Medici) in 1523-34, after the death of 
Kaffaelle, who, however, had prepared drawings for the frescoes, 
and had already executed in oil the two figures of Justice and 
Urbanity. The other compositions, completed by his pupils, are 
in fresco. 

Entrance Wall. — The supposititious Baptism of Constantine, interesting as 
portraying the interior of the Lateran baptistery in the fifteenth century, by 
Francesco Penni, who has introduced his own jwrtrait in a black dress and 
velvet cap. On the left is Damasus I. (a.d. 366-384), between Prudence and Peace ; 
on the right, Leo I. (A.D. 440-462), Ijetween Innocence and Truth. I'he paintings 
on the socles represent scenes in the life of Constantine by Giulio Romano. 

1 See Creighton. 

206 Walks in Rome 

Right Wall.—l!he Battle of tlie Ponte MoUe and the Defeat of Maxentius by 
Coiistantine, designed by Raffaelle, and executed by Giulio Romano. On the 
left is Sylvester I. between Faith and Religion ; on the right Urban I. (the friend 
of Cecilia) between Justice and Charity. 

Left Wall. — The Donation of Kome by Constantine to Sylvester I. (A.D. 325); 
Raffaello da Colle. (The head of Sylvester was a portrait of Clement VII., the 
reigning Pope ; Count Castiglione, the friend of Raff aelle, and Giidio Romano, are 
introduced among the attendants.) On the left is Sylvester I. with Fortitude ; 
on the right, Gregory VII. with Strength. 

Wall of Egress. — The Address of Constantine to his troops and the Vision of 
the Fiery Cross ; Giulio Romano. On the left is S. Peter between the Church 
and Eternity ; on the right, Clement I. (the Martyr) between Moderation and 
Gentleness. • 

'Raphael se multiplie, 11 se prodigue, avec une fecondite de toutes les heures. 
De jeimes disciples, admirateurs de son beau g^nie, le servent avec amour, et 
sont deja admis a I'honneur d'attacher leurs noms a quelques parties de ses 
magnifiques travaux. Le maitre leur distribue leur tache ; a Jules Romain, le 
brillant coloris des vctements et peut-etre nicme le dessin de quelques figures ; 
au Fattore, h, .Jean d'Udine, les arabesques ; h. frere Jean de V(irone les clairs- 
obscurs des portes et des tambris qui doivent completer la decoration de ces 
splendides appartements. Et lui, que se r6serve-t-il? — la pensde qui anime tout, 
le genie qui enfante et qui dirige.' — Gournerie, 'Rome Chretienne.' 

From the corner of this hall, a custode, if requested, will give 
access, through an ante-chamber, to the 

Cappella di San Lorenzo, a tiny chapel covered with frescoes 
executed by Fra Angelica for Nicholas V. in 1447. The upper 
series represents events in the life of S. Stephen, 

1. His Ordination by S. Peter. 

2. His Almsgiving. 

3. His Preaching. 

4. He is brought before the Council at Jerusalem (his accuser has the 

dress and shaven crown of a monk). 

5. He is dragged to Execution. 

6. He is Stoned. Saul is among the spectators. 

' Angelico has represented S. Stephen as a young man, beardless, and with a 
most mild and candid expression. His dress is the deacon's habit, of a vivid 
blue.' — Mrs. Jameson, 

The lower series represents the life of S. Laurence. 

1. He is Ordained by Sixtus II. (with tlie features of Nicholas V.). 

2. Sixtus II. delivers the treasures of the Chui'ch to him for distribution 

among the poor. 

3. He Distributes them in Alms. 

4. He is carried before Decius the Prefect. 

5. He suffers Martyrdom, A.D. 253. 

Introduced in the side arches are the figures of S. Jerome, 
S. Ambrose, S. Augustine, S. Gregory, S. John Chrysostom, S. Atha- 
nasius, S. Leo (as the protector of Rome), and S. Thomas Aquinas 
— as painted by the Dominican Angelico, and for a Dominican Pope, 
Nicholas V. 

' The Consecration of S. Stephen, the Distrilnition of Alms, and, above all, 
his Preaching, are three pictures as perfect of their kind as any that have been 
I)roduce(l by the greatest masters, and it would be difficult to imagine a gi'oup 
more happily conceived as to arrangement, or more graceful in form and atti- 
tude, than tliat of the seated females listening to the holy preacher; and if the 
fiuious fanaticism of the executioners, who stone him to death, is not expressed 
with all the energy we could desire, this may be attributed to a glorious inca- 

The Loggie 207 

pacity in this angelic imagination, too exclusively occupied with love and 
ecstasy, to be ever able to familiarise itself with those dramatic scenes in 
which hateful and violent passions were to be represented.' — Mio, 'Poetry of 
Christian Art.' 

' The soul of Angelico lives in perpetual peace. Not seclusion from the world. 
No shutting out of the world is needful for him. There is nothing to shut out. 
Envy, lust, contention, discourtesy, are to him as though they were not ; and 
the cloister walls of Fiesole no penitential solitude, barred from the stir and 
joy of life, but a possessed land of tender blessing, guarded from the entrance 
of all but holiest sorrow. The little cell was as one of the houses of heaven 
prepared for him by his Master. What need had it to be elsewhere ? Was not 
the Val d'Amo, with its olive woods in white blossom, paradise enough for a 
poor monk ? Or could Christ l>e indeed in heaven more than here ? SVas He 
not always with him ? Could he breathe or see, but that Christ breathed beside 
him or looked into his eyes ? Under every avenue the angels walked ; 
he had seen their white robes— whiter than the dawn— at his bedside as he 
awoke in early summer. They had sung with him, one on each side, when his 
voice failed for joy at sweet vesper and matin time ; his eyes were blinded by 
their wings in the sunset, when it sank behind the hills of iMni.'—JRuskin's 
' Modem Painters.' 

From the Sala di Constantino a glass door admits us to the 

Two sides of the Loggie or corridors on the second floor (formerly 
open) are decorated in stucco by Marco da Paenza and Paul Schnon; 
and painted by Sicciolante da Sermoneta, Tempesta, Sabbatini, and 
others. The third corridor, entered on the right, contains the 
celebrated frescoes, executed by Raffaelle, or from the designs of 
Raffaelle, by Giulio Romano, Pierino del Vaga, Pellegrino da Modena, 
Francesco Penni, and Raffaello da Colle. Of the fifty-two subjects 
represented, forty-eight are from the Old Testament, only the four 
last being from the Gospel History, as an appropriate introduction 
to the pictures which celebrate the foundation and triumphs of 
the Church, in the adjoining stanze. The design of many of the 
decorations is doubtless due to the discovery, in the reign of 
Julius II., of the buried treasures of the Baths of Titus. The stucco 
decorations are of exquisite beauty ; especially remarkable, perhaps, 
are those of the windows in the first arcade, where Raffaelle is re- 
presented drawing — his pupils working from his designs — and Fame 
celebrating his work. The frescoes are arranged in the following 
order : — 

1st Arcade. 

1. Creation of Light. 1 "^ 

2. Creation of Drv Land. { d /r n 

3. Creation of the Sun and Aloon. f -««#««««• 

4. Creation of Animals. J 

2nd Arcade. 

1. Creation of Eve. RaffaeUe. 

2. The Fall. "J 

3. The Exile from Eden. \ Giulio Romano, 
i. The Consequence of the Fall. J 

1 ' This is perhaps the grandest of the whole series. Here the Almighty is seen 
rending like a thunderlxjlt the thick shroud of flery clouds, letting in that light 
under which His works were to spring into life.' — Lcuiy Eastlake. 

208 Walks in Rome 

3rd Arcade. 

1. Noah builds the Ark. 

I The CoS forth from the Ark. ^ ^^^ ^".nano. 

4. The Sacrifice of Noah. 
ith Arcade, 

1. Abraham and Melchizedek. 

2. The Covenant of God with Abraham. , i,Ya,i<;csco Penni 

3. Abraham and the three Angels. '^ ^ mncesco renni. 

4. Lot's Flight from Sodom. 
hth Arcade. 

1. God appears to Isaac. 

2. Abimelech sees Isaac with Kebecca. I p,.„„„„„.„ r>.„„,- 

3. Isaac gives Jacob the Blessing. ^ ^ ' """^S'^o ^ «»"»• 

4. Isaac blesses Esau also. 

2. Jacob meets Kachel. I 

%th Arcade. 

1. .Jacob's Ladder. 

2. Jacob meets Kaonci. i n„n„„^^,„ 7„ jr i 

3. Jacob upbraids Laban. f Paiegnno da Modena. 
i. The Joiu-ney of Jacob. J 

1th Arcade. 

1. Joseph tells his Dream. \ 

2. Joseph sold into Egypt. | ^. ,. /.„,„_„. 

3. Joseph and Potiphar's wife. f ^"*"'' Jtoj»ano. 

4. Joseph interprets Pharaoh's Dream. J 

8tA J.rcade. 

1. The Finding of Moses. ~| 

2. Moses and the Burning Bush. I /-',•„;• » 

3. The Destruction of Phlraoh. f ^"*^»« -Ro»(«»io. 

4. Moses striking the Rock. J 

1. Moses receives the Tables of the Law. \ 

2. The Worship of the Golden Calf. I Uaffacllo da Colle. 

3. Moses breaks the Tables. I ' 

4. Moses kneels before the Pillar of Cloud. J 

loth Arcade. 

1. The Israelites cross the Jordan. ^ 

2. The Fall of Jericho. 

3. Josliua stays the course of the Sun. V Pierino del Vaga. 

4. Joshua and Eleazar divide the Promised I 

Land. J 

Wth Arcade. 

1. Samuel anoints David. "V 

2. David and Goliath. I t>- • ,„ j„7 r'^^^ 

3. The Triumph of David. \ ^'«""'' ^'^ ^''O''- 

4. David sees Bathsheba. J 

Vlth Arcade. 

1. Zadok anoints Solomon. 'J 

2. The Judgment of Solomon. I „,, •„„j„ n„j.,„/. 

3. The Coming of the Queen of Sheba. \ P<>"egnm da Modena. 

4. Tlie Building of the Temple. ) 
13th Arcade. 

1. The Adoration t)f the Shepherds. 

I }'t S""V"l°l"'.f.I?S'- I GMio Romam. 

3. llie Baptism of (.lirist. 

4. The Last Supper. 


The Pinacoteca 209 

' From the Sistine Chapel we went to Baffaelle's Loggie, and I hardly venture 
to say that we could scarcely bear to look at them. The eye was so educated and 
so enlarged by those grand forms and the glorious completeness of all their parts, 
that it could take no pleasure in the imaginative play of arabesques, and the 
scenes from Scripture, Ijeautifiil as they are. had lost their charm. To see 
these works often alternately and to compare them at leisure and without pre- 
judice, must be a great pleasure, but all sympathy is at first one-sided.' — Goethe g 
' RiymUche Brief e.' 

Entering a passage on the left of the central Loggie, immediately 
on the left as we approach from the Stanze, and ascending a stair- 
case, we reach the Loggie on the third floor, which are decorated 
with maps. Here, on the left, is the entrance to the Pinacoteca^or 
Gallery of Pictures, founded by Pius VII., who acted on the advice 
of Cardinal Consalvi and of Canova, and formed the present collec- 
tion from the pictures which had been carried off by the French 
from the Roman churches, upon their restoration. The pictures 
are not all numbered. Almost every picture is worthy of separate 
examination. They are contained in four rooms, and according to 
their present position are : 

\sl Room. 

Left WaU: 
Leonardo da Vinei: S. Jerome. The) foimdation of a picture, painted in 
bistre. This, and the unfinished Adoration of the Maari in the Ufflzi, are 
the only easel-pictures in Italy which can be certainly attributed to the 
' To art-critics a work of the highest interest, but to the general public an 
unmitigated horror.' — Morelii, 'Italian Painten.' 

Guereiiw : S. John Baptist. 

*RaffaeUe : The Annunciation, Adoration of the Magi, and Presentation in 

the Temple. Formerly a predeUa to the Coronation of the Virgin in the 

third room. 
Fra A naelieo da Fiesole : The Story of S. Xicolo of Ban. Two out of three 

predeila pictures once in the Sacristy of S. Domenico at Florence, whence 

they were carried off to Paris, where the third remains. 
Guereino : The Incredulity of S. Thomas. 
Fr. Franeia : Madonna with the Child and S. John. 
MuriUo: The Martyrdom of S. Pietro d'Arbues. 
Entrance WaU: 
Manteana : Pieti. 

MuriUo : Adoration of the Shepherds. 
Benozzo Gozzoli : The Story of S. Hyacinth, the Dominican Apostle of Knssim 

and Scandinavia. 
* MuriUo : The Marriage of S. Catherine. 

*Perugino : ' I Tre Santi.' Part of a large predeila in the Church of S. 
Pietro dei Casinensi at Perugia. Several saints from this predeila still 
remain in the Sacristy of S. Pietro ; two are at Lyons. 

' On one side is S. Benedict, with his black cowl over his head and long parted 
l)eard, the book in one hand, and the asperge in the other. On the other, 
S. Placidus, yoimg, and with a mild, candid erpression, black habit and shaven 
crown. In the centre is S. Flaria (or S. Catherine?), crowned as a martyr, 
holding her palm, and gazing upward with a divine expression.' — Mn. Jameson. 

Fra Angelica: The Virgin surrounded by Angels. 

Boni/azio: The Holy Family and Saints. 

Window WaU.— Carlo CriteUi: The Dead Christ, with the Virgin, S. John, 

and the Magdalen lamenting. 
Garofalo : Holy Family. f^ 

VOL. n. 

210 Walks in Rome 

Wall of Egress.— *Raffaelle : Faith, Charity, and Hope. Circular medallions 
in bistre, which once formed a predella for ' the Entombment ' in the 
Borghese Gallery. 

2nd Room. 
Entrance Wall. — *Domenichino : The Communion of S. Jerome. 

This is the masterpiece of the master, and perhaps second only to the Trans- 
figuration. It was painted for the monlis of Ara Coeli, who quarrelled with the 
artist, and shut up the picture, only paying the artist about fifty scudi for this 
his greatest work. Afterwards they commissioned Poussin to paint an altar-piece 
for their church, and instead of supplying him with fresh canvas, produced the 
picture of Domenichino, and desired him to paint over it. Poussin indignantly 
threw up his engagement, and made Ifnown the existence of the picture, which 
wq^ afterwards preserved in the Church of S. Girolamo della Caritk, whence it 
was carried off by the French. S. Jerome, in his last moments at Bethlehem, is 
represented receiving the Last Sacraments from S. Ephraim of Syria, while S. 
Paula kneels by his side. 

' Tile Last Communion of S. Jerome is the subject of one of the most celebrated 
pictures in the world— the S. Jerome of Domenichino— which has been thought 
worthy of being placed opposite to the Transfiguration of Raffaellein the Vatican. 
The aged saint— feeble, emaciated, dying— is borne in the arms of his disciples 
to the chapel of his monastery, and placed within the porch, i A young priest 
sustains him ; S. Paula, kneeling, kisses one of his thin bony hands ; the saint 
fixes his eager eyes on the coimtenance of the priest, who is about to administer 
the Sacrament — a no1)le, dignified figure, in a rich ecclesiastical dress ; a deacon 
holds the cup, and an attendant priest the book ; the lion droops his head with 
an expression of grief ; 2 the eyes and attention of all are on the dying 
saint, while four angels, hovering above, look down upon the scene.' — Jameson's 
' Sacred Art.' 

' And Jerome's death (A.D. 420) drawing near, he commanded that he should 
be laid on the bare ground and covered with sackclotli, and calling the brethren 
around him, he spake sweetly to them, and exhorted them in many holy words, 
and appointed Eusebius to be their abbot in his room. And then, with tears, he 
received the blessed Eucharist, and sinking backwards again on the eartli, his 
hands crossed on his heart, he sang the "Nunc Diniittis," which being finished, 
it being the hour of compline, suddenly a great light, as of the noonday sun, 
shone around about him, within which light angels innumerable were seen by 
the bystanders, in shifting motion, like sparks among the dry reeds. And the 
voice of the Saviour was heard, inviting him to lieaven, and the holy Doctor 
answered that he was ready. And after an hour, that light departed, and 
Jerome's spirit with it.' — Lord Lindsay, from Peter de Natalibus. 

Right Wall.—*Raffaelle: ' The Madonna di Foligno.' Ordered in 1511 by Sigis- 
mondo Conti for tlie Church of Ara Coeli (where he is buried), and removed in 
1565 to Foligno, when his great-niece, Anna Conti, took the veil there at the 
Convent of S. Anna. The angel in the foreground bears a tablet, with the names 
of the painter and donor, and the date 1512. The city of Foligno is seen in the 
background, with a falling Ijomb, from which one may believe that the picture 
was a votive offering fiom Sigismondo for an escape during a siege. The picture 
was originally on panel, and was transferred to canvas at Paris. 

' The Madonna di Foligno, however beautiful in the whole arrangement, how- 
ever excellent in the execution of separate parts, appears to belong to a transi- 
tion state of development, lliere is something of the ecstatic enthusiasm which 
has produced such peculiar conceptions and treatment of religious sul)jects in 
other artists— Correggio, for example— and which, so far from )iarnK)nising with 
the unaffected serene grace of Raffaelle, has in this instance led to some serious 
defects. This remark is particularly applicable to the figures of S. John and 

1 The candle is ingeniously made crooked in the socket, not to interfere with 
the lines of the architecture, while the flame is straight. 

2 According to ih^ Spiritual Meadow of John Moschus, who died A.D. 620, the 
lion is said to have pined away after Jerome's death, and to have died at last on 
his grave. 

The Pinacoteca 211 

S. Francis : the former looks ont of the pictore with a fantastic action, and the 
drawing of his arm is even considerably mannered. S. Francis has an expression 
of fanatical ecstasy, and his countenance is strikingly weak in the painting (com- 
posed of reddish, yellowish, and grey tones, which cannot be wholly ascribed to 
their restorer). Again, S. Jerome loolcs up with a sort of fretful expression, in 
which it is difficult to recognise, as some do, a mournful resignation ; there is 
also an exaggerated style of drawing in the eyes, which sometimes gives a sharp- 
ness to the expression of Raflfaelle's flgiu-es, and appears very marked in some 
of his other pictures. Lastly, the Madonna and the Child, who turn to the 
donor, are in attitudes which, however graceful, are not perhaps sufficiently 
tranquil for the majesty of the queen of heaven. The expression of the 
Madonna's countenance is extremely sweet, but with more of the character of a 
mere woman than of a glorified being. The flgiu"e of the donor, on the other 
hand, is excellent, with an expression of sincerity and truth ; tlie angel with 
the tablet is of unspeakable intensity and exquisite beauty — one of the mcwt 
mar^'ellous figures that Raffaelle has created.' — Kvgler, 

' In the upper i)art of the composition sits the Virgin in heavenly glory ; by 
her side is the infant Christ, partly sustained by his mother's veU, which is 
drawn round His body : both look down benignly on the votary, Sigismimd 
Conti, who, kneeling below, gazes up with an expression of the most intense 
gratitude and devotion. It is a portrait from the life, and certainly one of the 
finest and most lifelike that exist in painting. Behind him stands S. Jerome, 
who, placing his hand upon the head of the votary, seems to present him to his 
celestial protectress. On the other side, John the Baptist, the meagre, wild- 
looking prophet of the desert, points upwards to the Redeemer. More in front 
kneels .S. Francis, who, while he looks up to heaven with trusting and imploring 
love, extends his right hand towards the worshippers supposed to be assembled 
in the church, recommending them also to the protecting grace of the Virgin. 
In the centre of the picture, dividing these two groups, stands a lovely angel- 
boy, holding in his hand a tablet, one of the most charming figures of this kind 
Raffaelle ever painted ; the head, looking up, has that sublime, yet perfectly 
childish grace, which strikes one in those awful angel-l)oys in the " Madonna di 
San Sisto." The background is a landscape, in which appears the city of Foligno 
at a distance ; it is overshadowed by a storm-cloud, and a meteor is seen falling ; 
but above these bends a rainbow, pledge of peace and safety. The whole picture 
glows throughout with life and Ijeauty, hallowed by that profound religions 
sentiment which suggested the offering, and which the sympathetic artist seems 
to have caught from the grateful donor. It was dedicated in the Church of the 
Ara Coeli at Rome, which belongs to the Franciscans, hence S. Francis is one 
of the principal figures. When I was asked at Rome why S. Jerome had been 
introduced into the picture, I thought it might be thus accounted for :— The 
patron saint of the donor, 8. Sigismund, was a king and warrior, and Conti 
might possibly think it did not accord with his profession, as a humble ecclesi- 
astic, to introduce him here. The most celebrated convent of the Hieronymites 
in Italy is that of S. Sigismund. near Cremona, placed under the special pro- 
tection of S. Jerome, who is also in a general sense the patron of all ecclesiastics : 
hence, perhaps, he flgiu-es here as the protector of Sigismund Couti.'— Jameson' $ 
' Legends of the Madonna,' p. 103. 

Wall of Egress.— *Baffaelle : ' The Transfiguration.' The grandest picture in 
the world. It was originally painted by order of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 
(afterwards Clement VIJ.), Archbishop of Xarbonne, for that provincial cathedral. 
But it was scarcely finished when Raffaelle died, and it hung over his death-bed 
as he lay in state, and was carried in his funeral procession. 

' And when all beheld 
Him where he lay, how changed from yesterday — 
Him in that hour cut off, and at his head 
His last great work ; when, entering in, they look*d, 
Now on the dead, then on that masterpiece — 
Kow on his face, lifeless and colourless, 
Then on those forms divine that lived and breathed, 
And would live on for ages — all were moved, 
And sighs burst forth and loudest lamentations.'— iio^ers. 

212 Walks in Rome 

The three following quotations may perhaps represent the practical, aesthetical, 
and spiritual aspects of the picture. 

' It is somewhat strange to see the whole picture of the Transfiguration — in- 
r-luding the three apostles, prostrate on the mount, shading their dazzled senses 
from the insufferable brightness— occupying only a small part of the top of the 
canvas, and the principal field filled with a totally distinct and certainly un- 
equalled picture — that of the demoniac boy, whom our Saviour cured on coming 
down from the mount, after His transfiguration, lliis was done in compliance 
with the orders oi the monks of S. Pietro in Montorio, for which church it was 
painted. It was the universal custom of the age — the yet imlianished taste of 
Gothic days — to have two pictures, a celestial and a terrestrial one, wholly un- 
connected with each other ; accordingly, we see few, even of the finest paintings, 
in which there is not a heavenly subject above and an earthly l)elow— for the 
great masters of that day, like our own Shakspeare, were compelled to suit their 
works to the taste of their employers.'— JSatoji's 'Home. 

' It must ever be a matter of wonder that any one can have doubted of the 
grand unity of such a conception as this. In the absence of the Lord, the dis- 
consolate parents bring a possessed boy to the disciples of the Holy One. They 
seem to have been making attempts to cast out the Evil Spirit ; one has opened 
a book, to see whether by chance any spell were contained in it which might be 
successful against this plague, but in vain. At this moment appears He who 
alone lias the power, and appears transfigured in glory. They remember His 
former mighty deeds ; they instantly point aloft to the vision as the only source 
of healing. How can the upper and lower parts be separated ? Both are one : 
beneath is Suffering craving for Aid ; above is active Power and helpful Grace. 
Both refer to one another ; both work in one another. Those who, in our dispute 
over the picture, thought with me, confirmed their view by this consideration : 
Kaffaelle, they said, was ever distinguished by the exquisite propriety of his con- 
ceptions. And is it likely that this painter, thus gifted by God, and everywhere 
recognisable by the excellence of this His gift, would, in the full ripeness of his 
powers, have thought and painted wrongly? Not so ; he is, as Nature is, ever 
right, and then most deeply and truly right when we least suspect it.' — Goethe's 
' Werke,' iii. p. 33. 

' In looking at the Transfiguration, we must bear in mind that it is not an 
historical but a devotional picture— that the intention of the painter was not to 
represent a scene, but to excite religious feelings by expressing, so far as painting 
might do it, a very sublime idea. 

' If we remove to a certain distance from the picture, so that the forms shall 
become vague, indistinct, and only the masses of colour and the light and shade 
perfectly distinguishable, we shall see that the picture is indeed divided as if 
horizontally, the upper half being all light, and the lower half comparatively 
all dark. As we approach nearer, step by step, we behold above the radiant 
figure of the Saviour floating in mid-air, with arms outspread, garments of 
transparent light, glorified visage upturned as if in rapture, and the hair lifted 
and scattered as I have seen it in persons under the influence of electricity. On 
the right, Moses ; on the left, Elijah ; representing respectively the old Law and 
the old Prophecies, which both testified of Him. The three disciples lie on the 
ground, terror-struck, dazzled. There is a sort of eminence or platform, but no 
perspective, no attempt at real locality, for the scene is revealed as in a vision, 
and the same soft transparent light envelops the whole. This is the spiritual 
life, raised far above the earth, l)ut not yet in heaven. Below is seen the earthly 
life, poor humanity struggling helplessly with pain, infirmity, and death. The 
father brings his son, the possessed, or, as we should now say, the epileptic l)oy, 
who oftentimes falls into the water, or into the fire, or lies grovelling on the 
earth, foaming and gnashing his teeth ; the l)oy struggles in his arms— the roll- 
ing eyes, the distorted features, the spasmodic limbs, are at once terrible and 
pitiful to look on. 

' Such is the profound,[the heart-moving significance of this wonderful picture. 
It is, in truth, a fearful approximation of the most opposite things ; the mournful 
helplessness, suffering, and degradation of human nature, the unavailing pity, 
are placed in immediate contrast with spiritual light, life, hope — nay, the very 
fruition of heavenly rapture. 

' It has been asked, who are the two figures, the two saintly deacons, who stand 


The Pinacoteca 213 

on each side of the upper group, and what have they to do with the mystery 
above or the soiTOW below? Their presence shows tliat the whole was conceived 
as a vision or a poem. Tlie two saints are S. Laurence and S. Juhan, placed there 
at the request of the Cardinal de' Medici, for whom the picture was painted, to 
be offered by him as an act of devotion as well as munificence to his new bishopric ; 
and these two figures commemorate in a poetical way, not unusual at the time, his 
father, Lorenzo, and his uncle, Giuliano de' Medici. They would be better away ; 
but Raffaelle, in consenting to the wish of his patron that they should be intro- 
duced, left no doubt of the significance of the whole composition, that it is 
placed before worshippers as a revelation of the double life of earthly suffering 
and spiritual faith, as an incitement to religious contemplation and religious 

'In the Gospel, the Transfiguration of our Lord is first described, then the 
gathei'ing of the people and the appeal of the father in behalf of his afflicted son. 
They appear to have been simultaneous ; but painting only could have placed them 
before oirr eyes, at the same moment, in all their suggestive contrast. It will be 
said that in the brief record of the Evangelist, this contrast is nowhere indicated, 
but the painter found it there and was right to use it — just the same as if a man 
should choose a text from which to preach a sermon, and, in doing so, should 
evolve from the inspired words many teachings, many deep reasonings, besides 
those most obvious and apparent. 

' But, after we have prepared ourselves to luidei-stand and to take into our 
heads all that this wonderful picture can suggest, considered as an emanation 
of the mind, we find that it has other interests for us, considered merely as a 
work of art. It was the last picture which came from Raffaelle's hand ; he was 
painting on it when he was seized with his last illness. He had completed all 
the upper part of the composition, all the ethereal vision, but the lower part of 
it was still unfinished, and in this state the picture was hung over his bier ; when, 
after his death, he was laid out in his painting-room, and all his pupils and friends, 
and the people of Rome, came to look upon him for the last time ; and when 
those who stood round raised their eyes to the Ti-ansftguration, and then bent 
them on the lifeless form extended beneath it, "every heart was like to burst 
with grief" (Jaceva scoppiwe I' animu di dolorc a ognuno che quivi guardava), as, 
indeed, well it might. 

'Two-thirds of the price of the picture, 655 "ducati di camera," had already 
been paid by the Cardinal de' Medici, and, in the following year, that part of the 
picture which Raffaelle had left unfinished was completed by his pupil Giulio 
Romano, a powerful and gifted, but not a refined or elevated, genius. He supplied 
what was wanting in the colours and chiarosciu'o according to Raffaelle's design, 
but not certainly as Raffaelle himself would have done it. The sum which Giiilio 
received he bestowed as a dowry on his sister, when he gave her in marriage to 
Lorenzetto the sculptor, who had been a friend and pupil of Raffaelle. The 
Cardinal did not send the picture to Narbonne, but, unwilling to deprive Rome 
of such a masterpiece, he presented it to the Church of San Pietro in Montorio, 
and sent in its stead the Raising of Lazarus, by Sebastian del Piombo, now in our 
National Gallery. The French carried off the Transfiguration to Paris in 1797, 
and when restored, it was placed in the Vatican, where it now is.' — Mrs. Jameson's 
' History of Our Lord,' vol. i. 

Zrd Room (closed on Mondays, because the Papal audiences take 
place in the apartment beneath) : — 

Entrance Wall.— ''Titian : Madonna and Saints. 

' S. Nicholas, in full episcopal costume, is gazing upwards with an air of inspira- 
tion. S. Peter is looking over his shoulder at a book, and a beautiful S. Catherine 
is on the other side. Farther behind are S. Francis and S. Anthony of Padua ; on 
the left S. Sebastian, whose figure recurs in almost all these pictui-es. Above, 
in the clouds, with angels, is the Madonna, who looks cheerfully on, while the 
lovely Child holds a wreath, as if ready to crown a \otB.Ty.'—Kugler. 

' In this picture there are three stages, or whatever they are called, the same as 
in the Transfiguration. Below, saints and martyrs are represented in suffering 
and abasement : on every face is depicted sadness, nay, almost impatience ; one 
figure in rich episcopal robes looks upwards, with the most eager and agonised 
longuig, as if weeping ; but he cannot see all that is floating above his head, but 

214 Walks in Rome 

which we see standing in 'front of the picture. Above, Mary and her Child are 
in a cloud, radiant with joy and surrounded by angels, who have woven many 
garlands ; the Holy Child holds one of these, and seems as if about to crown the 
saints beneath, but His Mother withholds His hand for the moment (?). The 
contrast between the pain and suffering below, whence H. Sebastian looks forth 
out of the picture with gloom and almost apathy, and the lofty unalloyed exul- 
tation in the clouds above, where crowns and palms are already awaiting him, is 
truly admirable. High above the group of Mary hovers the Holy Spirit, from 
whom emanates a bright streaming light, thus forming the apex of the whole 
composition. I have just remembered that Goethe, at the beginning of his first 
visit to Rome, describes and admires this picture ; and he speaks of it in consider- 
able detail. It was at that time in the Quirinal.' — Mendelssohn' g Letters. 

Guercino: S. Margherita da Cortona. She is represented kneeling— angels 
hovering above — in the background is the Convent of Cortona. 

Right Wall: 

Spagnoletto : Martyrdom of S. Laurence. 

Guercino: The Magdalen, with angels bearing the instruments of the 

*Pinturicchio : The Coronation of the Virgin— an exquisite pictiu'e from 
La Fratta in Umbria. 

*Peru(jino : The Resurrection. The figures are sharply relieved against 
a bright green landscape and a perfectly green sky. The figure of the 
risen Saviour is in a raised gold nimbus surrounded by cherubs' heads, 
as in the fresco of Pinturicchio at the Ara Coeli. " Quinque plagas 
aspice." The grandly expressive head of the escaping soldier is said to 
be a portrait of Perugino, introduced by Raflaelle — the sleeping soldier, 
that of Raffaelle, by Perugino. 

*' La Madonna di Monte Luco,' designed by Raffaelle : the upper part 
painted by Giulio Romano, the lower by Francesco Penni (II Fattore). 
The apostles looking into the tomb of the Virgin, find it l)looniing with 
heart's-ease and ixias. Above, the Virgin is crowned amid the angels. 
There is a lovely landscape seen through a dark cave which ends 
awkwardly in the black clouds. This picture was painted for the 
Convent of Monte Luco, near Spoleto. 

*Giovanni Spagna: The Nativity — a beautiful and devotional picture, 
the Child utterly unconscious of the adoration it is receiving. 

* Raffaelle: The Coronation of the Vii^in. The predella in the first room 

belonged to this picture, which was painted for the Benedictines of 

* Perugino: 'La Madonna del quattro Santi.' The Virgin and Child 

enthroned under an arcade— with S. Lorenzo, S. Louis, S. Ercolano, 
S. Costanzo standing. On the step of the throne is inscribed 'Hoc 
Petrus de Chastro Plebis Pinxit.' 

End Wall: 

Caravaggio : The Entombment. 

' Caravaggio's entombment of Christ is a picture wanting in all the characteristics 
of holy sublimity ; but is nevertheless full of solemnity, only perhaps too like the 
funeral solemnity of a gipsy chief. A figure of such natural sorrow as the Virgin, 
who is represented as exliausted with weeping, with her trembling outstretched 
hands, has seldom been painted. Even as mother of a gipsy chief, she is dignified 
and touching.' — Kugler. 

Left Wall (returning) : 

Sassoferrato : Virgin and Child. A fat mundane Infant and a coarse 

Virgin seated on a crescent moon. The Child holds a rosary. 
Nieeolo Alunno: Two very large pictures in many compartments, of the 

Crucifixion and Saints. (Between them) 
Melozzo da Forli: Sixtus IV. and his Court. A fresco, removed from the 

Vatican library by Leo XII., which is a most interesting memorial of an 

important historical family. 

The Pinacoteca 215 

Near the figure of the Pope, Sixtus IV. , who is known to Boman travellers from 
his magnificent bronze tomb in the Chapel of the Sacrament of S. Peter's, stand 
two of his nephews, of whom one is Giuliano della Rovere, afterwards Julius II., 
and the other Pietro Riario, who, from the jKssition of a humble Franciscan monk, 
was raised, in a few months, by his uncle, to be Bishop of Treviso, Cardinal- 
Archbishop of Seville, Patriarch of Constantinople, Archbishop of Valeutia, and 
Archbishop of Florence, when his life changed, 'and he lived with such extrava- 
gance, and gave banquets so magnificent, that never had x>agan antiquity seen 
anything like it ; ' i but within two years ■ he died (not without suspicion of poisonX 
to the great grief of Pope Sixtus. and to the infinite joy of the whole college of 
cardinals.' ^ The kneeling figure represents Platina, the historian of the Popes 
and prefect of the Vatican library. His face is that of a scholar, with square jaw, 
thin lips, finely-cut mouth, and keen glancing eye. In the background stand two 
other nephews of the Pope, Cardinal Giovanni della Rovere and Girolamo Riario, 
who was married by his uncle (or father?), the Pope, to the famous Caterina 
Sforza — was suspected of being the originator of the conspiracy of the Pazzi— was 
created Count of Forli, and to whose aggrandisement Sixtus IV. sacrificed every 
principle of morality and justice ; he was murdered at Forli, April 14, 1488. 
He has a shock of black hair falling over large black eyes, his look contemptuous, 
and his mien imperious.3 Beneath is inscribed : 

' Templa domum expositis vicos fora moenia jKtntes : 

Virgineam Trivii quod rei)arris aquam, 
Prisca licet nautis statuas dare commoda portus : 

Et Vaticanum cingere Sixte jugum : 
Plus tamen urbs de&t ; nam quae squalore latebat, 

Cemitur in celebri bibliotheca loco." 

*Titian : Doge Andrea Gritti, half-length, in a yellow robe. 

4 th Room. 

Entrance Wall : 

Valentin : The Martyrdom of S. Processus and Martinianus, the gaolers 
of S. Peter. This is stigmatised by Kugler as ' an unimportant and 
bad picture,' but, i>erhaps from the connection of the subject with the 
story of S. Peter, has been thought worthy of being copied in mosaic 
in the basilica, whence this picture was brought. 

' This picture is terrible for dark and effective expression ; it is just one of 
those subjects in which the Caravaggio school delighted.' — Jameson's ' Saered ArV 

Guido Reni : Martyrdom of S. Peter. 

' This has the heavy, powerful forms of Caravaggio, but wants the passionate 
feeling which sustains such objects— it is a martyrdom and nothing more — it 
might pass for an enormous and horrible genre picture.' — Kttgler. 

\. Potissin : Martyrdom of S. Erasmus. A most horrible picture of the 
disembowelment of the saint upon a wheel. It was copied in mosaic 
in S. Peter's when the picture was removed from thence. 

Left WaU: 

Baroeei : The Anntuciation. From S. Maria at Loreto, detained in the 
Vatican, in exchange for a mosaic, after it was sent back by the French. 

Andrea Sacchx: S. Gregory the Great— the miracle of the Brandeum. 
This was the altar-piece of the CappeUa Clementina, built by Clement 
VIII. at S. Peter's, and to which the remains of (Jregory the Great 
were removed from the altar of S. Andrew. 

' The Empress Coustantia sent to S. Gregory requesting some of the relics of 
S. Peter and S. PauL He excused himself, saying that he dared not disturb 
their sacred remains for such a purpose — but he sent her part of a consecrated 
cloth (Brandeum) which had enfolded the body of S. John the Evangelist. The 

1 See Stefano Infessura, Rer. Hal. Script, torn. iiL 

2 Corio, ist mU. p. 876. 

' See Creighton, The Papacy during the RtfomuUion. 

216 Walks in Rome 

Empress rejected this gift with contempt; whereupon Gregory, to show tliat 
such things are hallowed not so much in themselves as by the faith of believers, 
laid the Brandeum on the altar, and after praying, he took up a knife and pierced 
it, and blood flowed as from a living body.'— Jameson's 'Sacred Art,' p. 321. 

Barocci : Tlie Ecstasy of S. Michelina. This picture is mentioned by 
Lanzi as ' S. Michelina ecstatica siil Calvario.' The story appears to 
be lost. 

Between the Wiiidrnvs : 

Moretto da Brescia {Buonvicmo) : The Madonna and Child with S. 

.Terome and S. Bartholomew. 
Paolo Veronese : The Dream of S. Helena (of the finding of the true 

Cross). Once in the Capitol collection. It is interesting to compare 

this with the far finer representation of the same subject by the same 

master in our National Gallery. 

Bight Wall (returning) : 

Guide : Madonna with S. Thomas and S. Jerome. The S. Thomas is 

very grand. 
Cesare da Sesto: Madonna della Cintola with S. John and S. Augustin. 

Signed 1521. 
Correggio (?) : Salvator Jlundi. Christ seated on the rainbow. 
* Andrea Sacchi : 8. Romualdo. The saint sees the vision of a ladder 

by which the friars of his Order ascend to heaven. The monks in 

white drapery are grand and noble figures, especially the seated 

figure in the foreground. 

' It is recorded in the legend of S. Komnaldo that, a short time before his death, 
he fell asleep beside a fountain near his cell ; and he dreamed, and in his dream 
he saw a ladder, like that which the patriarch Jacob beheld in his vision, resting 
on the earth, and the top of it reaching to heaven ; and he saw the brethren 
of his Order ascending by twos and by threes, all clothed in white. When 
Romualdo awoke from his dream, he changed the habit of his monks from black 
to white, which they have ever since worn in remembrance of this vision.' — 
Jameson's 'Monastic Orders,' p. 117. 

A door on the ground-floor of the Cortile di S. Damaso will admit 
visitors (with an order obtainable at the Ufficio Tecnico, Via della 
Sacristia) to visit the Papal Manufactory of Mosaics, whence so 
many beautiful works have issued, and where others are always in 

' Ghirlandajo, who felt the utmost enthusiasm for the aug\ist remains of Roman 
grandeur, was still more deeply impressed by the sight of the ancient mosaics of 
the Christian basilicas, the image of which was still present to his mind when he 
said, at a more advanced age, that "mosaic was the true painting for eternity." ' 

Admission to the Sculpture Galleries is now only obtained by the 
Cancello del Giardino (entrance 1 fr., free on Saturdays), reached 
by the Via dei Fondamcnti at the back of S. Peter's. Hence we 
enter the 

Museo Pio-CIementino, founded under Clement XIV., but chiefly 
due to the liberality and taste of Pius VI., in whose reign, however, 
most of the best statues were carried off to Paris, though they were 
restored to Pius VII. 

A few steps lead us to the beautiful Sala a Croce Greca, con- 
taining — 

On the Z«/t.— The porphyry Sarcophagus of S. Constantia, daughter of Constan- 
tine the Great, adorned with sculptures of a vintage, which are repeated in 

The Sala della Biga 217 

the mosaics of her church near S. Agiiese, whence it was most inappropriately 
brongjit here. 

On the riffht.—Tbe porphyry Sarcophagos of S. Helena, mother of Constantine 
the Great, carried off from her tomb (now called Torre Pignattara) to be naed as 
his own monimient, by Anastasius IV., and placed in the Lateran, whence it was 
brought hither by Pius VI. The restoration of its reliefs, representing battle 
scenes of the time of Constautine, cost £20,000. Armed men on horseback gallop 
over the heads of prisoners on their knees. 

At the entrance of the hall on the left is a recumbent river- 
god, said to have been restored bv Michelangelo.^ The stairs, 
adorned with twenty ancient columns from PalestriDa, lead on the 
right to : 

The Sala della Biga, so called from a white marble chariot, drawn 
by two horses. Only the body of the chariot (which long served 
as an episcopal throne in the Church of S. Marco) and part of the 
horse on the right are ancient : the remainder is restoration. 
Among the sculptures here are : 

608. Bearded Bacchus. 

609 and 613 are interesting sarcophagi representing chariot-races. The chariots 
are driven by Amorini, who are not attending to what they are about, 
and drive over one another. Eggs and dolphins on the winning-posts 
indicated the number of times they had gone round ; each time they 
passed, another egg and dolphin were put up. 

610. Bacchus. 

611. AlcibiadesOX 

612. Veiled priest, from the Ginstiniani collection. 

614. Apollo Citharaedus. 

615. 'Discobolus, copy of a bronze statue by Xanbides. 

616. *Phocion, very remarkable and beautiful from the extreme simplicity of 

the drapery. 

618. Discobolus, copy of the bronze statue of Myron — inferior to that at the 

Palazzo Lancellotti. 

' n n°y a pas une statue dont I'original soit connu avec plus de certitude que le 
Discobole. Cet original fut I'athlete lauQant le disque de Myron. 

' C'est bien la statue se contoumant avec effort dont parle Quintilien ; en 
effet, la statue, i)enchee en avant et dans I'attitude du jet, porte le corps sur 
une jambe, tandis que I'autre est trainante derriere luL Ce n'est pas la main, 
c'est la personne tout entiere qui va lancer le disque.' — Ampere, Hist Bom. 
iii. 270. 

619. Charioteer. 

Proceeding in a straight line from the top of the stairs, we 
enter : 

The Galleria dei Candelabri, 300 feet long, filled with small 
pieces of sculpture. Among these we may notice in the centre, on 
the left, Bacchus and Silenns, found near the Sancta Sanctorum, 
also : 

Bight. 20. Tomb of a child, with dc^, book, and baby. 

Left. Boy with a goose. 

Ijeft. 148. Bacchus and Silenns. 

Bight 224. (Last division but one) Nemesis. 

1 If the visitor has reached the Vatican on a Thursday, he will find the rest of 
the sculpture galleries closed, and must now visit the Etruscan and Egj-ptian 
museums, or the Galleria d^li ArazzL 

218 Walks in Rome 

' Une petite statue du Vatican rappelle une ciirieiise anecdote dont le heros 
est Agoracrite. Alcamene et lui avaient fait chacuu une statue de V^nus. Celle 
d'Alcam6ne fut jugee la meilleure par les Atheniens. Agoracrite, indigntS de ce 
qui lui semblait une injustice, transfornia la sienne en Nemesis, deesse vengeresse 
de r^quit^ viol6e, et la rendit aux habitants du bourg de Rhamnus, h condition 
qu'elle ne serait jamais exposee k Athenes. Ceci niontre combien sa V^nus avait 
gard6 la s6v6rite du type primitif. Ce n'est pas de la V6nus du Capitole ou de la 
V^nus de M6dicis qu'on aurait pu faire une N6mesis. N^m^sis avait pour em- 
blfeme la coudee, signe de la mesure que N6ni6sis ne permet point de depasser, et 
I'avant-bras 6tait la figure de la coudee, par suite, de la mesure. C'est pourquoi 
quand on representait Nemesis on plagait toujours I'avant-bras de manifere 
d'attirer sur lui I'attention. Dans la Nemesis du Vatican la donnee severe est 
devenue un motif aimable. Get avant-bras, qu'il fallait montrer pour rappeler 
une loi terrible. Nemesis le montre en eflet, mais elle s'en sert avec grace pour 
rattacher son vetement.' — Ampere, Uist. Bom. iii. 260. 

Hence (on Thursdays only) we can enter : 

The Galleria degli Arazzi, hung with tapestries from the New 
Testament History, executed for the lower walls of the Sistine 
Chapel, in 1515-16, for Leo X., of which ten are from the cartoons 
of RaffaeUe ; seven of these were purchased in Flanders by Charles 
I., and are now at South Kensington. The : tapestries are ill 
arranged. According to their present order, beginning on the 
right wall, they are : 

*1. The Conversion of S. Paul. 

*2. Peter and John healing the Lame Man. 

*3. The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. 

4. (Smaller than the others) Christ falling under the Cross. 

5, 6. The Presentation in the Temple, with the Annunciation and Crucifixion 

7, 8, 9. The Massacre of the Innocents. 
*10. The Appearance of the Saviour to the Apostles on the shore of Galilee. 
*11. The Stoning of Stephen. (On the border, the return of Cardinal de' Medici 

to Florence as Legate.) 
12. An allegorical composition representing the Triumph of Religion (by Van 
Orley and other pupils of Raffaelle). 

Keturning, on the left wall are : 

1. llie Day of Pentecost. » 

2. The Resurrection. 

3. The Adoration of the Magi. 

4. The Ascension. 

5. The Adoration of tlie Shepherds. 

6. The Presentation in the Temple. 

7. The Supper at Emmaus. 

8. The Appearance to Mary Magdalene. 

9. The Marriage of S. Catherine. Above it Christ falling under the Cross. 
*10. The Death of Ananias. 

*11. S. Peter receiving the Keys. (On the border, the flight of Cardinal de' 

Medici from Florence in 1494, disguised as a Franciscan monk.) 
*12. Paul i)reaching at Athens. 
*13. The Sacrifice at Lystra.i 

The Arazzi were long used as church decorations on high 

' On Corpus-Christ! Day I learnt the true destination of the tapestries, when 
they transfoi-med colonnades and open spaces into handsome halls and corridors ; 

1 The compositions of Raffaelle are marked with an asterisk. 

The Sala Eotonda 219 

and whUe they placed before us the power of the most gifted of men, they gave 
us at the same time the happiest example of art and handicraft, each in its 
highest perfection, meeting for mutual completion.' — Goethe. 

From the end of the Sala a Croce Greca we enter the Sala 
Botonda, built by Pius VI., paved with a mosaic found in 1780 in 
the Baths of Otricoli, and containing in its centre a grand porphyry 
vase (labrum) from the Baths of Diocletian. 

On either side of the door of exit are colossal heads of Tragedy and Comedy, 
from Hadrian's Villa, 

Beginning from the right beyond the second door, are : 

539. *Bust of Jupiter, fitly represented as the father and the king of the gods, 

from Otricoli — the finest extant. 

' Vultu, quo coelum tempestatesque serenat.' 

Virgil, Aen. L 255. 

' The main point of characterisation lies unmistakably in the abundant hair 
falling on both sides in thick masses, and in the bold, elevated brows, beneath 
which the eyes seem to gaze over the vast univei-se. The compact brow and 
prominent nose complete the expression of wisdom and pt)wer ; while the full, 
slightly-parted lips imply mild benevolence ; and the luxuriant beard, and firm, 
well-formed cheeks betray sensiial vigour and imperishable manly beauty.' — 

540. Colossal statue of Antinous, as Bacchus, from Hadrian's Villa. All the 

drapery (probably once of bronze) is a restoration. 

'Antinous was drowned in the Nile, A.D. 131. Some accounts assert that he 
drowned himself in obedience to an oracle, which demanded for the life of the 
Emperor Hadrian the sacrifice of the object dearest to him. However this may 
be, Hadrian lamented his death with extravagant weakness, proclaimed his 
divinity to the jeering Egyptians, and consecrated a temple in his honour. He 
gave the name of Besantinopolis to a city in which he was worshipped in con- 
junction with an obscure divinity najned Besa.' — Merivale, brvi. 

541. Faustina the elder, wife of Antoninus Pius, from the Villa of Hadrian. 

542. Ceres. 

543. *Bust of Hadrian, interesting as having been found in his mausoleum.' 

544. *The Mastai Hercules — a colossal figure in gilt bronze, found (1864) under 

the Palazzo Pio di Carpi near the Theatre of Pompey. I'he feet and 
ankles are restorations by Tenerani. This statue is not earlier than 
the third century, but it is the most important bronze in the Vatican, i 
I'here is a hole in the back of the head through which a full-grown 
youth has made his way into the colossus. 

545. *Bust of Antinous, from the Villa of Hadrian — exquisitely beautiful. 

' Antinous, the youth with dejected head and dreamy look, meets us in the 
halls of art often, but the mysterious face has always the same power of attrac- 
tion. He muses ujwn a riddle, and himself is one that tempts to solution and 
baflles the solrer.'—Kydberff. 

546. The Barberini Juno — much restored. 

547. Sea-go<l, from Pozzuoli. 

54S. *J<erva, sublime in expression, stupendous in drapery. 

' Among the treasures of antiquity preserved in modem Rome, none surpasses 
— none perhaps equals — in force and dignity, the sitting statue of Xerva, which 

1 Very few bronzes have escaped invasion or the rapacity of Christian Em- 
perors ; it was thus with mediaeval sculptures at S. Denis. All the royal effigies 
in marble simived the Kevolution, but all those in bronze or other metals were 
melted down. 

220 Walks in Rome 

draws all eyes in the Rotonda of the Vatican, embodying the highest ideal of the 
Roman magnate, the finished warrior, statesman, and gentleman of an age of 
varied training and wide practical experience.' — Merivale, ch. xliii. 

549. Jupiter Serapis, a colossal bust, from Bovillae. 

550. Claudius, as Jupiter— found at Civita Lavinia. 

' The statues of Claudius surprise, but we must believe that he had these at- 
tractive features. All his statues, by various chisels, and of different degrees 
of merit, unanimously bear witness to this. And it is not contradicted by his 
biographers. Tliey have made nieri-y over his pedantic manner and his rolling 
gait ; but no one has said that he was ugly. Suetonius, eager collector of every- 
thing that might cast ridicule upon his memory, speaks, too, of a commanding 
dignity in his appearance, when he stood, sat, or reclined. 

' This statue represents a Hamlet grown old, that is the first impression. A 
melancholy youth spent at court, that forced them to feign madness, was 
common to both. That there lay a Hamlet hidden in the soul of Claudius 
Caesar, and that the keen eye of Shakespeare found him there, this one seems 
to see in the Vatican statue, in which the sculptor, so to speak, has wrought 
in marble the Greek word by which Augustus hit the chief trait in Claudius's 
nature. The word applied to him needs no translation : when we hear mcteoria, 
we represent to ourselves a floating in boundless space, amid clouds and vapours, 
an irresolute life in empty dreams, burdened by regret at feeble will, and some- 
times crossed by lofty purposes. It was young Hamlet's life, and it was that of 
the old Roman Emperor. One reads it with surprising clearness in every line.' 
— Viktor Rydberg. 

551. Bust of Claudius. 

552. Juno Sospita, from Lanuvium — mysterious and terrific. This is the only 

statue in the Vatican of which we can be certain that it was a wor- 
shipped idol ; the sandals of the Tyrrhenian Juno turn up at the end — 
no other Juno wears these sandals. 

553. Plotina, wife of Trajan. 

554. Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. 

555. Colossal statue of Ceres. 
656. Pertinax. 

Close to the famous bust of Jupiter we enter the Sala delle Muse, 
adorned with sixteen Corinthian columns from Hadrian's Villa. It 
is chiefly filled with statues and busts from the villa of Cassius at 
Tivoli. On the left, just within the entrance, are : 

525. *Bust of Pericles, very probably the work of Kresilas. 
523. Bust of Aspasia, the only known representation of the world-renowned 
friend of Pericles ; found in the Castnim Novum. 

The statues of the Muses and that called Apollo Musagetes 
(No. 516) are generally attributed to the time of the Antonines. 

' Nous Savons que 1' Apollon Citharfede de Scopas 6tait dans le temple d'Apollon 
Palatin, 61eve par Auguste : les medailles, Properce et Tibulle, nous appreiment 
que le dieu s'y voyait revetu d'une longue robe. 

' Ima videbatur talis illudere palla.' 

Tib. iii. 4, 35. 

'Py thins in longa carmina veste sonat.' 

Prop. ii. 31, 16. 

' Nous ne pouvons done hesiter u admettre que I'ApoUon de la salle des Muses 
an Vatican a eu pour premier original I'Apollon de Scopas. 

'Nous Savons aussi qu'un Apollon de Philiscus et un Apollon de Tiniarchide 
(cclui-ci tenant la lyre), sculpteurs grecs moins anciens (|ue Scopas, utaient dans 
un autre temple d'Apollon, pr6s du portique d'Octavie, en compagnie des Muses, 
comme I'Apollon Citharede du Vatican a uto trouve avec celles qui I'entourent 
aujourd'hui dans la salle des Muses. II est done vraisemblable que cet Apollon 

Galleria delle Statue 221 

est d'aprfes PhUiscus ou Timarchide, que eux-niemes avaient sans doute copie 
I'Apollon d la lyre de Scopas et I'avaient place an milieu des Pluses. 

' Apollon est li, ainsi que plus anciennement U avait ete represente sur le 
coffre de Cypselus, avec cette inscription qui conviendrait a la statue du Vatican: 
" Alentour est le chceur gracieux des Muses, auquel il preside;" et, comme dit 
Pindare, "au milieu du beau chceur des Muses. Aix)llon frappe du plectrum d'or 
la lyre aiix sept voix." ' — Anqxie, Hist. Horn. iii. 202, 

Hence we reach the Sala degli Animali, containing a number of 
representations of animals in marble and alabaster. Perhaps the 
best is No. 116 — two greyhounds playing. The statue of Commodns 
on horseback (No. 139) served as a model to Bernini for his figure 
of Constantine in the portico of S. Peter's. 

'La Salle des Animaux au Vatican est comme un musee de I'ecole de Myron ; 
le naturel parfait qu'il donna a ses representations d'animaux y eclate partout. 
C'est »me sorte de menagerie de I'art, et elle merite de s'appeler, comme celle du 
Jardin des Plantes, une menagerie d'animavx vivantg. 

' Ces animaux sont pourtant d'un merite inegal : parmi les meilleurs morceaux 
on compte des chiens qui jouent ensemble avec beaucoup de verite, un cygne 
dont le duvet, un mouton tue dont la toison sont tres bien rendus, une tete d'ane 
tres vraie et portant ime couronue de lierre, allusion au role de I'ane de Silfene 
dans les niysteres bacchiques.' — Ampere, Hint. Rom. iii. 276. 

On the left we enter : 

The Galleria delle Statue, once a summer-house of Innocent YIII., 
but arranged as a statue-gallery under Pius YI. In its lunettes are 
remains of frescoes by Pinturicchio. Beginning on the right are : 

248. An armed statue of Clodius Albinus standing on a cippus which marked 
the spot where the body of Caius Caesar was burnt, inscribed, 
C. Caesak Germasici Caesaris bio orematus est. 

250. The * Statue called ' The Genius of the Vatican,' supposed to be a copy 

from a Cupid of Praxiteles, which exist«d in the Portico of Octavia in 
the time of Pliny. On the back are the holes for the metal pins which 
supported the wings. This statue is of Parian marble. 

251. Athlete. 

253. Triton, from Tivoli — a noble head. 

255. Paris, from the Palazzo Altemps. 

' Le Vatican possede une statue de Pdris jugeant les deesses. C«tte statue est- 
elle, comme on le pense generalement, une copie du Paris d'Euphranor? 

'Euphranor avait-il clioisi le moment oil Paris juge les deesses"? Les express 
sions de Pline poiuraient en faire douter : U ne I'afldnne point ; il dit que dans 
la statue d'Euphranor on eiit pu reconnaitre le juge des trois deesses, I'amant 
d'Helene et le vainqueur d'Aehille. 

' La statue du Vatican est de beaucoup la plus remarquable des statues de 
P4ris. On y sent, raalgre ses imperfections, la presence d'un original fameux ; 
de plus, son attitude est celle de Paris sur plusieurs vases peints et sur plusieurs 
bas-reliefs, et nous verrons que les bas-reliefs reproduisaient tres souvent une 
statue celebre. II m'est Impossible, il est \Tai, de voir dans le P4ris du Vatican 
tout ce que Pline dit du P^ris d'Euphranor. Je ne puis y voir que le juge des 
dresses. L'expression de son visage montre qu'il a contemple la beaute de 
Venus, et que le prix va dtre donne. Rien n'annonce I'amant d'Helene, ni 
surtout le vainqueur d'Aehille ; niais ce qui etait dans I'original aurait pu dis- 
paraitre de la copie.' — Ampere. Hut. Rom. iiL 300. 

256. Young Hercides. 

259. Figure probably intended for Apollo, restored as Minerva. 

260. A Greek relief, from a tomb. 

261. Penelope, ou a pedestal, with a relief of Bacchus and Ariadne. 

222 Walks in Rome 

' L'attente de P6n61ope nous est pr6sente, et, pour ainsi dire, dure encore pour 
nous dans cette expressive P6n61ope, dont le torse nous a montr6 un specimen de 
I'art grec sous la forme la plus ancienne.' — Ampere, Hist. Horn. iii. p. 452. 

264. *Apollo Sauroctonos (watching a lizard), found on the Palatine in 1777 — a 

copy of a work of Praxiteles. Several other copies are in existence, 
one, the celebrated figure in bronze, in the Villa Albani. The right 
arm and the legs above the knees are restorations, well executed. 

' Apollon presque enfant epie un lezard qui se glisse le long d'un arbre. On 
salt, k n'en pouvoir douter, d'aprfes la description de Pline et de Martial, que cet 
Apollon, souvent rep6t6, est une imitation de celui de Praxitele, et quand on ne 
le saurait pas, on I'eut devine.' — Ampere, iii. 313. 

265. Amazon, found in the Villa Mattel, the finest of the three Amazons in the 

Vatican, which are all supposed to be copies from the fifty statues of 
Amazons which decorated the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. 

267. Drunken Satyr, from the Villa Mattel. 

268. Juno, from Otricoli. 

271, 390. *Posidippus and Menander, very fine statues, perfectly presei-ved, 
owing to their having been kept through the Middle Ages in the Church 
of S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna, where they were worshipped under the 
belief that they were statues of saints, a belief which arose from their 
having metal discs over their heads, a practice which prevailed with 
many Greek statues intended for the oi)en air. Tlie marks of the 
metal pins for these discs may still be seen, as well as those for a 
bronze protection for the feet, to prevent their being worn away by 
the kisses of the faithful— as on the statue of S. Peter at S. Peter's. 

Between these statues we enter : 

The Hall of Busts. Perhaps the best are : 

277. Augustus, with a wreath, as an Arval. 
273. * The young Augustus, found at Ostia, 1808. 

' From these features Horace, the friend of Caesar Augustus, might have 
drawn the inspiration for his "aurea mediocritas." Yoimg Octavius is hand- 
some, it might be said beautiful. . . . Suetonius the biographer gives us the 
colours of these forms. The lightly waving hair was of a golden hue ; the eyes 
had a mild and kindly glance ; the complexion varied between tawny and white.' 
— Viktor Rydberg. 

298. Jupiter-Serapis, in basalt. 

311. Menelaus (?). . 

326. Throned statue of Jupiter. 

357. Antinous. 

376. Minerva, from the Castle of S. Angelo. 

388. *Roman Senator and his wife, from a tomb. (These busts, having been 
much admired by the great historian, were imitated on the monument 
of Niebuhr at Bonn, erected l)y his former pupil the King of Prussia 
to his memory— with that of his loving wife Gretchen, who only 
survived him nine days.) 

'Les tetes de deux epoux, repri5sent6s au devant de leur tombeau d'ou ils 
semblentsortir 4 mi-corps et se tenant par la main, sont surtout d'nne simplicity 
et d'une verit6 inexprimable. La femme est assez jeune et assez belle, I'tSpoux 
est vieux et tr6s laid ; mais ce groupe a un air honnete et digue qui rtipond pour 
tons deux d'une vie de s6r6nit6 et de vertu. Nul recit ne pourrait aussi l)ien 
que ces deux figures transporter au sein des moeurs doniestiques de Rome ; 
en leur presence on se sent pi'n(!tr6 soi-meme d'honnetet^, de pudeur et de 
respect, comme si on tStait assis au chaste foyer de Lucr6ce.' — Ampbre, Hist. 
Rom. Iv. 103. 

Re-entering the Gallery of Statues, and following the left wall, 
are : 

The Gabinetto delle Maschere 223 

392. Septimius Sevems. 

393. Girl at a spring ("?)— a copy from the statue at Palazzo BarberinL 

394. Xeptune, from the Vaiazzo VerospL 

395. Apollo Citharoedus. 

396. ' Wounded Adonis," or >arci5sxis, from the Palazzo BarberinL 

397. Bacchus, from Hadrian's VUla. 

398. Macrinus (Imp. 217), murderer and saecessor of Caracalla. 

399. Aesculapius and Hygeia, from Palestrina. 

400. Euterpe. 

401. Mutilated group from the Niobides, found near Porta San Paolo. 

405. Danaide. from Palestrina. 

406. Copy of the Faun of Praxiteles, veiy beautiful, but inferior to that at the 


(Here is the entrance of the Gabinetto delle Maschere, named 
from the mosaic upon the floor, of masks from Hadrian's Villa, 
It is seldom shown, probably because it contains a chair of rosso- 
antico, called ' Sedia forata,' found near the Lateran, and supposed 
to be the famous 'Sella Stercoraria,' used at the installation of the 
mediaeval popes, and associated with the legend of Pope Joan. 

' Le Pape eln (Celestine HI., 1191) se prosteme devant I'autel pendant que Ton 
chante le Te Deimi : puis les Cardinaux Ereques le condnisent a son siege derriere 
I'autel : la Us viennent a ses pieds, et il lenr donne le baiser de paix. On le 
mene ensuite a une chaise posle derant le portiqne de la Basilique du Sanreur 
de Lateran. Cette chaise dtait nommee dte lors " Stereoraria," parre qn'elle est 
perc^ au fond ; mais rouTerture est petite, et les antiqnaires jugent que c'etait 
pour ^goutter I'ean, et que cette chaise serrait a quelque bain.' — Fleury, ' His- 
toire EeeUsiattique,' xt. p. 525. 

Here also the severe morality of Pope Leo XIII. has imprisoned 
(427) the beautiful Venus Anadyomene, formerly in the Braccio- 

' La graciense Venus Anadyomene, que chacun connait, a le merite de nous 
rendre une peinture perdue d'.Apelles ; elle en a un autre encore, c'est de nous 
conserrer dans ce portrait, qui n'est point en buste, quelques traits de la beauts 
de Camx>aspe, d'aprte laqn^e Apelles, dit-on, peignit sa Venus Anadyomene.' — 
Amphre, ill. 324. 

Returning to the (jalleria delle Statue, we find — 

432. Bacchus — in Toese antico. 
443. Antinous. 

414. *Sleeping Ariadne, found e. 1503— fonneriy supposed to represent Cleo- 

' This grand form is executed with masterly power, and contrasts effectively 
with the drapery, and it presents, especially ui the gentle inclination of the 
bead and in the turn of the beautiful arms, the unsurpassable picture of deep 
slumber, bearing even in its repose the traces of preceding passionate excite- 
ment.' — LuNee. 

' La figure est certainement ideale, et n'est point nn portrait : mais ce qui ne 
laisse aucun doute snr le nom a lui donner, c'est un bas-relief, un peu refait, U 
est vrai, qn'on a en la tres heureuse idee de placer aupres d'eUe. 

' On y voit une femme endormie dont I'attitude est tout a fait pareiUe a celle 
de la statue, Thesee qui va s'embarquer pendant le sommeil d'Ariane, et Bacchus 
qui arrive pour la consoler. Cest exactement ce que Ton voyait peint dans le 
temple de Bacchus a Athenes. 

'Cette statue, beUe sans doute, mais peut-etre tatjp vantee, doit etre poB- 
terieure ^ I'epoque d'Alexandre. Sa pose gracieuse est i»esque manieree : on 
dirait qn'elle se regarde donnir. La disposition de la draperie est compliqu^ 

224 Walks in Rome 

et un pen enibrouill^e, a tel point que les iins preiinent pour une couverture ce 
que d'autres regardent conime un manteau.' — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 534. 

Beneath this figure is a fine sarcopliagus, representing the Battle of the Giants. 

412, 413. 'Tlie Barberini Candelabra,' from Hadrian's Villa. 

416. Ariadne, on a cinerarium. 

417. Mercury, on a pedestal which supported the ashes of a son of Gemianicus 

in the Mausoleum of Augustus. 
420. Lucius Verus, on a pedestal which supported the ashes of Caligula. 
422. Cinerary urn with the names of the three children of Germanicus. 

We now approacli the inner sanctuary of the Vatican. Through 
a door in the centre of the Sala degli Animali, opposite that by 
which we entered, we reach the Cortile del Belvedere, designed by 
Braniante under Julius II., having a fountain in the centre, and 
decorated with fine sarcophagi and vases, &c. From this opens, 
beginning from the right, the — 

First Cnhinet, of the * Laocoon. This wonderful group was dis- 
covered near the Sette Sale on the Esquiline in 1506, while Michel- 
angelo was at Rome, under Julius II., but narrowly escaped destruc- 
tion under Adrian VI., who turned away from it shuddering, and 
exclaiming, ' Idol of the Pagans.' The right arm of the father is a 
terra-cotta restoration, and is Winckelmann to be the work of 
Bernini ; the arms of the sons are additions by Agostino Cornacchini 
of Pistoia. There is now no doubt that the Laocoon is the group 
described by Pliny, 

' The fame of many sculptors is less diflf used, because the number employed 
upon great works prevented their celebrity ; for there is no one artist to receive 
the honour of the work, and where there are more than one they cannot all 
obtain an equal fame. Of this the Laocoon is an example, wliich stands in the 
palace of the Emperor Titus — a work which may be considered superior to all 
others both in painting and statuary. The whole group— the father, the boys, 
and the awful folds of the serpents — were formed out of a single block, in ac- 
cordance with a vote of the senate, by Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus, 
Rhodian sculptors of the highest merit.' — Pliny, lib. xxxvi. c. 4. 

' Les trois sculpteurs rhodiens qui travaill^rent ensemble an Laocoon etaient 
probablement un pfere et ses deux flls, qui executcrent I'un la statue du pore, et 
les autres celles des deux flls, touchante analogic entre les auteurs et I'ouvrage. 

' Les a\iteurs du Laocoon etaient Rhodiens, ce peuple auquel, dit Pindare, 
Minerve a donnd de I'eniporter sur tons les mortels par le travail habile de leurs 
mains, et dont les rues 6taient garnies de figures vivantes qui semblaient 
marcher. Or, le grand eclat, la grande puissance de Rhodes, appartiennent sur- 
tout k I'ipoque qui suivit la mort d'Alexandre. Apres qii'elle se fut delivrsSe du 
joug macedonien, presque toujours alliee de Rome, Rhodes fut florissante par le 
commerce, les armes et la liberte, jusqu'au jour oil elle cut embrassc le parti de 
Cesar ; Cassius prit d'assaut la capitale de I'lle et d6pouilla ses temples de tons 
leurs ornements. Le coup fut mortel h la r6publique de Rhodes, qui depnis ne 
s'en releva plus. 

'C'est avant cette fatale epoque, dans I'^poque de la prosperito rhodieiuic, 
entre Alexandre et Cesar, que se place le gi-and d6veloppement de I'art comme 
de la puissance des Rhodiens, et qu'on est conduit naturellement k placer la 
creation d'un chef-d'a"uvre tel que le Laocoon. 

' Pline dit ([ue les trois statues dont se compose le groupe etaieiit d'un seul 
morceau, et ce groupe est forra^ de plusieurs, on en a compt6 jusqu'i six. Ceci 
semblerait faire croire que nous n'avons qu'une copie, mais j'avoue ne pas 
attacher une grande importance .'i cette indication de Pline, compilateur plus 
6rudit qu'observateiu- attentif. Michel-Ange, dit-on, remarqua le premier (jue 
le Laocoon n'etait pas d'un seul morceau ; Pline a tr^s bien pu ne pas s'en aper- 
cevoir plus que nous et r6p^ter de couflance une assertion inexacte.'— /Iwi^fre, 
Tlist. Horn. iii. 382, 386, 387. 

The Laocoon 225 

. . . Taming to the Vatican, go see 
Laocoon's torture dignifying pain — 
A father's love, and mortal's agony 
With an immortal's patience blending, rain 
The struggle ; vain against the coiling strain 
And gripe, and deepening of the dragon's grasp. 
The old man's clench ; the long enrenom'd chain 
Rivets the living links — the enormous asp 
Enforces pang on pang, and stifles gasp on gasp.' 

ChOde HanUL. 

' The subject of the Laocoon is a disagreeable one, but whether we consider 
the grouping or the execution, nothing that remains to us of antiquity can sur- 
pass it. It consists of a father and his two sons. Brron thinks that Laocoon's 
anguish is absorbed in that of his children, that a mortal's agony is blending with 
an immortal's patience. Xot so. Intense physical soifering, against which he 
pleads witti an upraised countenance of despair, and appeals with a sense of its 
injustice, seems the predominant and overwhelming emotion, and yet there is a 
nobleness in the expression, and a majesty that dignifles torture. 

'We now come to his children. Their features and attitudes indicate the 
excess of the filial love and devotion that animates them, and swallows up all 
other feelings. In the elder of the two this is particularly observable. His eyes 
are fixedly )^nt on the Laocoon — his whole soul is with, is a part of that of his 
father. His arm extended towards him, not for protection, but a wish as if 
instinctively to afford it, absolutely speaks. Nothing can be more exquisite than 
the contour of his form and face, and the mouldii^ of his lips, that are half 
open, as if in the act of — not uttering any unbecoming complaint, or prayer, or 
lamentation, which he is conscious are alike useless — but addressing words of 
consolatoty tenderness to his unfortunate parent The intensity of his bodily 
torments is only expr^sed by the uplifting of his right foot, which he is vainly 
and impotently attempting to extricate £rom the grasp of the mighty folds in 
which it is entangled. 

' In ithe younger child, surprise, pain, and grief seem to contend for the 
mastery. He is not yet arrived at an age when his mind has sufficient self- 
possession or fixedness of reason to analyse the calamity that is overwhelming 
himself and all that is dear to him. He is sick with pain and horror. We 
almost seem to hear his shrieks. His left band is on the head of the snake, that 
is burying its fangs in his side, and the vain and fruitless attempt he is making 
to disengage it increases the effect. Every limb, every muscle, every vein of 
Laocoon expresses, with the fidelity of life, the working of the poison, and the 
strained giitUng round of the inextricable folds, whose tangling sinuosities are 
too numerous and complicated to be followed. Xo chisel has ever displayed 
with such anatomical fidelity and force the projecting muscles of the arm, whose 
hand clenches the neck of the reptile, almost to strangulation ; and the mouth 
of the enormous asp, and his terrible fangs widely displayed, in a moment to 
penetrate and meet within its victim's hcirt, make the spectator of this miracle 
of sculpture turn away with shuddering and awe, and doubt the reality of what 
he seea.'—SluUey. 

' The circumstance of the two sons being so much smaller than the father has 
been criticised by some, but this seems to have been nece^ary to the harmony 
of the composition. The same apparent disproportion exists between Xiobe and 
her children in the celebratetl group at Florence, suiq>osed to be by Scopas. 
The raised arms of the three Agues are aU restorations, as are some portions of 
the serpent. Originally, the raised hands of the old man rested on his head, 
and the traces of the junction are clearly discernible. For this we have also the 
evidence of an antique gem, on which it is thus engraved. ThL« work was found 
in the Batlis (?) of Titus, in the reign of Julius II., l>y a certain Felix de Fredis, 
who received half the revenue of the gabella of the Porta San Giovanni as a 
reward, and whose epitaph, in the Church of Ara Coeli, records the fact.' — 
Shaktpere Wood. 

' n y avait dans la vie, au seideme si^le, je ne sais quelle excitation febrile, 
quelle aspiration vers le bean, vers I'inconnu, qui disposait les esprits a en- 
Uiousiasme. . . . Felix de Fredis fat gratifle d'une part dans les revenus de la 
porte de Saint-Jean de Lateran, pour avoir tioave le groape du Laocoon, et 

VOL. n. P 

226 Walks in Rome 

lorsque I'ordre fut donn6 de transporter au Belvedere le Laocoon, rApollon, la 
Venus, Bome entiere s'emut, on jetait des fleurs au marbre, on battait des 
mains ; depuis les themies de Titus jusqu'au Vatican, le Laocoon fut portd en 
triomplie ; et Sadolet chantait sur le mode virgilien que durent reconnaitre les 
echos de I'Esquilin et du palais d'Auguste.' — Gournerie, 'Rome Chreticnnc.' 

The Second Cabinet contains the *Apollo Belvedere, found in the 
sixteenth century at Porto d'Anzio (Antium), and purchased by 
Julius II. for the Belvedere Palace, which was at that time a garden 
pavilion separated from the rest of the Vatican, and used as a 
museum of sculpture. It is now decided that this statue, beautiful 
as it is, is not the original work of a Greek sculptor, but a copy, 
probably from the bronze of Calamides, which represented Apollo as 
the defender of the city, and which was erected at Athens after the 
cessation of a great plague, i Four famous statues of Apollo are 
mentioned by Pliny as existing at Kome in his time, but this is not 
one of them. Mrs. Siddons said of the Apollo Belvedere — ' What a 
great idea it gives one of God to think that He has created a human 
being capable of fashioning so divine a form 1 ' ^ 

' Or view the Lord of the unerring bow, 
Tlie God of life, and poesy, and light — 
The Sun in human limbs array'd, and brow 
All radiant from his triumph in the fight ; 
The shaft hath just been shot — the arrow bright 
With an immortal's vengeance ; in his eye 
And nostril beautiful disdain, and might, 
And majesty flash their full lightnings Viy, 
Developing in that one glance the Deity.' 

Childe Harold. 

' Bright kindling with a conqueror's stern deliglit, 
His keen eye tracks the arrow's fateful fliglit ; 
Bums his indignant cheek with vengeful fire, 
And his lip quivers with insulting ire : 
Firm flx'd his tread, yet light, as when on high 
He walks th' impalpable and pathless slvy : 
The rich luxuriance of his hair, confined 
In graceful ringlets, wantons on the wind. 
That lifts in sport his mantle's drooping fold, 
lYoud to display that form of faultless mould. 

Mighty Ephesian ! with an eagle's flight 
Thy proud soul mounted through the fields of light, 
View'd the bright conclave of Ileaven's blest aljode, 
And the cold marble leapt to life a god : 
Contagious awe through breatliless myriads ran. 
And nations l)ow'd before tlie work of man : 
For mild he seem'd, as in Elysian bowers. 
Wasting in careless ease the joyous hours ; 
Haughty, as bards have sung, with princely sway 
Curbing the fierce flame-breathing steeds of day ; 

1 ' The impression of Canova that this statue is a copy of a work in bronze, 
has been since confirmed ))y the discovery of a bronze statuette, resembling the 
statue except where a work in bronze would materially difl'er from one in marble 
— i.e. in tlie statuette the leg is not supported by tlie trunk of a tree, and the 
drapery falls from the shoulder instead of being brought forward to support the 
left arm. The left hand of the statuette holds an aegis, which tends to prove 
that in the original statue the god was represented as holding an aegis, and not 
as an arclicr who had just discharged an arrow." 

^ Campbell's Li/e of Mrs. Siddons. 

The Antinous 227 

Beanteons as vision seen in dreamy sleep 
By holy maid ou Delphi's haunted steep, 
'3Iid the dim twilight of the laurel grove, 
Too fair to worship, too di\ine to love.' 

Henry Hart ilUman. 

Passing a noble sarcophagus with lions' heads, found in laying 
the foundations of S. Peter's, we reach the Third Cabinet, which 
contains the Perseus, and the two noble Boxers — Kreugas and 
Damoxenus, by Canova. 

The Fourth Cabinet contains the *Antinous (now called Mercury), 
perhaps the most beautiful statue in the world. It was found on 
the Esquiline near S. Martino al Monte. It has never been injured •; 
by restoration, but was broken across the ankles when found, and J 
has been unskilfully put together. | 

' Je suis bien tente de rapporter a nn original de Polyclfete, qni aimait les formes' 
earrees, le Mercure du Belvedere, qm a'est pas tres svelte pour un Mercure. On 
a cru reconnaitre que les proportions de cette statue se rapprochaient beaucoup 
des proportions prescrites par Polyclete. Poussin, comme Polyclete, ami des 
formes earrees, declarait le Mercure, qu'on appelait alors sans motif un Antinous, 
le modele le plus parfait des proportions du corps humain ; U pourrait a ce titre 
remplacer jusqu'a im certain point la statue de Polyclete, api)elee la regie, parce 
quelle passait pouroffrir ce modele parfait, et/auait regie k cet(^gard. De plus, 
on salt qu'un Mercure de Polyclete avait ete apporte a Eome.' — Ampere, Hist. 
Bom. iii. 267. 

In the third portico, between Canova's statues and the Antinous 
is (No. 43) a Venus and Cupid — interesting because the Venus is a 
portrait of Sallustia Barbia Orbiana, wife of Alexander Severus. It 
was discovered in the fifteenth century, in the ruin near S. Croce in 
Gerusalemme, to which it has given a name. In the first portico, 
between the Antinous and the Laocoon, are two beautiful dogs. 

From the door of the Cortile del Belvedere, opposite that by 
which we entered, we reach the Bound Vestibule, ornamented with 
a fine vase of pavonazzetto. 

The adjoining balcony contains a curious Wind Indicator, found 
(1779) near the Coliseum. Hence there is a view over the city, 
formerly so beautiful. In a garden beneath is a fountain with a 
curious bronze ship floating in its basin (see Vatican Gardens). 

On the left, in the 2nd Vestibule, stands the statue of *Meleager, 
with a boar's head and a dog, supposed to have been begun in Greece 
by some famous sculptor, and finished in Rome (the dog, &c.) by an 
inferior workman. 

'Meleager is represented in a position of repose, leaning on his spear, the 
mark of the junction of which with the plinth is still to be seen, fhe want 
of the spear gives the statue the appearance of leaning too much to one side 
but if you can imaguie it replaced, }-ou will see that the pose is perfectly and 
truthfully rendered. This statue was found at the commencement of the six- 
teenth century, outside the Porta Portese, in a vineyard close to the Tiber.' — 
Sliakspere Wood. 

'Ce Meleagre du Vatican respire une grace tranquUle, et place entre le su- 
blime Torge et les merveUles du Belvedere, semble etre lii pour attendre et pour 
accueUiir de son air aimable et un peu melancolique, oil Ton a cru voir le signe 
d'une destin^e qui devait etre courte, I'enthousiasme du voyageur.' — Ampere, 
Hist. Rom. iii. 515. 

228 Walks in Rome 

In the centre of the 3rd Vestibule is the *Torso Belvedere, found 
in the Baths of Caracalla, and sculptured, as is told by a Greek 
inscription on its base, by ApoUonios, son of Nestor of Athens. It 
is of the marble called yrechetto. It was to this statue that Michel- 
angelo declared that he owed his power of representing the human 
form, and in his blind old age he used to belled up to it, that he 
might pass his hands over it, and still enjoy, through touch, the 
grandeur of its muscles. 

' And dost thou still, thou mass of breathing stone, 
(Thy giant limbs to night and chaos hurled,) 
Still sit as on the fragment of a world, 
Surviving all, majestic and alone? 
What tho' the Spirits of the North, that swept 
Rome from the earth when in her pomp she slept, 
Smote thee with fury, and thy headless trunk 
Deep in the dust 'mid tower and temple sunk ; 
Soon to subdue mankind 'twas thine to rise, 
Still, still unquelled thy glorious energies ! 
Aspiring minds, with thee conversing, caught 
Bright revelations of the good they sought ; 
By thee that long-lost spell in secret given. 
To draw down gods, and lift the soul to Heaven.' 


' Quelle a ete I'original du torse d'Hercule, ce chef-d'ceuvre que palpait de ses 
mains iutelligentes Michel-Ange aveugle et reduit a ne plus voir que par elles ? 
Heyne a pense que ce pouvait etre une copie en grand de I'Hercule Epiirapezios 
de Lysippe, niais par le style cette statue me semble ant6rieure .'i Lysippe. 
Cependant on lit sur le torse le nom d' ApoUonios d'Athenes, flls de Nestor, et 
la forme des lettres ne permet pas de placer cette inscription plus haut que le 
dernier si6cle de la Republique. 

' Comment admettre que cette statue, aussi admiree par Winckelmann que par 
Michel-Ange, ce debris auquel on revient aprfes I'eblouissement de I'Apollon du 
Belvedere, pour retrouver une sculpture plus male et plus simple, un style plus 
fort et plus grand ; comment admettre qu'une telle statue soit I'oeuvre d'un 
sculpteTU' inconnu dont Pline ne parle point, ni persoiuie autre dans I'anticiuite, 
et qu'elle date d'un temps si eloigue de la grande epoque de Phidias, quand elle 
semble y tenir de si pres ? 

'. . . Pourquoi le torse du .Vatican ne serait-il pas d'Alcamene, ou, si Ton 
veut, d'aprfes Alcamene, par ApoUonios?' — Ampere, IJist. Roin. iii. 360, 363. 

Close by, in a niche, is the celebrated peperino *Tomb of L. 
Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, consul B.C. 297. It has a simple cornice 
with large ajmatium and dentils, and is sculptured with Tuscan 
triglyphs and rosettes in the metopes. It supports a peperino bust, 
supposed, upon slight foundation, to be that of the poet Ennius, 
who was buried in the tomb. Inscriptions from other tombs of 
the Scipios are inserted in the neighbouring wall.^ 


homme couragcux et prudent, dont la beaute dgalait la vertu. II a etc parmi 
vous consul, censeur, cdile ; il a pris Taurasia, Cisauna, le Samnium. Ayant 
soumis toute la Lucanie, il en a enuuene des otages." 

' Y a-t-il rien de plus grand ? II a pris le Sanuiium et la Lucanie. Voila tout. 

'Ce sarcophage est un des plus curieux monuments de Rome. Par la mati^re, 
par la forme des lettres et le style de I'inscription, il vous repr^sente la rudesse 

-'t5pitaphe de Scipion le Barbu semble le r6sum(5 d'une oraison fun6bre ; elle 
•esse aux spectateurs : "Cornt'lius Scipion Barbatus, mi dun pire vaillant. 

1 See the account of the Tombs of the Scipios in Chapter IX. 

The Museo CMaramonti 229 

des Romains au sixleme siecle. Le gout tres pur de Tarchitecture et des ome- 
uienU vous montre I'aveneiuent de lart grec tombant, pour ainsi dire, en pleine 
sauvagerie romaine. Le tombeau de Scipion le Barbu est en peperin, ce tuf 
rugueox, grisatre, seme de taches noires. Les caracteres sont irr^uliers, les 
lignes sont loin d'etre droites, le latin est antique et barbare, mais la forme 
et les ornaments du tombeau sont grecs. II y a la des volutes, des triglyphes, 
des denticules ; on ne saurait rien iiuaginer qui fasse mieux voir la culture 
grecque venant surprendre et saisir la rudesse latine.' — Ampere, Hist. Bom. 
lii. 132. 

Here we descend steps and enter the Mnseo Chiaramonti, so called 
from its founder, Pope Pius VII. On the right is an entrance to the 
Giardino della Pigna (described under the Vatican Gardens). The 
long gallery is lined with sculptures, chiefly of inferior interest. 
They are arranged in thirty compartments. We may notice : 

I. 733. Recumbent Hercules, from Hadrian's Villa. 

I. 607. Bust of Neptune, from Ostia. 

I. 5S9. ilercury, found near the Monte di Pieta. 

I. 5SS. Dionysos and a Satyr. 

I. 563. A noble Portrait Bust. 

I. 513. Head of Venus, found in the Baths of Diocletian. 

I. 495. Cupid bending his lx)w, a copy of the statue by Lysippns. 

I. 494. Seated statue of Tiberius, from Pipemo. 

' The enthroned statues of Tiberius have an affected sweet smile, that would 
like to express goodness ; while the small, finely cut underlip. that rises from 
the strongly marked hoUow over the chin, ought in its natural position to 
sharpen with a dash of contempt the conscious superiority that lies upon his 
broad, magniflcenlly formed forehead. The smile is in strong contrast with 
the cold gaxe of tiie large open eyes. It is a gaze which examines not, hesitates 
not, but without mercy verifies a judgment fixed in advance.' — Viktor Rydberg. 

I. 401. Colossal head of Augustus, from VeiL 

/. 400. Seated statue of Tiberius, found at Veii, 1811. 

/. 360. The Three Graces (?), found at the Lateran. 

/. 263. Bust called Zenobia— full of character. 

I. 197. Colossal head of Home, from Laiu«ntam. 

I. 176. *An exquisitely beautiful fragment, supposed to be one of the 
daughters of >'iobe, and probably one of the original group of 
statues which represented the slaughter of Xiobe's children in the 
Temple of Apollo, near the Theatre of Marcellus. 

r. 1. 6, 13. Autimin and Winter, two sarcophagi from Ostia, the latter bearing 
the name of Publius Elius Verus. 

Near the end of the gallery, on the right, is the entrance of the 
Braccio Nuovo, built under Pius VII. in 1817 by Raphael Stern, a 
tine hall, 250 feet long, filled with gems of sculpture. Perhaps 
most worth attention are (the chefs-iVauiTe being marked with an 
asterisk) : 


5. 'Caryatide. A noble statue of undoubted Greek origin, which probably 
once formed part of the architectural decorations of the Pantheon. Its 
perfectly harmonious restorations are due to Thorwaldsen. 

' Quand une fiUe des premieres families n'avait pour v^tement, comme ceUe-ci, 
qu'une chemise et par-dessus une demi-chemise ; quand elle avait ITiabitude de 
porter des vases sur sa tete, et par suite de se tenir droite ; quand pour toute 
toilette elle retroussait ses cheveux ou les laissait tomber en lx)ucles ; quand le 
visage n'etait pas plisse par les mille petites graces et les mille petites preoccupa- 
tions bourgeoises, ime femme pouvait avoir la tranquiUe attitude de cette statue. 
Aujoimihui il en reste un debris dans les paysannes des environs qui portent leurs 

230 Walks in Rome 

corbeilles sur la tute, mais elles sont gatiSes par le travail et les haillons. Le sein 
parait sons la chemise ; la tuiiique colle et visiblement n'est qu'un linge ; on voit 
la forme de la jambe qui easse I'etoffe an genou ; les pieds apparaissentnus dans 
les sandales. Bien ne pent rendre le s6rienx naturel de visage. Certaineraent, si 
on pouvait revoir la personne reelle avec ses bras blancs, ses cheveux noirs, sous 
la lumiere du soleil, les genoux plieraient, comme devant une deesse, de respect 
et de plaisir.' — Taine, ' Voyage en Italie.' 

8. Commodus. 

' La statue de Commode est trfes curieuse par le costume. II tient a la main 
une lance, il a des esp^ces de ))ottes : tout cela est du chasseur ; enfln il porte la 
tunique a manches dont parle Dion Cassius, et qui 6tait son costume d'amphi- 
th6atre.' — Ampere, Emp. ii. 246. 

9. Colossal head of a Dacian, from the Forum of Trajan. 
11. *Silenus and the infant Bacchus. 

This is a copy from the Greek, of which there were several replicas. One, 
formerly in the Villa Borghese, is now at Paris. The original gi-oup is described 
by Pliny, who says that the name of the sculptor was lost even in his time. The 
greater portion of the child, the left arm and hand of Silenus, and the ivy-leaves, 
are restorations. 

' Je pense que ce chef-d'oeuvre est une imitation modiflee du Mercure noxirrieier 
de Bacchus, par Cephisodote, flls de Praxit^le.' — Ampere, Hist. Horn. iii. 332. 

14. *Augustus, found 1863, in the villa of Livia at Prima Porta— of marmor 
' This is, without exception, the finest portrait statue of this class in the whole 
collection. . . . The cuirass is covered with small figures in basso-rilievo, which, 
as works of art, are even finer than the statue itself, and merit the most careful 
examination. These small figures are, in their way,{marvels of art, for the won- 
derful boldness of execution and minuteness of detail shown in them. They are 
almost like cameos, and yet, with all the delicacy of finish displayed, there is no 
mere smoothness of surface. The central group is supposed to represent the 
restoration to Augustus by King Phraates of the eagles taken from Crassus and 
Antony. Considerable traces of colour were found on this statue, and are 
still discernible. Close examination will also show that the face and eyes were 
coloured.' — Shakspere Wood. 

' Augustus here stands in the garb of emperor, in richly adorned amiour, tunic 
and piu'ple, with the sceptre In his left hand, and the right arm outstretched as 
if, protecting and blessing, he called down the peace of Olympus upon earth. 
According to Suetonius, Augustus had an " uncommonly fine figure." This is to 
be found here. The harmonious proportion of tlie limbs recalls the even balance 
of his mind. The face and action are stamped with the gentlest majesty. The 
mail-clad ruler of the world seems to repeat the verse of Virgil which alludes to 
him : Din of arms shall cease and days of hardship be softened. 

' Upon this statue the gaze of his wife has many a time dwelt, but with what 
feelings ? At the age of twenty-fom-, Augustus was wedded to Livia ; after more 
than a half-century's life together, he fell asleep in her arms. His eye even in 
death sought hers : the last words he uttered were, " Livia, reniemljer our happy 
married life ! " Can a beloved and faithful wife win higher praise ? Nevertheless, 
the most terrible suspicions cleave to her.' — Viktor Rydberg. 

17. Aesculapius. 

20. Nerva (?). Head modem. 

23. *Pudicitia. From the Villa Mattei. Head modern. 
This beautiful statue is unfinished, as may be seen on comparing the exquisite 
workmanship of the lower portion of the drapery in front and the rude execu- 
tion behind. It has been copied in the monument of Horace Walpole's mother 
in Westminster Abbey. 

' Qu'on regarde une statue toiite voil6e, par exemple celle de la Pudicit^ : il est 
Evident que le vetement antique n'altcre pas la forme du corps, (pie les plis collants 
ou mouvants re(;oivent du corps leurs formes et leurs changements, qu'on suit sans 
peine i travers les plis I'liquilibre de toute la charpente, la rondeur de I'epaule ou 
de la hanche, le creiLx du (Xos.'— Taine, 

The Braccio Nuovo 231 

26. Titus. Found 1828, near the Lateran (with his daughter Julia). 

27, 40, 92. Colossal busts of Medusa, from the Temple of Venus and Rome. 
32, 33. Fauns, sitting, from the villa of Quintilius at Tivoli. 

39. (In the centre.) Vase of black basalt, found on the QuirinaL It stands 

on a mosaic from the Tor Marancia. 
41. Faun playing on a flute, from the \i\\a of LucuUus. 
44. "SVounded .\jnazon (both arms and legs are restorations). 

'Les trois Amazones blessees de Rome ne peuvent etre que des copies de 
la celebre Amazone de Cresilas. . . . Ce Cresilas fut I'auteur du guerrier grec 
mourant qui selon toute apparence a inspire le pretendu Gladiateur mourant, 
auquel s' applique merveilleusement bien ce que dit Pline du premier.'— J. mp«r«, 
Hist. Bom. iii. 263. 

47. Caryatide. 

48. Bust of Trajan. 

50. *Diana contemplating the sleeping Endymion, found near the Porta 

53. Euripides. 
'Le plus remarquable portrait d'Euripide est une belle statue au Vatican. 
Cette statue donne une haute idee de la sublimite de I'art tragique en Grece. . . . 
Regardez ce poete, combien toute sa personne a de gravite et de grandeur, rien 
n'avertit qu'on a devant les yeux celui qui aus yeux de juges severes affaiblissait 
I'art et le corrompait ; Tattitude est simple, le visage serieus, comme il convient 
a un poete philosophe. Ce serait la plus belle statue de poete tragique si la statue 
de Sophocle n'existait pas.' — Ampere, iii. 572. 

62. *Demosthenes, found near Frascati. 
lu this noble statue the hands and the scroll are restorations. Some authori- 
ties consider that the hands were originally folded, and that this was the statue 
in whose clasped hands an Athenian soldier is said to have hidden some stolen 
money. The restorer has represented the philosopher at the moment when 
(having failed to arrest the attention of the people by his warnings about Philip 
of Macedon, and yet having found them willing to listen to an anecdote about 
a man who had hired an ass) he indignantly seized a scroll in both hands, and 
exclaimed : ' O Athenians ! my countrynieu ! when I talk to you of political 
dangers, you will not listen, and yet you crowd about me to hear a silly story 
about an ass,' &c. 

67. *Apoxyomenos. An athlete after his bath scraping the oU from his arm 
with a strigil ; foimd, 1849, in the Vicolo delle Palure in the Trastevere. 
A marble copy of the bronze original which stood in front of the Baths 
of Agrippa. 

This exquisitely beautiful statue is a replica of the celebrated bronze of 
Lysippus, and is described by Pliny ,i who narrates that it was brought from 
Greece by Agrippa to ailorn the baths which he built for the people, and that 
Tiberius so admired it that he carried it off to his palace, but was forced to 
restore it by the outcries of the populace the next time he appeared in public. 

' To understand the sense of beauty which was inherent in the Greeks . . . 
take the Clouds of Aristophanes, and after reading the speech of the Dikaios 
Logos, stand beneath the Athlete of Lysippus in the Braccio Nuovo of the Vati- 
can. " Fresh and fair in beauty-bloom, you shaU pass your days in the wrestling 
ground, or run races beneath the sacred olive-trees, crowned with white reed, in 
company with a pure-hearted friend, smelling of bindweed and leisure hours and 
the white poplar that sheds her leaves, rejoicing in the prime of spring when the 
plane-tree whispers to the lime." This life the Dikaios Logos offers to the young 
Athenian, if he will forego the law-courts and the lectures of the sophists, and 
the house of the hetaira. This life rises alwve us imaged in the sculptor's 
marble. The athlete, tall and stately, tired with running, lifts one arm, and 
with his strigil scrapes away the oil with which he has anointed it. His fingers 
hold the die that teUs his numt)er in the race. L'pon his features there rests no 
shade of care or thought, but the delicious languor of momentary fatigue, and 
the serenity of a nature in harmony with itself.' — J. A. Symondt, ' The Greek Poets.' 

1 Hist. Nat. xxxiv. 19. 

232 Walks in Rome 


71. Amazon. (Arms and feet restorations by Thorwaldsen.) 

77. Antonla, wife of Drusus, from Tusculum. 

81. Bust of Hadrian. 

83. Juno ? (head a restoration), from Hadrian's Villa. 

86. Fortune with a cornucopia, from Ostia. 

92. *Ganymede, found at Ostia ; on the tree against which he leans is 

engraved the name of Phaedimus. 
96. Bust of Marc Antony, from the Tor Sapienza. 
109. ^Colossal group of the Nile, found, temp. Leo X., near S. Maria sopra 

Minerva, on the supposed site of the Temple of Isis. 
A Greek statue. ITie sixteen children clambering over it are restorations, and 
allude to the sixteen cubits' depth with which the river annually irrigates the 
country. On the plinth, the accompaniments of the river— tiie ibis, crocodile, 
hippopotamus, <fcc. — are represented. 

111. Julia, daughter of Titus, found near the Lateran. 

' Cette princesse, de la nouvelle et bourgeoise race des Flavians, n'offre rien du 
noble profll et de la flfere beaut6 des Agi-ippines : elle a un nez 6cras6 et I'air 
commun. La coiffure de Julie achfeve de la rendre disgracieuse ; c'est une 
nianiere de pouf assez semblable k une eponge. Compart aux coiffures du sifecle 
d'Auguste, le tour de cheveux ridicule de Julie montre la decadence du goftt, 
plus rapide dans la toilette que dans Yaxt.'— Ampere, Emp. ii. 120. 

112. Bust of Juno, called the Juno Pentini. 

114. *Minerva Medica, found in the gardens of the Convent of S. Maria sopra 
Minerva, where the Temi)le of Isis stood : formerly in the Giustiniani 
A most beautiful Greek statue, much injured by restoration. 

' Amid the host 
Stood bright-eyed Pallas, bearing on her arm 
The honoured Aegis, aye exempt from age, 
And everlasting. . . . 

With this she ranged the camp, fierce gazing round ; 
And urging all to speed, in every breast 
Infused such strength to combat through the day, 
That sweeter soon became the battle roar 
Than thoughts that whisper of a distant home.' 

Ilonur, Iliad II. (Wright). 

' In the Giustiniani Palace is a statue of Minerva which fills me with admira- 
tion. Winckelmann scarcely thinks anything of it, or at any rate does not give 
it its proper position ; but I cannot praise it sufficiently. While we were gazing 
upon the statue, and standing a long time beside it, the wife of the custode told 
us that it was once a sacred image, and tliat the English who are of that religion 
still held it in veneration, being in the habit of kissing one of its hands, which 
was certainly quite white, while the rest of the statue was of a brownish colour. 
She added, that a lady of this religion had been there a short time before, had 
thrown herself on her knees, and worshipped the statue. Such a wonderful action 
she, as a Christian, could not behold without laughter, and fled from the room 
for fear of exploding.' — Goethe. 

' Toute I'expression est concentr^e dans le visage, et il y a dans ce melange 
d'heroisnie et de m61ancolie quelque chose qui dmeut et enchaine le spectateur ; 
et cependant il y des r(5parations faites par un ciseau moderne, et les deux bras 
ont it6 restaur6s par conjecture.' — Rio, 'L'Art Chritien.' 

117. Claudius. 

120. *A beautiful replica of the Faun of Praxiteles, but inferior to that at 
the Capitol. 
'Le jeune Satyre qui tient une flftte est trop semblable k celui du Capitole pour 
n'6tre pas de meme une reproduction de I'un des deux Satyres isoles de PraxitMe, 
son Satyre d'Athenes ou son Satyre de Megare : on pourrait croire aussi que le 
Satyre k la flute a eu pour original le Satyre de Protogfene qui, bien que peint dans 
Rhodes assiig^e, exprimait le calme leplus prof end et qu'on appelait ceiwi quise 

Library of tke Vatican 233 

repoge (anapauomenas) : on pourrait le croire, car la statue a tonjours une jambe 
croisee sur I'autre, attitude qui, Jans le langage de la sculpture antique, designe 
le repos. II ne serait pas impossible ncjn plus que Protogene se fut inspire de 
Prasit^le ; mais en ce cas il n'en avait pas reproduit completement le channe, 
car Apelles, tout en admirant une autre flgtire de Protogene, lui reprochait de 
manquer de grace. Or, le Satyre a la flute est tres gracieux ; ce qui me porte a 
croire qu'U vient directement de Prasitele plutot que de Praxitele par Protogene.' 
— Ampere, Hist. Rom. Hi. 308. 

121. Bust of Commodus, from Ostia. 

123. L. Verus. Naked statue. His vanity made him always choose to be 

represented thus. 
126. Athlete : copy of the Doryphorus, one of the most celebrated bronzes of 

129. Doniitian. from the Giustiniani collection. 
132. Mercury (the head— too small— a restoration by Canova), from the Villa 


Beyond the Museo Chiaramonti, shut off by an iron gate, is the 
Galleria Lapidaria, a corridor 2131 feet in length. Its sides are 
covered on the left with pagan, on the right with early christian 
inscriptions. In all these epitaphs Peace is the prominent idea, as 
Hope is in ours. Ranged along the walls are a series of sarco- 
phagi, cippi, and funeral altars, some of them very fine. The first 
door on the right of this gallery is the entrance to the Library. 

The Library of the Vatican is only shown by a special order, and 
no time is given for an examination of the individual objects. The 
Papal Library was founded by the early Popes at the Lateran. 
The Public Library was begun by Nicholas V., who collected 5000 
MSS., the largest collection which had existed up to that time 
since the dispersion of the library at Alexandria. This Pope 
offered a reward of 5000 ducats to any one who would bring him 
the Gospel of S. Matthew in the original tongue, and, in his last 
moments, characteristically thanked God for having given him a 
taste for letters, and the faculties necessary for cultivating it with 
success. His library was greatly increased under Sixtus IV. (1475) 
and Sixtus V. (1588), who built the present halls for the collection. 
In 1623 the library was increased by the gift of the ' Bibliotheca 
Palatina ' of Heidelberg, captured by Tilly from Maximilian of 
Bavaria ; in 1657 by the ' Bibliotheca Urbina,' founded by Federigo 
da Montefeltro ; in 1690 by the 'Bibliotheca Reginensis,' or 
' Alexandrina,' which belonged to Christina of Sweden ; in 1746 by 
the 'Bibliotheca Ottoboniana,' purchased by the Ottoboni Pope, 
Alexander VIII. The number of Greek, Latin, and Oriental MSS. 
in the collection has been reckoned at 23,580. 

The ante-chambers are hung with portraits of the Librarians ; — 
among them, in the first room, is that of Cardinal Mezzofanti. In 
this room are facsimiles of the columns found in the Triopium of 
Herodes Atticus (see the account of the Valle Caffarelli), of which 
the originals are at Naples. From the second ante-chamber we 
enter the Great Hall, 220 feet long, decorated with frescoes by 
Scipione Gaetani, Cesare Nehhia, and others — unimportant in them- 
selves, but producing a rich general effect of colour. The disposi- 
tion is exactly that of the libraries of the ancients. No books or 

234 Walks in Rome 

MSS. are visible ; they are all enclosed in painted cupboards — 
called armaria in ancient times — so that of a library there is no 
appearance whatever, and it is only disappointing to be told that 
in one cupboard are the MSS. of the Greek Testament of the fifth 
century, Virgil of the fifth, and Terence of the fourth centuries, 
and that another contains a Dante, with miniatures by Giidio 
Clovio,^ &c. Eanged along the middle of the hall are some of the 
handsome presents made to Pius IX. by different foreign poten- 
tates, including the Sevres font in which the Prince Imperial was 
baptized, presented by Napoleon III. ; and some candelabra given 
by Napoleon I. to Pius VII. At the end of the hall, long corridors 
open out on either side. Turning to the left, the second room has 
two interesting frescoes — one representing S. Peter's as designed 
by Michelangelo, the other the erection of the obelisk in the Piazza 
S. Pietro under Fontana. At the end of the third room are two 
ancient statues, said to represent Aristides and Hippolytus, Bishop 
of Porto. The fourth room is a museum of christian antiquities, 
and contains, on the left, a collection of lamps and other small 
objects from the Catacombs ; on the right, some fine ivories by 
Guido da Spoleto, and a Deposition from the Cross attributed to 
Michelangelo. The room beyond this, painted by Raphael Mcngs, is 
called the Stanza dei Papiri, and is adorned with papyri of the 
fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries. The next room has an in- 
teresting, but ill-seen, collection of pictures, by early masters, of 
the schools of Giotto, Giottino, Cimabue, and Fra Angdico." Here is 
a Prie-Dieu, of carved oak and ivory, presented to Pius IX. by the 
four bishops of the province of Tours. 

At the end of this room, not generallv shown, is the Chapel of S. 
Pius V. 

The Appartamento Borgia, which is reached from hence, is 
(1892) only shown by a special permission, which must be sought 
at the Cancelleria. It consists of four rooms, which were built 
by Alexander VI., though their beautiful decorations were for the 
most part added by Leo X. The First Room — the ante-chamber 
of the Swiss guard — is painted by Giovanni da Udine and Pierino 
del Vaga, and represents the course of the planets — Jupiter drawn 
by eagles, Venus by doves, Diana (the moon) by nymphs, Mars by 
wolves, Mercury by cocks, Apollo (the sun) by horses, Saturn by 
dragons. These frescoes, executed at the time Michelangelo was 
painting the Last Judgment, are interesting as the last revival 
under Clement VII. of the pagan art so popular in the Papal 
Palace under Leo X. The sarcophagus under the fine cinque-cento 
chimney-piece was found on the Via Praenestina. 

The Second Room — Camera della Vita della Madonna — painted by 
Pinturicchio, has beautiful lunettes of the Annunciation, Nativity, 
Adoration of the Magi, Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of the 

1 Who is buried by the altar of S. Pietro in Vincoli. 
8 Tills is the only gallery of early masters in Konje ! 

The Torre Borgia 235 

Holy Ghost, and Assumption of the Virgin. Alexander VI. is 
represented kneeling in the picture of the Resurrection. The 
paintings on the walls, at one time covered bv (lost) tapestries, 
were hastily whitewashed by Clement X. to hide the obscene 
drawings of the French soldiers quartered in these rooms after the 
siege of Rome in 1527. 

The Third Room — dei Vite dei Santi — has paintings by Pintu- 
ricchio of the Martyrdom of S. Sebastian (with the Coliseum in the 
background) ; the Visitation of S. Elizabeth ; the Meeting of S. 
Anthony with S. Paul the first hermit (the three beautiful temp- 
tresses have horns and cloven feet) ; S. Catherine before Maximian ; 
the Flight of S. Barbara from her tower ; S. Giuliana of Nicomedia ; 
and, over the door, the Virgin and Child. This last picture is of 
curious historical interest, as a relic of the libertinism of the court 
of Alexander VI. (Rodrigo Borgia), the figure of the Virgin being 
a faithful representation of Vanozza Catanei, mistress of the Pope, 
and mother of his children, Cesare and Lucrezia. In the picture 
of the Trial of S. Catherine, the saint proving the doctrine of 
the Trinity is believed to represent the Pope's daughter Lucrezia, 
and the emperor her brother Cesare. 

The Fourth Boom — delle Arti e Scienze — also painted by Pintu- 
ricchio, is adorned with allegorical figures of the Arts and Sciences, 
and of the Cardinal Virtues. 

In this room a few of the original majolica tiles remain, and give 
the designs for a new pavement. A few steps lead hence into the 
Torre Borgia, covered with frescoes of saints by Benedetto Bonfigli, 
master of Perugino. 

'On the accession of the infainoas Alexander VI., Pinturicchio was employed 
by him to paint the Appartamento Borgia, and a great number of rooms, both 
in the Castle of S. Angelo and in the pontifical palace. The patronage of this 
Pope was stiU more fatal to the arts than that of the Medici at Florence. The 
subjects represented in the Castle of S. Angelo were drawn from the life of 
Alexander himself, and the portraits of his relations and friends were introduced 
there — amongst others, those of his brothers, sisters, and that of the infamous 
Caesar Borgia. To all acquainted with the scandalous history of this family, 
this representation appeared a commemoration of their various crimes, and it 
was impossible to regard it in any other light, when, in addition to the publicity 
they affected to give to these scandalous excesses, they appeared desirous of 
making art itself their accomplice, and by an excess of profanation hitherto 
tmexampled in the Catholic world, Alexander ^^. caused himself to I>e repre- 
sented, in a room in the Vatican, in the costume of one of the Magi, kneeling 
before the Holy Virgin, whose head was no other than the portrait of the 
beautiful Giulia Famese ("Vanozza"), whose adventiu^s are unfortunately 
too well known. We may indeed say that the walls have in this case made 
up for the silence of the courtiers; for on them was traced, for the benefit 
of contemporaries and posterity, an undeniable proof of the depravity of 
the age. 

'At the sight of that Appartamento Borgia, which is entirely painted by 
Pinturicchio, we shall experience a sort of satisfaction in discovering the in- 
feriority of this purely mercenary work, as compared with the other produc- 
tions of the same artist, and we cannot but rejoice that it is so unworthy of 
him. Such an ignoble task was not adapted to an artist of the Umbrian school, 
and there is gooid reason to l>elieve that, after this act of ser\'ility, Pintiuicchio 
became disgusted with Rome, and returned to the mountains of Umbria, in 
search of nobler inspirations.'— iJfo, ' Poetry of Christian Art,' 

236 Walks in Rome 

A door on the right of the room with the old pictures opens 
into a room containing a very interesting collection of ancient 
frescoes. On the right wall is the celebrated ' Nozze Aldohrandini,' 
found in 1606 ^ in some ruins belonging to the Baths of Titus near 
the Arch of Gallienus on the Esquiline, and considered to be the 
finest specimen of ancient pictorial art in Rome. It was pur- 
chased at first by the Aldohrandini family, whence its name. It 
represents an ancient Greek ceremony, possibly the nuptials of 
Peleus and Thetis. There is a fine copy by Nicholas Poussin in the 
Doria Palace. 

'S'il fait allusion a un sujet niythologique, le reel y est h. cote de I'id^al, etla 
mythologie y est applicjuee i la representation d'un niariage ordinaire. Tout 
porte a y voir une peinture romaine, mais I'auteur s'etait inspire des Grecs, 
comme on s'en inspirait presque toiijours k Rome. La nouvelle marioe, assise 
sur le lit nuptial et attendant son epoux, a cette expression de pudeur virgi- 
nale, d'embarras modeste, qui avait rendu celibre un tableau dont le sujet 
6tait le mariage de Hoxane et I'auteur Aetion, peintre grec' — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. iv. 127. 

Opposite to this is a Race of the Cupids, from Ostia. The other 
frescoes in this room were found in the ruins on the Esquiline and 
at the Torre di Marancia. 

If Leo XIII. lives long enough, the Appartamento Borgia will be 
opened as a mediaeval museum — Musco di Lconc XIII. The armour 
of Cesare Borgia and that of Julius II. will be among the precious 
objects shown here, where all the many mediaeval treasures of the 
Vatican will be collected. 

The Etruscan Museum, open on Thursdays from 9 to 12, is reached 
by a door on the right at the top of the stairs, beyond the Galleria 
dei Candelabri.^ 

' This magnificent collection is principally the fruit of the excavating partner- 
ship established, some twelve or fifteen years since, between the Papal govern- 
ment and the Campanari of Toscanella ; and will render the memory of 
Gregory XVI., who forwarded its formation with more zeal than he ordinarily 
displayed, ever honoured by all interested in antiquarian science. As the exca- 
vations were made in the neighbonrhood of Vulci, most of the articles are from 
that necropolis ; yet the collection has been considerably etilarged by the addi- 
tion of others previously in the possession of the government, and still more by 
recent acquisitions from the Etruscan cemeteries of Cervetri, Corneto, Bomarzo, 
Orte, Toscanella, and other sites witliin the Papal dominions.' — Dennis. 

The \st Room. 

Contains three sarcophagi of terra-cotta from Toscanella, with three life-size 
figures reposing upon them. Their extreme length is remarkable. The figure on 
the left weai-s a fillet, indicating priesthood. The head of the family was almost 
always priest or priestess. Most of the objects in terra-cotta which have been 
discovered come from Toscanella. TTie two.horses' heads in this room, in nenfro, 
i.e. volcanic tufa, were found at the entrance of a tomb at Vulci. 

1 Gournerle, Rome Chritienne, ii. 62. 

2 The Etruscan, Egyptian, and Lateran Museums were all due to Gregory XVI, 

The Etruscan Museum 237 

The 2nd Room (right). 

Is a corridor filled with cinerary urns, chiefly from Volterra, bearing re- 
cumbent flsures, ludicrously stunted. The large sarcophagus on the left 
supports the bearded figure of a man, and is adorned with reliefs of a figure 
in a chariot and musicians painted red. The urns in this room are of alabaster, 
which is the characteristic of Volterra. 

The 3rd Room. 

Has in the centre a large sarcophagus of nenfro, found at Tarquinii in 1834, 
supporting a reclining figure of a Lucumo, with a scroll in his hand, 'recalling 
the monuments of the Middle Ages,' At the sides are reliefs representing the 
story of Clytemnestra and Aegisthus— the Theban brothers— the sacrifice of 
Clytemnestra— and Pyrrhus slajing the infant Astyanax. In this room is a slab 
with a bilingual inscription, in Latin and Umbrian, from Todi. In the comers 
are some curious cinerary urns shaped like houses. 

The ith Room. 

Is ttie Chamber of Terra-cottas. In the centre is a most beautiful statue of 
Mercury, found at Tivoli. At the sides are fragments of female figures from 
Vulci— and an interesting terra-cotta um from Toscanella, with a youth lying 
on a couch. ' From the gash in his thigh, and the hound at his bedside, he is 
usually caUed Adonis : but it may be merely the efligy of some young Etruscan 
who met his death in the wild-boar chase.' 

The 5th Room. 

This and the three following rooms are occupied by Vases. The vases in the 
5th room are mostly small amphorae, in the second or Archaic style, with black 
figures on the ground of the clay. On a column is a Crater, or mixing-vase, from 
Vulci, with parti-coloured figures on a very pale ground, and in the most beauti- 
ful style of Greek art. It represents Mercury presenting the infant Bacchus to 
Silenus. To the left of the window is a humorous representation of the visit of 
Jupiter and Mercury to Alcmena, who is looking at them out of a window. 

The 6th Rown. 

In the centre of this room is a magnificent vase from Cervetri, ' of the rare form 
called Holmog — a Iju^e globe-shaped bowl on a tall stand, like an enormous cup 
and baU ; ' its paintings are of wild animals. On the shelf of the entrance waU 
is the kind of amphora called Peliee, from Caere. ' Two men are represented 
sitting under an olive-tree, each with an amphora at his feet,' and one who is 
measuring the oil exclaims, ' O father Jupiter 1 would that I were rich I ' On the 
reverse of the vase is the same pair, at a subsequent period, when the prayer has 
been heard, and the oil-dealer cries, ' Verily, yea, verily, it hath been filled to 
overflowing.' A Ca/pi«'represents a boy with a hoop in one hand and a stolen 
cock in the other, for which his tutor is reproving him. 

The 1th Room. 

Is an arched corridor. In the second niche is a Hydria with Minerva and 
Hercules, from VulcL Amongst the vases which follow Is an Amphora from 
Vulci ; ' " Ekabe " (Hecuba) presents a goblet to her son, " the brave Hector"— 
and regards him with such intense interest, that she spills the wine as she pours 
it out to him. " Priamos " stands by, leaning on his staff, looking mournfully at 
his son, as if presaging his fate.' Many other vases in this room are of great 

The Sth Room. 

Contains Cijliceg or Paterae, which are more rare than the upright vases, and 
not inferior in beauty. At the end of the room, from Vulci, is ' a large Amphora 
of the second or Archaic style,' in which hardness and severity of design are 
combined with most conscientious execution of detail. It represents Achilles 

238 Walks in Rome 

(' Achilleos') and Ajax ('Aiantos') playing at dice or astragali. Achilles cries 
'Four !' and Ajax 'Three !' — the said words, in choice Attic, issuing from their 
mouths. The maker's name, ' Echsekias,' Is recorded, as well as that of ' the 
brave Onetorides,' to whom it was presented. On the other side of the vase is 
a family scene of 'Kastor' with his horse, and 'Poludeukes' playing with his 
dog, ' Tyndareos ' and ' Leda ' standing by. 

21ie dth Room. 

Entered fi-om the 6th room is the jewel-room. A biga or war-chariot is not 
Etruscan, but Koman, found in the villa of the Quintilii, near the Via Appia. 
Near this are some colossal fragments of bronze statues, found near Civita 
Vecchia. At the opposite end of the room is a warrior in armour found at Todi 
in 1835, and a bronze couch with a raised place for the head, found in the 
Regulini Galassi tomb at Cervetri, where it bore the corpse of a high priest. A 
boy with a bulla, sitting, from Tarquinii, is ' supposed to represent Tages, the 
mysterious boy-god, who sprang from the furrows of that site.' A beautiful ov|il 
Cista, with a handle formed by two swans bearing a boy and a girl, is from Vulci ; 
and so are the braziers or censers retaining the tongs, shovel, and rake, found 
with them, — ' the tongs are on wheels, and terminate in serpents' heads ; the 
shovel handle ends in a swan's neck ; and the rake in a human hand.' Among 
the smaller relics are a curious bottle from Caere, with an Etruscan alphabet 
and spelling lesson (!) scratched upon it, and a pair of Etruscan clogs found in a 
tomb at Vulci. Near the door is a little bronze figure of a boy with a bird, and 
an Etruscan inscription on his leg, from Perugia. 

In the centre of the room is the jewel-case of glass. The whole of the upper 
division and one compartment of the lower are devoted to Cervetri (Caere). All 
these objects are from the Regulini Galassi tomb, for all the other tombs had 
been rifled at an early period, except one, whence the objects were taken by 
Campana. The magnificent oak-wreath with the small ornaments and the large 
ear-rings were worn by a lady, over whom was written in Etruscan characters, 
' Me Larthia ' — I, the Great Lady— evidently because at the time of her death, 
3000 years ago, it was supposed that she was so very great that the memory of 
her name could never by any possibility perish, and that therefore it was quite 
unnecessary to record it. The tomb was divided, and she was walled up with 
precious spices (showing what the commerce of Etruria must have been) in one- 
half of it. It was several hundred years before any one was found of sufficient 
dignity to occupy the other half of the great lady's tomb. Then the high priest 
of Etruria died, and was bui-ied there with all his ornaments. His were the 
large bracelets, the fillets for the head, with the plate of gold covering the head, 
and a second plate of gold which covered the forehead — worn only on the most 
solemn occasions. This may be considered to have been the head-dress of Aaron. 
His was also the broad plate of gold, covering the breast, reminding of the Urim 
and Thummim. The bronze bed on which he lay (and on which the ornaments 
were found lying where the body had mouldered) is preserved in another part of 
the room, and the great incense-burner filled with precious spices which was 
found by his side. TJie three large hollas on his breast were filled with incense, 
whose perfume was still so strong when the tomb was opened, that those who 
burnt it could not remain in the room. 

The ivy leaves on the ornaments denote the worship of Bacchus, a late period 
in Etruria : laurel denotes a victor in battle or the games. 

The 10th Room. 

(Entrance on right of the jewel-room), is a passage containing a number of 
Roman water-pipes of lead. 

7'Ae 11 th Room. 

Is hung with paintings on canvas copied from the principal tombs of Vulci 
and Tarquinii. Beginning from the right, on entering, they take the following 
order : — 

From the Camera del Morto : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta delle Bighe, or Grotta Stackelberg : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta Querciola : Tarquinii. 

The Egyptian Museum 239 

From the Grotta delle Iscrizioni : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta del Triclinio, or Grotta Marzi : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta del Baroue, or Grotta del Ministro : Tarquinii. 

From the painted tomb at Vulci. 

All the paintings from Tarquinii are still to be seen on that site, though not 
in so perfect a state as they are here represented. But the tomb at Vulci is 
utterly destroyed. 

Each of the paintings is most interesting. That of the death-bed scene proves 
that the Etruscans believed in the immortality of the soul. In the upper division 
a daughter is mounting on a stool to reach the high bed and give a last kiss to her 
dying father, while the son is wailing and lamenting in the background. Below 
is the rejoicing spirit, freed from the trammels of the flesh. 

In the scenes representing the games, the horses are painted bright red and 
bright blue, or black and red. Tliese may I)e considered to have been the dif- 
ferent colours of the rival parties. A number of jars for oil and wine are arranged 
in this room. All the black pottery is from Xorthem Etruria. 

The \2th Room, seldom open, is a very meagre and most inefficient 
facsimile of an ordinary Etruscan tomb. It is guarded by two lions 
in nenfro, found at Vulci.^ 

At the foot of the stairs, on the right of the entrance to the 
Sala a Croce Greca, is the door of the Egyptian Masemn, open 
on Thursdays. The collection is chiefly due to Pius YII. and 
Gregory XVI. The greater part is of no special importance. 

The 2nd Roora contains colossal Egyptian statues. At the end 
is the figure of the mother of Ehamses II. (Sesostris) between two 
lions of basalt, which were found in the Baths of Agrippa, and 
which long decorated what is now called the Fontana delle Terme. 
Upon the base of these lions is inscribed the name of the Egyptian 
king Nectanebo. 

' Dans cette sculpture bien egyptienne, on sent deja le souflSe de I'art grec. La 
pose de ces lions est la pose roide et monumentale des lions a t<3te humaine de 
Louqsor ; la criniere est encore de convention, mais la vie est exprimee, les muscles 
sout accuses avec un soin et im relief que la sculpture purement egyptienne n'a 
pas connus.' — Ampere, Emp. n. 198. 

' Ces lions ont une expression remarquable de force et de repos ; U y a quelque 
chose dans leur physionomie qui n'appartient ni a Tanlmal, ni a I'homme : Us sem- 
blent une puissance de la nature, et I'on couQOit, en les voyant, comment les dieux 
du paganisme pouvaient etre representes sous cet embleme.'— Jfdnw. de Stael. 

On the right of the entrance wall are Ptolemy-Philadelphus, and, 
on his left, his queen Arsinoe, of red granite. were found in 
the gardens of Sallust, and were formerly preserved in the Senator's 

' There is a fine collection of Egyptian antiquities in the Vatican ; and the 
ceQings of the rooms in which they are arranged are painted to represent a star- 
light sky in the desert. It may seem an mid idea, but it is very effective. The 
grim, half-human monsters from the temples look more grim and monstrous 
underneath the deep dark blue ; it sheds a strange uncertain gloomy air on every- 
thing—a mystery adapted to the objects ; and you leave them, as you find them, 
shrouded in a solemn night.' — Dickens. 

1 For a detaQed account of this collection, see Dennis's Cities and Cemeteries 
of Etruria, whence many of the quotations above are taken ; also Mrs. Hamilton 
Gray's Sepulchres of Etruria. 

240 Walks in Rome 

The Srd Room is occupied by Roman imitations of Egyptian 
statues from the Villa Adriana. 

' Ces statues sont toutes des traductions de I'art 6gyptien en art grec. L' alliance, 
la fusion de la sculpture egyptienne et de la sculpture greco-romaine est un des 
traits les plus saillants de cosmopolitisme si etranger h, d'anciennes traditions 
nationales, et dont Adrieii, par ses voyages, ses goiits, ses monuments, fut la plus 
6clatante manifestation. 

' Sauf r Antinoils, les produits de cette sculpture d'imitation, bien que datant 
d'une 6poque encore brillante de I'art romain, ne sauraient le disputer h, leurs 
modeles. Pour s'en convaincre, il suflit de les comparer aux statues vraiment 
egyptiennes qui remplissent une salle voisine. Dans celles-ci, la realite du detail 
est mdprisee et sacriflee ; mais les traits fondamentaux, les lineaments essentiels 
de la forme, sont rendus admirablement. De la un grand style, car employer 
I'expression la plus gendrale, c'est le secret de la grandeur du style, comme a dit 
Buflon. Cette elevation, cette sobriete du g^nie 6gyptien ne se retrouvent plus 
dans les imitations batardes du temps d'Adrien.'— ^jnpece, Emp. ii. 197, 202. 

On the left is the Nile in black marble ; at one end of the hall 
is a colossal statue of Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian, in white 

'II est naturel qu'Antinoils, qui s'iStait, disait-on, pr6cipit6 dans le Nil, ait 
6t6 repr^sente sous les traits d'un dieu 6gyptien. ... La physionomie triste 
d' Antinous sied bien a un dieu d'Egypte, et le style grec emprunte au reflet du 
Btyle 6gyptien une grandeur sombre.' — Ampere, Emp. ii. 196. 

The 5th Room (semicircular) contains eight statues of the goddess 
Pasht from Carnac. 

The windows of the Egyptian Museum look upon the inner 
Garden of the Vatican, which may be reached by a door at the end 
of the long gallery of the Museo Chiaramonti, before ascending to 
the Torso. The garden which is thus entered, called Giardino della 
Pigna, is in fact merely the second great quadrangle of the Vatican, 
planted, under Plus IX., with shrubs and flowers, now a desolate 
wilderness — its lovely garden having been destroyed by the present 
Vatican authorities to make way for a monumental column to the 
Council of 1870. Several interesting relics are preserved here. In 
the centre is the Pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, found 
in 1709 on the Monte Citorio. The column was a simple memorial 
pillar of granite, erected by the two adopted sons of the Emperor, 
Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. It was broken up to mend the 
obelisk of Psammeticus I. at the Monte Citorio. Among the reliefs 
of the pedestal is one of a winged genius guiding Antoninus and 
Faustina to Olympus. The modern pillar and statue are erections of 
Leo XIII. In front of the great semicircular niche of Bramante, at 
the end of the court-garden, is the famous Pigna, a gigantic fir-cone, 
which is said once to have crowned the summit of the Mausoleum 
of Hadrian. Thence it was first removed to the front of the old 
basilica of S. Peter's, where it was used for a fountain. In the 
fresco of the old S. Peter's at S. Martino al Monte the pigna is in- 
troduced, but it is there placed in the centre of the nave, a position 
it never occupied. It bears the name of the bronze-founder who 

The Casino del Papa 241 

cast it — ' P. Cincivs. P. L. Calvivs. fecit.' Dante saw it at S. Peter's, 
and compares it to a giant's head (it is eleven feet high) which he 
saw through the mist in the last circle of hell. 

' La faccia mi parea longa e grosaa 
Come la pina di S. Pietro in Roma.' i 

Inf. xxxi. 58. 

On either side of the pigna are two lovely bronze peacocks, which 
are said to have stood on either side of the entrance of Hadrian's 

' Je pense qu'ils y avaient ete places en I'honneur des imperatrices dont le« 
cendres devaient s'y trouver. Le paon consacre a Junon etait le symbole de 
I'apothtkise des imperatrices, comme I'oiaeau dedie a Jupiter celui de I'apotheose 
des empereurs, car le mausolee d'Adrien n'etait pas pour lui seul, mais, comme 
avaient ete le mausolee d'Auguste et le temple des Flaviens, pour toute la 
famUle imperiale.' — Ampere, Emp. ii. 212. 

A flight of steps leads from this court to the narrow Terrace of the 
Navicella, in front of the palace, so called from a bronze ship with 
which its fountain is decorated. The visitor should beware of the 
tricksome waterworks upon this terrace. 

Beyond the courtyard is the entrance to the larger garden, 
which may be reached in a carriage by the courts at the back 
of S. Peter's. Admittance is difficult to obtain, as the garden is 
constantly used by the Pope. Pius IX. used to ride here upon his 
white mule. It is a most delightful retreat for the hot days of 
May and June, and before that time its woods are carpeted with 
wild violets and anemones. No one who has not visited them can 
form any idea of the beauty of these ancient groves, interspersed 
with fountains and statues, but otherwise left to nature, and form- 
ing a fragment of sylvan scenery quite unassociated with the English 
idea of a garden. They are backed by the walls of the Borgo and 
a fine old tower of the time of Leo IV. The Casino del Papa, or 
Villa Pia,- built by Pius IV. in the lower and more cultivated portion 
of the ground, is the cliefd'oeuvre of the architect Pirro Ligorio, 
and is decorated with paintings by Baroccio, Zucchero, and Santi 
di Tito, and a set of terra-cotta reliefs collected by Aginconrt and 
Canova. The shell decorations are pretty and curious. This villa 
gives an admirable idea of a small country-house under the Roman 

During the hours which he spent daily in this villa, its founder, 
Pins IV., enjoyed that easy and simple life for which he was far 
better fitted by nature than for the affairs of government ; but here 
also he received the counsels of his nephew S. Carlo Borromeo, who, 
summoned to Rome in 1560, became for several succeeding years 
the real ruler of the state. Here he assembled around him all those 
who were distinguished by their \-irtue or talents, and held many of 

1 Dante only mentions three things in Rome — the Lateran, the Bridge of 
S. Angelo, and the Pigna. 

2 Vasari calls it Palazzo nel Bosco del Belvedere. 


242 Walks in Rome 

the meetings which received the name of Notti Vaticane — at first 
employed in the pursuit of philosophy and poetry, but after the 
necessity of church reform became apparent both to the Pope and to 
S. Carlo, entirely devoted to the discussion of sacred subjects. In 
this villa Pius VIII. and Gregory XVI. used frequently to give their 

The sixteenth century was the golden age for the Vatican. Then 
the splendid court of Leo X. was the centre of artistic and literary 
life, and the witty and pleasure-loving Pope made these gardens 
the scene of his banquets and concerts ; and, in a circle to which 
ladies were admitted, as in a secular court, listened to the recitations 
of the poets who sprang up under his protection, beneath the shadow 
of their woods. 

'Le "Vatican etait encombr6, sous L6on X., d'historiens, de savants, de pontes 
surtout. " La tourbe importune des pontes," s'ecrie Val^rianus, " le poursiiit de 
porte en porte, tantot sous les portiques, tantot i^i la promenade, tantot au palais, 
tantot ii la chambre, penetralibus in imis ; elle ne respecte ni son repos, ni les 
graves affaires qui I'occiipent aujourd'hui que I'incendie ravage le monde." On 
remarquait dans cette foule : Berni, le po6te burlesque ; Flaminio, le po6te 
616giaque ; Molza, I'enfant de Petrarque, et Postunio, Maroni, Carteromachus, 
Fedra Inghirami, le savant bibliothecaire et la grande lumiere d'Arezzo, comme 
dit I'Arioste, Vitnique Accolti. Accolti jouit pendant toute la duroe du seizifeme 
sifecle d'une reputation que la post6rite n'a pas confirmee. On I'appelait le 
celeste. Lorsqu'il devait reciter ses vers, les magasins 6taient fermes comme 
en un jour de fete, et chacun accourait pour I'entendre. II etait entouro de 
pr^lats de la premifere distinction ; un corps de troupes suisses I'accompagnait, 
et I'auditoire etait eclaire par des flambeaux. Un jour qu' Accolti entrait chez 
le pape :— Ouvrez toutes les portes, s'6cria Leon, et laissez entrer la foule. 
Accolti r^cita un ternale a la Vierge, et, quand 11 eut flni, mille acclamations 
retentirent : Vive le poHe divin, vive l' incomparable Accolti ! L6on etait le 
premier d applaudir, et le duche de Nessi devenait la recompense du poete. 

' Une autre fois, c'etait Paul .Tove, I'homme aux ou'i-dire, comme I'appelle 
Rabelais, qui venait lire des fragments de son histoire, et que Leon X. saluait 
du titre de Tite-Live italien. II y avait dans ces 61oges, dans ces encourage- 
ments donnfis avec entrainement, mais avec tact, je ne sals quel souffle de vie 
pour I'intelligence, qui I'activait et qui lui faisait rendre au centuple les dons 
quelle avait re^us du ciel. Rome entifere etait devenue un musee, une academie ; 
partout des chants, partout la science, la po(5sie, les beaux-arts, une sorte de 
volupte dans I'^tude. Ici, c'est Calcagnini, qui a deji devine la rotation de la 
terre ; li, Ambrogio de Pise, qui parle chaldeen et arabe ; plus loin, Valerianus, 
que la philologie, I'archeologie, la jurisprudence revendiquent iv la fois, et qui se 
distrait de ses doctes travaux par des podsies dignes d'Horace.' — Goumerie, 
'Rome Chretienne,' ii. 114. 


Ponte Quattro Capi— Caetani Tower — S. Bartolommeo in Isola — Temple of Aescu- 
lapius — Hospital of the Benfratelli — Mills on the Tiber — Ponte Cestio— 
Fornarina's House — S. Benedetto a Piscinuola— Castle of the Alberteschi — 
S. Crispino— Palazzo Ponziani— S. Maria in CappeUa — S. Cecilia — Hospital of 
S. Michele — Porta Portese — S. Maria del Orto — S. Francesco a Ripa— Castle 
of the Angruillara — S. Crisog^no — Hospital of S. Gallicano— S. Maria in 
Trastevere — S. Calisto — Convent of S. Anna — S. Cosimato — Porta Settimiana 
— S. Dorotea — Pont« Sisto. 

FOLLOWING the road which leads to the Temple of Vesta, &c., 
as far as the Via Savelli, and then turning down past the 
gateway of the Orsini Palace, with its two bears — we reach the 
Ponte Quattro CapL 

This was the ancient Pons Fabricius, buUt of stone in the place 
of a wooden bridge, a.t:.c. 733, by Fabricius, the Curator Viarum. 
It has two arches, with a small ornamental one in the central pier. 
In the twelfth century the greater part was faced with brickwork. 
An inscription, only partly legible, remains : L. . FABRICIUS . C . F . 
LEPIBUS . M . P . M . LOLLIUS . M . F . COS . EX . S . C . PEOBA- 

VEBUST. From this inscription the inference has been drawn that 
the senate always allowed forty years to elapse between the com- 
pletion of a public work and the grant to it of their public approval. 
This bridge, according to Horace, was a favourite spot with those 
who wished to drown themselves ; hence Damasippus would have 
leaped into the Tiber, if it were not for the precepts of the stoic 

' Unde ego mira 
Descripsi docilis praecepta haec, tempore quo me 
Solatus jussit sapientem pascere barbam, 
Atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte revertL' 

Horace, Sat. U. iii. 34. 

The name of the bridge changed with time to ' Pons Tarpeius ' 
and 'Pons Judaeorum,' from the neighbouring Ghetto. It is now 
called Ponte Quattro Capi, from two busts of the four-headed Janus, 
which adorn its parapet, and are supposed to have come from the 
temple of 'Janus Geminus,' which stood in this neighbourhood. 
They formerly supported the railings of the bridge, as may be seen 
by the holes bored in them for the bronze bars. At the'entrance 


244 Walks in Rome 

of the bridge remains have been found of a shop for the sale of the 
ex-votos hung up in the Temple of Aesculapius as in the catholic 
churches — arms, hands, feet, breasts, &c., modelled in terra-cotta. 

' The most interesting pieces found here are three life-size human trunks, 
cut open across the front, and showing the whole anatomical apparatus of the 
various organs, such as the lungs, heart, liver, bowels, &c.'—Lanciani. 

The bridge, splendid in colour, with the grand tower of the Anicii 
rising behind it, the other quaint buildings of the island, and the 
distant mountains, continued till 1891 to be one of the most striking 
river scenes in existence ; now all is hideous. 

On crossing this bridge, we are on the Island in the Tiber, the 
formation of which is ascribed by tradition to the produce of 
the corn-fields of the Tarquins (cast contemptuously upon the 
waters after their expulsion), which accumulated here, till soil 
gathered around them, and a solid piece of land was formed. Of 
this Ampere says : 

' L'eflfet du courant rapide du fleuve est plutot de detruire les lies que d'en 
former. C'est ainsi qu'une petite ile a 6U; entrainee par la violence des eaux en 
1788.' — Hutoire Romaine a Rome. 

On this island, anciently known as the Isola Tiberina, were three 
temples — those, namely, of Esculapius : 

' Unde Coroniden circumflua Tibridis alti 
Insula Romuleae sacris adjecerit urbis.' 

Ooid, Metam. xv. 624. 

' Accepit Phoebo Nyniphaque Coronide natum 
Insula, dividua quani premit amnis aqua.' 

Ovid, Fast. i. 291. 
of Jupiter : 

' Jupiter in parte est : cepit locus unus utrumque : 
Junctaque sunt magno templa nepotls avo.' 

Ovid, Fast. i. 293. 
and of Faunus : 

' Idibus agrestis fumant altaria Fauni, 
Hie ubi discretas insula rumpit a<iuas.' 

Ovid, Fast. ii. 193. 

Here also was an altar to the Sabine god Semo-Sancus, whose 
inscription, legible in the early centuries of Christianity, led various 
ecclesiastical authors into the error that the words ' Semoni-Sanco ' 
referred to Simon Magus. ^ 

In imperial times the island was used as a prison : among 
remarkable prisoners immured here was Arvandus, Prefect of Gaul, 
A.D. 468. In the reign of Claudius sick slaves were exposed and 
left to die here, that Emperor — by a strange contradiction in one 
who caused fallen gladiators to be butchered ' for the pleasure of 
seeing them die ' — making a law that any slave so exposed should 
receive his liberty if he recovered. In the Middle Ages the island 

1 Ampere, 1. 436. 

S. Bartolomineo in Isola 245 

was under the jurisdiction of the Cardinal Bishop of Porto, who 
lived in the Franciscan convent. Under Leo X. a fete was held 
here in which Camillo Querno, the Papal poet, was crowned with 
i\'y, laurel, and cabbage {!). In 1656 the whole island was appro- 
priated as a hospital for those stricken with the plague— a singular 
coincidence for the site of the Temple of Aesculapius. For ' over 
two thousand years the island has been dedicated to the spirit of 

The first building on the left, after passing the bridge, is a tine 
brick tower, of great historic interest, as the only relic of a castle 
built by the family of the Anicii, of which S. Gregory the Great 
was a member, and two of whom were consuls together under 

' Est in Komuleo procumbens insula Tlbri, 
Qua medius geminas interfluit alveus urljes, 
Discretas sul)eunte freto, pariternue miiiantes 
Ardua turri^erae surgunt in culmina ripae. 
Hie stetit et subitum prospexit ab aggere votum, 
Unanlmes fratres junctos stipante senatu 
Ire forum, strictasque procul radiare secures, 
AUiue uno bijuges tolli de limine fasces.' 

Claudian, ' Paneg. in Prob. et Olyb. Cons.' 226. 

From the Anicii the castle passed to the Caotani. It was occu- 
pied as a fortress by the Countess Matilda, after she had driven 
factions of the anti-pope Guibert out of the island, and was the 
refuge where two successive Popes, Victor III. and Urban II., lived 
under her protection.' 

The centre of the island is now occupied by the Church and 
Convent of S. Bartolommeo, which gives it its present name. 

The piazza in front of the church is decorated by a pillar, erected 
at the private expense of Pius IX., to commemorate the opening of 
the Vatican Council of 1869-70, adorned with statues of S. Bar- 
tholomew, S. Paulinus of Nola, S. Francis, and S. Giovanni di Dio. 
Here formerly stood an ancient obelisk (the only one of unknown 
origin). A fragment of it was long preserved at the Villa Albani, 
whence it is said to have been removed to Urbino. The church, 
a basilica, was founded by Otho III. c. 1000 ; its campanile dates 
from 1118. The nave and aisles are divided by red granite columns, 
said to be relics of the ancient temple, as is a marble well-head 
under the stairs leading to the tribune. This was restored in 1798, 
and dedicated to S. Adalbert of Gneisen, who bestowed upon the 
church its great relic, the body of S. Bartholomew, which he asserted 
to have been brought from Beneventum, though the inhabitants of 
that town profess that they still possess the real body of the apostle, 
and that S. Paulinus of Nola was sent to Rome instead. The dis- 
pute about the possession of this relic ran so high as to lead to a 
siege of Beneventum in the Middle Ages. The convent belongs to 
the Franciscans (Frati Minori), who will admit male visitors into 

1 Rydbe^. 

2 See Hemans' Monuments in Rome. 

246 Walks in Rome 

their pretty little garden at the end of the island, to see the 
remains of 

The Temple of Aesculapius, built after the great plague in Rome 
in B.C. 291, when, in accordance with the advice of the Sibylline 
books, ambassadors were sent to Epidaurus to bring Aesculapius to 
Rome ; — they returned with a statue of the god, but as their vessel 
sailed up the Tiber, a serpent, which had lain concealed during 
the voyage, glided from it, and landed on this spot, hailed by the 
people under the belief that Aesculapius himself had thus come to 
them. In consequence of this story the form of a ship was given to 
this end of the island, and its bow may still be seen at the end of the 
convent garden, with the famous serpent of Aesculapius sculptured 
upon it in high relief.^ The curious remains which existed till 
the Sardinian rule were not of sufficient size to bear out the 
assertion often made that the whole island was enclosed in the 
travertine form of a ship, of which the Temple of Jupiter at the 
other end formed the prow, and the obelisk the mast. Patients 
used to be laid in the peristyle of the temple, and there drugged 
to sleep, that, in their dreams, Aesculapius might make manifest 
the proper remedy for their disorders. Then, if the cure succeeded, 
an ex-voto was suspended in the sanctuary. 

'Pendant les guerres samnites, Rome fut de nouveau frapp^e par une de ces 
maladies auxquelles elle etait souvent en proie ; celle-ci dura trois annees. On 
eut recours aux livres sibyllins. En cas pareil ils avaient present de consacrer 
un temple k Apollon ; cette fois ils prescrivirentd'aller a Epidaure cheroher le 
flls d'ApolIon, Esculape, et de I'amener a Rome. Esculape, sous la forme d'un 
serpent, fiit transports d'Epidaure dans I'ile TibSrine, oii on lui eleva un temple, 
et ou ont ete trouves des ex-voto, representant dos bras, des janibes, diverses 
autres parties du corps humain, ex-voto qu'on eut pu croire provenir dune eglise 
de Rome, car le catholicisme romain a adoptti cet usage paien sans y rien 

'Poiirquoi place-t-on le temple d'Esculape en cet endroit? On a vu que I'lle 
TibSrine avait ete tros anciennement consacroe au culte d'un dieu des Latins 
primitifs, Faunus ; or ce dieu rendait ses oracles pres des sources thermales ; ils 
devaient avoir souvent pour objet la garrison des malades qui venaient demander 
la sante k ces sources. De plus, les malades consultaient Esculape dans les songes 
par incubation, comme, dans I'Ovide, Numa va consulter Faunus sur I'Aventin. 11 
n'est done pas surpenant qu'on ait institue le culte du dieu grec de la santo, \k oii 
le dieu latin Eaunus rendait ses oracles dans des songes, et ou ctaient probable- 
ment des sources d'eau chaude qui ont disparu comme les lautulae pres du 
Forum romain. 

' On donna k I'ile la forme dun vaisseau, plus tard un obelisque flgura le mat ; 
en la regardant du Tonte Rotto, on reconnaJt encore tres bien cette forme, de ce 
c6t6 on voit sculpte sur le mur (lui figure le vaisseau d'Esculape une image du 
dieu avec un serpent entortilld autour de son sceptre. La belle statue d'Esculape, 
venue des jardins Farnese, passe pour avoir ete celle de I'ile Tilxirine. Un temple 
de Jupiter touchait a ce temple d'Esculape. 

' Un jour que je visitais ce lieu, le sacristain de I'Sglise de S. BarthSlemy me 
dit, " Al tempo d'Eseulapio qtiando Giove regnava." Phrase singuliere, et qui 
montre encore vivante une sorte de foi au paganlsme chez les Romains.' — 
Ampere, iii. 4-2. 

Opposite S. Bartolommeo, on the site of the Temple of Faunus, 
is the Hospital of S. Giovanni Calabita, also called Benfratelli, 

1 Piranesi's engraving shows that in the last century there existed, in addition, 
a colossal bust, and a hand holding the serpent-twined rod of Aesculapius. 

The Benfratelli 247 

entirely under the care of the brethren of S. Giovanni di Dio, who 
cook for, nurse, wash and otherwise do all the work of those who 
pass under their care, often to the number of 1200 in the course 
of the year, though the hospital is very small. 

' C'est a Pie V. que les freres de I'ordre de la Chariti, institne i)ar saint Jean de 
Dieu, durent leur premier etablissement a Kome. 

' An milieu du cortege triomphal qui accompagnait Don Juan d'Autriche (1571) 
lore de son retour de Lepante, on remarquait un pauvre homme miserablenient 
vetu et a I'attitude modeste. II se nommait Sebastien Arias, des freres de Jean de 
Dieu. Jean de Dieu etait mort sans laisser d autre regie a ses disciples que ces 
touchantes paroles qu'il repetait sans cesse, /aites le hien, mes freres ; et Sebastien 
d' Arias venait a Rome pour demander au pai)e I'autorisation de former des 
convents et davoir des hospices oii ils pussent suivre les exemples de devoue- 
ment que leiu- avait laisses Jean de Dieu. Or, Sebastien rencontra Don Juan a 
Kaples, et le vainqueur de Lepante le prit avec luL II se chargea meme d'appnyer 
sa requete, et Pie V. s'empressa d'accorder aux freres non-seulement la bulle 
qu'ils desiraient, mais encore un monastere dans I'lle du Tibre.'— Gourn^rie, 
^ Rome Chretienne,' ii. 2U6. 

A narrow lane near this leads to the other end of the island, 
where the Temple of Jupiter stood. It is worth while to go thither 
for the sake of the view of the river and its bridges which is to 
be obtained from a little quay littered with fragments of ancient 
temples. Here till the change of government in 1870 (when they 
were wantonly destroyed) were moored in the river a number of 
floating water-mills, worked by the force of the water through the 
piers of the bridge, most intensely picturesque (bearing >acred 
monograms upon their gables), and deeply interesting as having 
been invented by Belisarius in order to supply the people and 
garrison with bread during the siege of Rome by Vitiges, when the 
Goths had cut the aqueducts, and thus rendered the mills on the 
Janiculan useless. 

The bridge, of one large and two smaller arches, which connects 
the island with the Trastevere, is called the Ponte S. Bartolonuneo, 
but was anciently the Pons Cestius or Gratianus, built A.U.C. 708, 
by the Praetor Lucius Cestius,^ who was probably father to the 
Caius Cestius buried near the Porta S. Paolo. It was restored 
A.D. 370 by the Emperors Yalentinian, Valens, and Gratian (with 
travertine taken from the Theatre of Marcellns), as was seen from 
the fragments of a red-letter inscription on the inside of the parapet, 
in which the title ' Pontifex Maximus ' is ascribed to each — ' a title 
accepted without hesitation.' says Gibbon, ' by seven christian em- 
perors, who were invested with more absolute authority over the 
religion they had deserted than over that which they professed.' 
This noble and beautiful old bridge was pulled down and rebuilt by 
the municipal authorities in 1888. 

We now enter the Trastevere, the city 'across the Tiber' — the 
portion of Rome which, till 1886, was most unaltered from mediaeral 
times, and whose narrow streets are still overlooked by many ancient 
towers, gothic windows, and curious fragments of sculpture. The 
inhabitants on this side differ in many respects from those on the 

1 Dion Cass, xxxvii. 45. 

248 Walks in Rome 

other side of the Tiber. They pride themselves upon being born 
' Trasteverini,' profess to be the direct descendants of the ancient 
Romans, seldom intermarry with their neighbours, and speak a 
dialect peculiarly their own. It is said that in their dispositions 
also they differ from the other Romans, that they are a far more 
hasty, passionate, and revengeful, as they are a stronger and more 
vigorous race. The proportion of murders (a crime far less common 
in Rome than in England) is larger in this tlian in any other part of 
the city. This, it is believed, is partly due to the extreme excitement 
which the Trasteverini display in the pursuit of their national games, 
especially that of Morra. 

' Morra is played l)y the men, and merely consists in holding up, in rapid suc- 
cession, any number of fingers they please, calling out at the same time the 
number their antagonist shows. Nothing, seemingly, can be more simple or less 
interesting. Yet, to see them play, so violent are their gestures, that you would 
imagine them possessed by some diabolical passion. The eagerness and rapidity 
with which they carry it on render it very liable to mistake and altercation ; 
then frenzy fires them, and too often furious disputes arise at this trivial play 
that end in murder. JNIorra seems to differ in no respect from the micare digitis 
of the ancient Romans.' — Eaton's 'Rome.' 

A picturesque house with gothic windows at the corner of the 
Via Piscinula, after passing the bridge, is pointed out as that once 
inhabited by the Fornarina, beloved of Raflfaelle, and so well known 
to us from his portrait of her. 

Crossing the Via Lungarina, we find ourselves in the little piazza 
of S. Benedetto a Piscinula, where there is a tiny church, with a 
good brick campanile intersected by terra-cotta mouldings, which 
occupies the site of the house inhabited by S. Benedict before his 
retreat to Subiaco. The exterior is uninviting, but the interior very 
curious ; an atrium with antique columns opens to a vaulted chapel 
(of the same design as the Orto del Paradise at S. Prassede), in 
which is a picture of the Virgin and Child, revered as that before 
which S. Benedict was wont to pray. Hence is entered the cell 
of the saint, of rough-hewn stones. His stone pillow is shown. 
The church has ancient pillars, and a rich opus-alexandrinura 

' Over the high altar is a picture — full-length — of S. Benedict, which Mabillon 
("Iter Italicum") considers a genuine contemporary portrait — though Nibby 
and other critics suppose it less ancient. The figure, on gold background, is 
seated in a chair witli gothic carvings, such as were in mediaeval use ; the black 
cowl is drawn over the head, the hair and beard are white ; the aspect is serious 
and thoughtful, in one hand a crosier, in the other the book of rules drawn up 
by the Saint, displaying the words with which they begin : " Ausculta, fill, pre- 
cepta magistri." ' — Uemans' 'Ancient Sacred Art.' 

Turning down the Via Lungarina towards the river, we used to 
pass, on the left, considerable remains of the old mediaeval Castle 
of the Albertesciii family, consisting of a block of palatial buildings 
of handsome masonry, with numerous antique fragments built into 
them, and a very rich porch sculptured with egg and billet mouldings 
of c. A.D. 1150, and beyond these, separated from them by a modern 
street, a high brick tower of c. A.D. 1 100. Above one of the windows 

Casa degli Esercizii Pii 249 

of this tower a head of Jupiter was engrafted in the walL All this 
interesting group has been recently demolished by the authorities, 
which have done more to spoil this than any other quarter of 

We now reach the suspension bridge, close to what was the en- 
trance of the destroyed (1885) Ponte Rotto (described Chap. V.). 
Close to this bridge stood the Church of S. Crispino al Ponte 
(the saint is buried at S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna). The front was 
modernised, but the east end displayed rich terracotta cornices, 
and was very picturesque. It has nevertheless been wantonly 
destroyed. On the river-bank below this are or were the colossal 
lions' heads mentioned in Chap. V. 

Turning up the Via dei Vascellari, we still pass, on the right, the 
ancient Palace of the Ponziani Family, once magnificent, but now 
of humble and rude exterior, and scarcely to be distinguished 
except in March, during the festa of S. Francesca Romana, when 
old tapestries are hung out upon its whitewashed walls, and the 
street in front is thickly strewn with box leaves. 

'The modem buildinsr that has been raised on the foundation of the old 
palace is the Casa degli Esercizii Pii, for the young men of the city. There the 
repentant sinner who longs to break the chain of sin, the youth beset from some 
strong temptation, one who has heard the inward voice summoning him to 
higher paths of virtue, another who is in doubt as to the particular line of life to 
which he is called, may come, and leave behind them for three, or five, or ten 
days, as it may l>e, the busy world, with all its distractions and its agitations, 
and, free for the time l>eing from temporal cares, the wants of the body being pro- 
vided for, and the mind at rest, may commune with God and their own souls. 

' Over the Casa degli Esercizii Pii the sweet spirit of Francesca seems still to 
preside. On the day of her festival its rooms are thrown open, everj- memorial 
of the gentle saint is exhibited, lights biun on numerous altars, flowers deck the 
passages, leaves are strewn in the chapel, on the stairs, in the entrance-court ; 
gay carpets, figured tapestry, and crimson silks hang over the door, and crowds 
of people go in and out, and kneel before the relies or the pictures of the dear 
saint of Rome. It is a touching festival, which carries back the mind to the day 
when the young bride of Lorenzo Ponziano entered these walls for the first time, 
in all the sacred beauty of holiness and youth.' — Lady G. FuUerttm. 

In this house, also, S. Francesca Romana died, having come hither 
from her convent to nurse her son who was ill, and having been then 
seized with mortal illness herself. 

' Touching were the last words of the dying mother to her spiritual children : 
" Love, love," was the burden of her teaching, as it had lieen that of the Ijeloved 
disciple. "Love one another," she said, "and be faithful unto death. Satan 
will assault you, as he has assaulted me, but be not afraid. You will overcome 
him through patience and ol)edience ; and no trial will be too grievous, if you 
are imited to Jesus : if you walk in His ways, He will be with you." On the 
seventh day of her illness, as she had herself announcetl, her life came to a 
close. .\ sublime expression animated her face, a more ethereal beauty clothed 
her eartldy form. Her confessor for the last time inquired what it was her 
enraptured eyes t>eheld, and she answered, "ITie heavens open! the angels 
descend I the angel lias fluishetl his task. He stands before me. He beckons 
me to follow him." These were the last words Francesca uttered.' — Lady G. 
Pullertim's ' Life of S. F. Romana.' 

Almost opposite the Ponziani Palace, an alley leads or led to the 
small chapel of S. Maria in Cappella, with a good brick campanile. 

250 Walks in Borne 

dating from 1090. This building was attached to a hospital for poor 
women ill of incurable diseases, attended by Sisters of Charity, 
and entirely under the patronage of the Doria family. 

We now reach the front of the Convent and Church of S. Cecilia, 
in many ways one of the most interesting buildinsrs in the city. 

Cecilia was a noble and rich Roman lady, who lived in the reign 
of Alexander Severus. She was married at sixteen to Valerian, a 
heathen, with whom she lived in perpetual virginity, telling him 
that her guardian angel watched over her by day and night. 

' I have an angel which thus loveth me — 
That with great love, whether I wake or sleep, 
Is ready aye my body for to keep.' 


At length Valerian and his brother Tiburtius were converted to 
Christianity by her prayers and the exhortations of Pope Urban I. 
The husband and brother were beheaded for refusing to sacrifice to 
idols, and Cecilia was shortly afterwards condemned by Almachius, 
prefect of Rome, who was covetous of the great wealth she had 
inherited by their deaths. She was first shut up in the Sudatorium 
of her own baths, and a blazing fire was lighted, that she might be 
destroyed by the hot vapours. But when the bath was opened, she 
was found still living, ' for God,' says the legend, ' had sent a cooling 
shower, which had tempered the heat of the fire and preserved the 
life of the saint.' Almachius, then, who dreaded the consequences 
of bringing so noble and courageous a victim to public execution, 
sent a lictor to behead her in her own palace ; but he executed his 
office so ill, that she still lived after the third blow of his axe, after 
which the Roman law forbade that a victim should be stricken 
again. ' The Christians found her bathed in her blood, and during 
three days she still preached and taught, like a doctor of the Church, 
with such sweetness and eloquence, that four hundred pagans were 
converted. On the third day she was visited by Pope Urban, to 
whose care she tenderly committed the poor whom she nourished, 
and to him she bequeathed the palace in which she had lived, that 
it might be consecrated as a temple to the Saviour. Then, thanking 
God that He considered her, a humble woman, worthy to share the 
glory of His heroes, and with her eyes apparently fixed upon the 
heavens opening before her, she departed to her Heavenly Bride- 
groom, upon the 22nd November, A.D. 180.' 

The foundation of the church dates from its consecration by 
Pope Urban I., after the death of S. Cecilia, but it was rebuilt by 
Paschal I. in 821, and miserably modernised by Cardinal Doria 
in 1725. The exterior retains its stately ancient campanile of 
1120, and its atrium of marble pillars, evidently collected from 
pagan edifices and surmounted by a frieze of mosaic, in which 
medallion heads of Cecilia, Valerian, Tiburtius, Urban I., and others 
are introduced. In the courtyard of the convent, which belongs 
to Benedictine nuns, is a fine specimen of the Roman vase called 
Cantharus, perhaps coeval with Cecilia's own residence here. 

S. Cecilia 251 

The interior of the fine old basilica was transformed into a rococo 
hall by Cardinal Paolo Sfondrato in 1599 and Cardinal Giorgio Doria 
in 1725. Right of the door, on entering, is the tomb of Adam of 
Hertford, Bishop of London, who died 139S, the onlv one spared 
from a cruel death of the cardinals who conspired against Urban 
VI., and were taken prisoners at Nocera — from fear of the King of 
England, who was his friend. His sarcophagus is adorned with 
the arms of England, then three leopards and flenr-de-lis quartered.^ 
On the opposite side of the entrance is the tomb of Cardinal 
Fortiguerra, conspicuous in the contests of Pius II. and Paul II. 
with the Malatestas and Savellis in the fifteenth century. The 
drapery is a beautiful specimen of the delicate carving of detail 
during that period.- In the tabernacle are three reliefs : that of 
the Madonna and Child in the centre being one of the most 
exquisite works of the Renaissance. This and the pediment, re- 
presenting the Saviour supported by angels, are by Mino ; the side 
panels — SS. Nicolas and Cecilia — by one of his pupils. 

The altar canopy, which bears the name of its artist, Arnolphus, 
and the date 1286, is a fine specimen of gothic work, and has 
statuettes of Cecilia, Valerian, Tibnrtius, and Urban. Beneath the 
altar is the famous statue of S. Cecilia. 

In the archives of the Vatican remains an account written by 
Pope Paschal II. (A.D. 817-824) himself, describing how, 'yielding to 
the infirmity of the flesh,' he fell asleep in his chair during the 
early morning service at S. Peter's, with his mind preoccupied by a 
longing to find the burial-place of Cecilia, and discover her relics. 
Then, in a glorified vision, the virgin-saint appeared before him, and 
revealed the spot where she lay, with her husband and brother-in- 
law, in the catacomb of Calixtus, and there they were found, and 
transported to her church on the following day. 

In the sixteenth century, Sfondrato, titular cardinal of the church, 
opened the tomb of the martyr, when the embalmed body of CecUia 
was seen, as it had been previously found by Paschal, robed in gold 
tissue, with linen clothes steeped in blood at her feet, ' not lying 
upon the back, like a body in a tomb, but upon the right side, like 
a virgin in her bed, with her knees modestly drawn together, and 
offering the appearance of sleep.' Pope Clement VIII. and all the 
people of Rome rushed to look upon the saint, who was afterwards 
enclosed as she was found, in a shrine of cypress wood cased in 
silver. But before she was again hidden from sight, the greatest 
artist of the day, Stefano Maderno, was called in by Sfondrato to 
sculpture the marble portrait which we now see lying upon her 
grave. Sfondrato (whose tomb is in this church) also enriched her 
shrine with the ninety-six silver lamps which burn constantly before 

1 The spiral columns which supported the beautiful canopy of this tomb were 
removed by Sfondrato to the Cappella del Bagno ; the canopy itself was turned 
into a predella for the altar, and the panels of porphyry and serpentine used to 
ornament the altar of the Crucifix. 

3 The canopy and omamente of this tomb, dispersed by Sfondrato, have been 
recently restored. 

252 Walks in Eome 

it. In regarding this statue, it will be remembered that Cecilia was 
not beheaded, but wounded in the throat — a gold circlet conceals 
the wound. 

In the statue ' the body lies on its side, the limbs a little drawn up : the hands 
are delicate and fine— they are not locked, but crossed at the wrists : the arms 
are stretched out. The drapery is beautifully modelled, and modestly covers 
the limbs. ... It is the statue of a lady, perfect in form, and affecting from the 
resemblance to reality in the drapery of the white marble, and the unsiwtted 
appearance of the statue altogether. It lies as no living body could lie, and yet 
correctly, as the dead when left to expire— I mean in the gravitation of the limbs.' 
—Sir C. Bell. 

' On her side she rests 

As one asleep ; the delicate hands are crossed, 

Wrist upon wrist ; a clinging vestment drapes 

The virgin limbs, and round her slender throat 

A golden circlet masks her cruel wound, 

And there she lies for all to see ; but still 

Her voice is sounding in the Eternal Psalm 

Which the Church singeth ever, evermore, 

The Church on earth, the Church of saints in heaven.' 

Lewis Morris. 

The inscription, by Stefano Maderno, says : ' Behold the body of the most holy 
virgin Cecilia, whom I myself saw lying incorrupt in her tomb. I have in this 
marble expressed for thee the same saint in the very same posture of body.' 

The tribune is adorned with mosaics of the ninth century, erected 
in the lifetime of Paschal I. (see his square nimbus). The Saviour 
is seen in the act of benediction, robed in gold : at His side are 
SS. Peter and Paul, S. Cecilia and S. Valerian, S. Paschal I. carrying 
the model of his church, and S. Agatha, whom he joined with 
Cecilia in its dedication. The mj'stic palm-trees and the phoenix, 
the emblem of eternity, are also represented, and, beneath, the four 
rivers, and the twelve sheep, emblematical of the apostles, issuing 
from the gates of Bethlehem and Jerusalem, to the adoration of 
the spotless Lamb. The picture of S. Cecilia behind the altar is 
attributed to Guido. 

At the end of the south aisle is a beautiful fifteenth-century 
tomb, used as the reredos of a later altar. 

At the end of the right aisle is an ancient fresco representing the 
dream of Pope Paschal — the (mitred) Pope asleep upon his throne, 
and the saint appearing before him in a rich robe adorned with 
gems. This is the last of a series of frescoes which once existed 
in the portico of the churcli. The rest were destroyed in the 
seventeenth century. There are coi^ies of them in the Barberini 
Library, viz. : 

1. The Marriage Feast of Valerian and Cecilia. 

2. Cecilia persuades Valerian to seek for S. Virban. 

3. ^'alerian rides forth to seek for Urban. 

4. Valerian is baptized. 

5. An Angel crowns Cecilia and Valerian. 

6. Cecilia converts her Executioners. 

7. Cecilia suffers in the Bath. 

8. The Martyrdom of Cecilia. 

9. The Burial of Cecilia. 
10. l"he Dream of Paschal. 

S. Cecilia 253 

Opening out of the same aisle are two chambers in the house 
of S. Cecilia, one the sudatorium of her baths, in which she was 
immured, actually retaining the pipes and calorifers of an ancient 
Roman bath. A bronze cauldron for heating water also exists in 

The Festa of S. Cecilia is observed in this cbmrcb on November 
22nd, when 

' rapt Cecilia, seraph-haunted queen of harmony,' i 

used to be honoured in beautiful music from the Papal choir 
assembled here. Visitors to Bologna will recollect the glorious 
figure of S. Cecilia by Raffaelle, rapt in ecstasy, and surrounded by 
instruments of music. This association with Cecilia probably arises 
from the tradition of the Church, which tells how Valerian, return- 
ing from baptism by Pope Urban, found her singing hymns of 
triumph for his conversion, of which he had supposed her to be 
ignorant, and that when the bath was opened' after her three 
days' imprisonment, she was again found singing the praises of her 

It is said that ' she sang with such ravishing sweetness, that even 
the angels descended from heaven to listen to her, or to join their 
voices with hers.' 

The antiphons sung upon her festival are : 

' And Cecilia, Thy senrant, serves Thee, O Lord, even as the bee that is 
never idle. 

' I bless thee, O Father of my Lord Jesos Christ, for throngih Thy Son the fire 
hath been quenched round about me. 

' I asked of the Lord a respite for three days, that I might consecrate my house 
as a church. 

' O Valerian, I have a secret to teU thee ; I have for my lover an angel of God, 
who, with great jealousy, watches over my body. 

' The glorioiia virgin ever l)ore the Gospel of Christ in her bosom, and neither 
by day nor night ceased from conversing with God in prayer." 

And the anthem : 

' WhUe the instruments of music were playing, Cecilia sang unto the Lord, 
and said. Let my heart be undetiled, that I may never l)e confounded. 
' And Valerianus found Cecilia praying in her chamber with an angeL' 

It will be remembered that Cecilia is one of the chosen saints 
daily commemorated in the canon of the mass. 

' Nobis qnoque peccatoribus famulis tuis, de multitudine miseratiouum tuamm 
sperantibus, partem aliquam et societatem donare digneris cum tuis Sanctis 
Apostolis et Martyribus : cum Joanne, Stephano, Matthia, Barnaba, Ignatio, 
Alexandro, Marcellino, Petro, Felicitate, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucia, Agnete, 
Caecilia, Anastasia, et omnibus Sanctis.' 

Still existing (1896), but too picturesque not to be doomed to 
destruction, are a group of fourteenth-century houses opposite the 
gateway of the church. 

1 Wordsworth. 

254 Walks in Rome 

Jnst beyond S. Cecilia, facing the river, is the immense Hospital 
of S. Michele, founded by Cardinal Odescalchi, nephew of Inno- 
cent XI., in 1693, as a refuge for vagabond children, where they 
might be properly brought up and taught a trade. Innocent XII. 
(Pignatelli) added to this foundation a hospital for sick persons of 
both sexes, and each succeeding Pope has increased the buildings 
and their endowment. The establishment is now divided into an 
asylum for old men and women, a school with ateliers for boys and 
girls, and a penitentiary ('Casa delle Donne Cattive '). A large 
church was attached to the hospital by Leo XII. No old men are 
admitted who have not inhabited Rome for five years ; if they are 
still able to work, a small daily task is given to them. The old 
women, as long as they can work, are obliged to mend and wash the 
linen of the establishment. The boys, for the most part orphans, 
are received at the age of eleven. The girls receive a dowry of 300 
francs if they marry, and used to receive double that sum if they 
consented to enter a convent. A printing press is attached to the 

S. Michele occupies the site of the sacred grove of the goddess 
Furina (not of the Furies), where Caius Gracchus was killed, B.C. 123. 
Protected by his friends, he escaped from the Aventine, where he 
had first taken refuge, and crossed the Pons Sublicius. A single 
slave reached the grove of Furina with him, who, having in vain 
sought for a horse to continue their flight, first slew his master and 
then himself. One Septimuleius then cut off the head of Gracchus, 
and — a proclamation having been issued that any one who brought 
the head of Caius Gracchus should receive its weight in gold — first 
filled it with lead, and then carried it on a spear to the consul 
Opimius, who paid him his blood-money. 

S. Michele faces the Ripa Grande, called Ripa Romea in the 
Middle Ages, then Riparmea, and where a bridge was built by 

At the end of this street is the Porta Portese, built by Urban 
VIII., through which runs the road to Porto and Fiumicino. This 
is rather within the site of the Aurelian Porta Portuensis. 

Outside this gate was the site of the camp of Tarquin — after- 
wards given by the senate to Mutius Scaevola, for his bravery in 
the camp of Lars Porsenna. The vineyards here have an interest 
to Roman Catholics as the scene of one of the miracles attributed 
to S. Francesca Romana. 

' One fine sunny January day, Francesca and her companions had worked since 
dawn in the vineyards of the Porta Portese. They had worked liard for several 
hours, and then suddenly remembered that they had l)rought no provisions with 
them. Tliey soon became faint and hungry, and, above all, very thirsty. Perna, 
the youngest of all the oblates, was particularly heated and tired, and asked 
permission of the Mother Superior to go to drink water at a fountain some way 
off on the public road. 

'"Be patient, my child," Francesca answered, and they went on with their 
work; but Francesca, withdrawing aside, knelt down, and said, "Lord Jesus, I 
have been thoughtless in forgetting to provide food for my sisters— help us in 
our need." 

' Perna, who had kept near the Mother Superior, said to herself, with some 

Grove of the Arvales 255 

impatience, " It would be more to the purpose to take us home at once.' Then 
Francesca, turning to her, said, "My child, you do not trust in God ; look up 
and see." And Pema saw a vine entwined around a tree, whose dead and leaf- 
less branches were loaded with grapes. In speechless astonishment the oblates 
assembled around the tree, for they had all seen its bare and withered branches. 
Twenty times at least they had passed before it, and the season for grai)es was 
gone by. There were exactly as many bunches as persons present.' — See Lady 
G. FulUrton's 'Life of S. F. RomarM.' 

[Five miles from the Porta Portese, in the Via Portuense, nt a 
spot where the railway crosses the main road, and which bears the 
singular name of Affoga VAsino, or ' Drown the Donkey.' the remains 
of the colleee and sanctuary and the site of the sacred grove of 
the Arvales (priests who watched over the fields— arva) have been 
discovered. Here the twelve 'Fratres Arvales,' who are said to 
have originated in the twelve sons of Acca Lanrentia, the nurse 
of Romulus, kept the three days' ' May-festival ' of the goddess 
Dia, and, wearing their crowns of wheat ears (as the bust of 
Augustus is represented in the Vatican), ofEered sacrifices for a 
good harvest, from the earliest times of Rome till the reign of the 
Gordians. The site of their sacred grove — ' Lucus deae Diae ' — is 
now marked by huge masses of marble in the Vigna Ceccarelli, 
and a peasant's house is built upon the remains of their circular 
temple of Dia. Other buildings were the Tetrastylum, where the 
Arvales dined, and the Caesareum in honour of deified emperors. 

' The ruins still visible, round which cling the vine-wreaths and the wild roses, 
can give but a very small idea of the importance of this place at one time, especi- 
ally in the days of imperial Rome. A vineyard covers the spot once sacred to 
the goddess of the fruitful earth, to her festivals, to her ceremonies, and instead 
of the eager cries of the Circus, the mirth of the banquets, the rejoicings, the 
prayers, and the solemn archaic hymn of the Arvales. there is now no sound in 
the desolate Campagna save the monotonous song of the peasant and the distant 
lowing of the herds." — Donna Unilia LovateUL 

A path behind the farmhouse leads up the vineyard to a little 
hollow surrounded with fenochii and smilax, which contains the 
tiny Cemetery of Generosa. The martyr brothers SimpUcius and 
Faustinus, thrown into the Tiber from the Lapidean Bridge under 
Diocletian, were followed in their course down the river by their 
loving sister, Beatrice, who recovered their bodies near this spot, 
and buried them here near the forsaken grove of the Arvales, ad 
Sextum Philippi. She was herself martyred afterwards, and buried 
near her brothers, with the priests Crispus and John, by the matron 
Lucina. The inscribed marble slabs which covered the martyr 
graves, still exist, as well as many fragments of columns from the 
basilica which Pope Damasus erected in their honour. The bodies 
of the martyrs Beatrix, Faustinus, and Simplicius were removed to 
S. Bibiana at Rome for safety from the ' Lucus Arvalium ' in 682. 
The keys of the Catacomb of S. Generosa must be sought for in 

About a mile farther (passing beneath the railway arch), sur- 
rounded by crumbling embattled walls, is the Palace of Magliana, 
the favourite residence of Leo X., where he kept the fourteen 

256 Walks in Rome 

eagles sent him by Charles of Spain, and where he died suddenly 
in 1521. It takes its name from the lands of the gens Manila — 
Manlianum. It is a most desolate spot. The villa was founded as 
a hunting lodge by Innocent VIII. (Cibo), whose shield ornaments 
the large windows and the capitals of a little portico on the left 
of the entrance. Julius II. turned the Casino into a palace, and 
Cardinal Alidosi (whose shield adorns the staircase) added to its 
decorations. There is a pretty fountain in the courtyard. The 
arms of Julius II. and Leo X. remain in many of the rooms, with 
some fragments of coloured friezes ; but the beautiful frescoes of 
the chapel, designed by Kaffaelle, and probably executed by Lo 
Spagna, have perished, with the exception of some fragments 
which have been removed to the Capitol. There were steps to the 
Tiber from Magliana, and the fact that they could travel to Rome 
by water in their barges formed its great attraction to the Popes 
who lived there. 

In the little river Magliano, which flows into the Tiber near the 
palace, the young poet-philosopher Celso Marini, the favourite of 
Leo X., was drowned on a dark night, whilst riding to bear to his 
parents in Rome the good news of his having been presented to a 
valuable benefice in Sicily. The Pope wept for his loss, and built 
a bridge in his memory (now rebuilt) inscribed with memorial 
verses from his own pen. 

From the back of S. Michele a cross street leads to the Church 
of S. Maria dell' Orto, designed by Giulio Romano, c. 1530, except 
the fagade, which is by Martino Lunghi. The high altar is by 
Giacomo della Porta. The church contains an Annunciation by 
Taddeo Zucchcro. 

' Cette eglise appartient a. plusieurs corporations ; chacune a sa tonibe devaiit 
sa propre chapelle, et sur le couvercle sont gravies ses arnies particulieres ; uu 
coq sur la tombe des marchands de volaille, une pantoufle sur celle des savetiers, 
des artichauts siu: celle des jardiniere, &c.'~liobello. 

Close to this, at the end of the street (till recently a Via Crucis) 
which runs parallel with S. Michele, is the Church of S. Francesco 
a Bipa, the noviciate of the Franciscans — 'Frati Minori.' The con- 
vent, seized for a barrack by the Sardinians, contains the room 
(approached through the church) in which S. Francis lived during 
his visits at Rome, with many relics of him. His stone pillow and 
his crucifix are shown, and a picture of him by 0. de Lcttesoli. An 
altar in his chamber supports a reliquary in which 18,000 relics 
are displayed ! 

The church was rebuilt soon after the death of S. Francis by the 
knight Pandolfo d'Anguillara (his castle is in the Via Lungaretta), 
whose tomb is in the church, with his figure, in the dress of a 
Franciscan monk, which he assumed in the latter part of his life. 
It was again rebuilt by Cardinal Pallavicini, from the designs of 
Matteo Rossi. Among its pictures are the Virgin and S. Anne by 
Baciccio, the Nativity by Simon Vouet, and a dead Christ by 
Annibale CaraccL On the left of the altar is the Altieri chapel, 

S. Crisogono 257 

in which is a recnmbent statue of the blessed Luigi Albertoni, by 
Bernini. In the third chapel on the right is a mummv, said to be 
that of the virgin martyr S. Semplicia. The convent garden, now 
built over or turned into a barrack-yard, had some beautiful palm- 
trees before the Sardinian occupation. 

Following the Via Morticelli, we regain the Via Lungaretta near 
S. Benedetto. This street, more than any other in Rome, retains 
remnants of mediaeval architecture. On the right, f:icing the 
modern Piazza d'ltalia (which has destroyed the Church of S. 
Bonasia and many other old buildings), is the entrance to the old 
Castle of the Angnillara Family, of whom were Count Pandolfo 
d'Angmllara, already mentioned, and Everso, his grandson, the 
turbulent bandit-baron, celebrated for his highway robberies 
between Rome and Viterbo in the fifteenth century ; also Orso 
d' Angnillara, senator of Rome, who crowned Petrarch at the Capi- 
tol on Easter Day, 1341. 

' The family device, two crossed eels, surmounted by a helmet 
and a wild boar holding a serpent in his mouth, is believed to 
refer to the story of the founder of their hoxise, Malagrotta, a 
second S. George, who slew a terrible serpent, which had devas- 
tated the district round his abode, and received in recompense 
from the Pope the gift of as much land as he could walk round 
in one day.' ^ 

The existing remains consist of a handsome portal within the 
arch, called L' Arco dell' Annunziata, and a brick tower, where, 
during Epiphany, a remarkably pretty Presepio was exhibited, in 
which the Holy Family and the Shepherds were seen backed by the 
real landscape. The house has been purchased by the city, with 
the intention of turning it into a mediaeval museum. Close to this 
is the entrance to the modern Fonte Graribaldi, in sinking the 
foundations of which an admirable bronze statue was found in the 
river. Near this also was found (1888) a marble altar dedicated 
3 A.D. to the Lares of Augustas by the Yicomagistri of the Vicus 

On the left is the fine CShorch of S. Crisogono, founded by Pope 
Sylvester, but rebuilt in 731, and again by Cardinal Scipio Borghese 
(who modernised so many of the old churches), in 1623. The tower 
is mediaeval (rebuilt ?), but spoilt by whitewash ; the portico has 
four ancient granite columns. The interior is a basilica, the nave 
being separated from the aisles by twenty-two granite columns, and 
the tribune from the nave by two magnificent columns of porphyry. 
The baldacchino, of graceful proportions, rest^ on pillars of yellow 
alabaster. Over the tabernacle is a picture of the Virgin and Child 
by the Cav. d' Arpino. The mosaic in the tribune, probably only 
the fragment of a larger design, represents the Madonna and Child 
enthroned between S. James the Great and S. Crisogono. The 
stalls are good specimens of modern wood-carving. Near the end 
of the right aisle is the modem tomb of Anna Maria Taigi, lately 

1 Hemans' Monumentt in Rome. 

258 Walks in Rome 

beatified, and likely to be canonised, though readers of her life will 
find it difiicult to imagine why — the great point of her character 
being that she was a good wife to her husband, though he was 
'ruvido di maniere, e grossolano.' Stephen Langton, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, was titular cardinal of this church. 

S. Crisogono, represented in the mosaic as a young knight, stood 
by S. Anastasia during her martyrdom, exhorting her to patient 
endurance. He was afterwards himself beheaded under Diocletian, 
and his body thrown into the sea. 

Portions of the viaduct of Aemilius Paulus, in connection with 
the P021S Aemilius (Ponte Potto), have been discovered under the 
Piazza, between the church and the Palazzo degli Anguillara. 

In 1866 an Excuhitorium of the Seventh Cohort of Vigiles (a 
station of Koman firemen) was discovered near this church. ^ It is 
a graceful little structure, and the mosaics, paintings, and heating 
apparatus are tolerably perfect. A bust in the Via Lungaretta 
marks the house of Giuditta Tavanni Asquale. 

On the left we pass the Hospital of S. Gallicano, founded by 
Benedict XIII. (Orsini) in 1725, as is told by the inscription over 
the entrance, for the ' neglectis rejectisque ab omnibus.' The 
interior has two long halls opening into one another, the first 
containing 120 beds for men, the second 88 for women. Patients 
afflicted with maladies of the skin are received here to the number 
of 100. The principal treatment is by means of baths, which 
gives the negative, within these walls, to the Italian saying that * an 
ancient Roman took as many baths in a week as a modern Roman 
in all his life.' The establishment is at present under the man- 
agement of the Benfratelli ('Fate bene fratelli'). S. Gallicano, 
to whom the hospital is dedicated, was a Benfratello of the 
time of Constantine, who devoted his time and his fortune to the 

On the right, the little church of S. Eufina has a good early brick 

At the upper end of the Via Lungaretta is a piazza with a very 
handsome fountain, on one side of which is the Church of S. Maria 
in Trastevere, supposed to be the first church in Rome dedicated to 
the Virgin. It was founded by S. Calixtus in a.d. 224, on the site 
of the Taberna Meritoria, an asylum for old soldiers ; where, ac- 
cording to Dion Cassius, a fountain of pure oil sprang up at the 
time of our Saviour's birth, and flowed away in one day to the Tiber, 
a story which gave the name of 'Pons Olei' to the church in early 
times. It is said that wine-sellers and tavern-keepers (popinarii) 
disputed with the early christian inhabitants for this site, upon 
which the latter had raised some kind of humble oratory, and that 
they carried their complaint before Alexander Severus, when the 
Emperor awarded the site to the Christians, saying, ' I prefer that 
it should belong to those who honour God, whatever be their form 
of worship.' 

1 Entered from the Contrada Monte di Fiore. 

S. Maria in Trastevere 259 

' Ce souvenir augmente encore I'interet qui s'attache a I'eglise de Santa Maria 
in Trastevere. Les colonnes antiques de granit egyptien de cette basilique et 
les belles mosaiques qui la decorent me touchent moins que la tradition d'apres 
laquelle elle fut elevee la oii de pauvres Chretiens se rassemblaient dans un 
cabaret purifie par leur piete, pour y celebrer le culte qui devait uu jour etaler 
ses magnificences sous le dome resplendissant de Saint-Pierre.' — Ampere, Emp. 
ii. 318. 

The church was rebuilt in 340 by Julius I., and after a series 
of alterations was again almost entirely reconstructed in 1139 by 
Innocent II., as a thanksgiving offering for the submission of the 
anti-pope. Eugenius III. (1145-50) finished what was left uncom- 
pleted, but the new basilica was not consecrated till the time of 
Innocent III. (1198-1216). The tower, apse, tribune, and mosaics 
belong to the early restoration ; the rest is due to alterations made 
by Bernardino Rossellini for Nicholas V. 

The west facade is covered with mosaics ; the upper part — repre- 
senting the Saviour throned between angels — and the lower — of 
palms, the twelve sheep, and the mystic cities— are additions by 
Pius IX. in 1869. The central frieze was begun in the twelfth 
century under Eugenius III., and completed in the fourteenth by 
Pietro CavaUini. It represents the Virgin and Child enthroned in 
the midst, and ten female figures, generally described as the Ten 
Virgins— but Hemans remarks : 

' It is evident that such subject cannot have been in the artist's thoughts, as 
each stately figure advances towards the thi-one with the same devout aspect 
and graceful serenity, the same faith and confidence ; the sole observable dis- 
tinctions being that the two with unlit lamps are somewhat more matronly, 
their costumes simpler, than is the case with the rest; and that, instead of 
lieing crowned, as are the others, these two wear veils. Explanation of such 
attributes may be found in the mystic meaning— the light being appropriate 
to virgin saints, the oil taken to signify benevolence or almsgiving; and we 
may conclude that those without light represent wives or widows, the others 
virgin saints, in this gi-oup. Two other diminutive figures (the scale indicating 
humility), who kneel at the feet of Marj-, are Innocent II. and Eugenius III., 
both vested in the pontifical mantle, but bare-headed. Originally the Mother 
and Child alone had the nimbus around the head, as we see in a water-colour 
drawing from this original (now in the Barberini Library) dated ItSiO, made 
before a renovation by which that halo has been given alike to all the female 
flgm-es. Another much faded mosaic, the Madonna and Child under an arched 
canopy, high up on the campanile, may perhaps be as ancient as those on the 
facade.' — Mediaeval Christian Art. 

The portico contains two frescoes of the Annunciation, one of 
them ascribed to Cavallini. In the pavement are interesting tombs 
in high relief. The walls are occupied by early christian and pagan 
inscriptions. One, of the time of Trajan, is regarded with peculiar 
interest : ' MARCUS COCCEUS lib . AUG . ambrosius praepositus 

interior is that of a basilica. In a niche near the end of the right 
aisle is preserved the stone said to have been attached to S. Calixtus 
when he was thrown into the well, with three other pietre di 
parat/ane or martyr stones. 

260 Walks in Rome 

'To the student these stones only prove that the classic institution of the 
ponderarii (sets of weights and measures) migrated from temples to churches, 
after the closing of the former, A.D. 393.' — Lanciani. 

The nave, paved with opus-alexandrinum, is divided from the 
aisles by twenty-two ancient granite columns, whose ionic capitals 
are in several instances decorated with heads of pagan gods. They 
support a richly decorated architrave. The very curious inlaid 
pavement was destroyed in the ' restoration ' of 1867. The roof, in 
the centre of which is a picture of the Assumption of the Virgin, is 
painted by Domenichino. On the right of the main entrance is a 
ciborium by Mino da Fiesole. The high altar covers a confession, 
beneath which are the remains ^of five early Popes, removed from 
the catacombs. Among the tombs are those of the painters 
Lanfranco and Giro Ferri, and of Bottari, librarian of the Vatican, 
editor of the dictionary of the Delia Crusca Academy, and canon of 
this church, ob. 1775. 

In the left aisle is the tomb erected by Pius IX. to Pope Inno- 
cent II. (1143), removed here in 1408, after the great fire at the 

In the left transept is a beautiful gothic tabernacle over an altar, 
erected by Cardinal d'Alengon, nephew of Charles de Valois, and 
brother of Philippe le BeL On one side is the tomb of that cardinal, 
in early life Archbishop of Rouen and afterwards Bishop of Ostia 
(the fresco represents the martyrdom of his patron, S. Philip, who 
is portrayed as crucified with his head downwards like S. Peter) ; 
on the other is the monument of Cardinal Stefaneschi (temporal 
Vicar of Rome in the reign of John XXIII. ), by Paolo Romano, one 
of the first sculptors of the fourteenth century. Opening from hence 
is a chapel, which has a curious picture of the Council of Trent by 
Taddco Zucchero. At the end of the right aisle are several more 
fine tombs of the sixteenth century, and the chapel of the Madonna 
di Strada Cupa, designed by Domenichino, from whose hand is the 
figure of a child scattering flowers, sketched out in one corner of 
the vaulting. 

The upper part of the tribune is adorned with magnificent 
mosaics (restored in modern times by Camuccini) of the time of 
Innocent II. 

'In the centre of the principal group on the vault is the Saviour, seated, with 
His Mother, crowned and robed lilce an Eastern queen, l)eside Him, botli sliaring 
the same gorgeous throne and footstool ; while a hand extends from a fan-lilce 
glory with a jewelled crown held over His head ; she (a singular detail here) 
giving benediction with the usual action ; He embracing her with His left arm 
and in the right hand holding a tablet that displays the words, " Veni, electa, 
mea, et ponam in thronum meum ; " to whicli corresponds the text, from the 
Song of Solomon, on a tablet in her left hand, "Laeva ejus sub capite meo et 
dextera illius amplexabitur me." Below the heavenly throne stand, each with 
name inscribed in gold letters, Innocent II., holding a model of this church; 
S. Laurence, in deacon's vestments, with the Gospels and the jewelled cross ; 
the sainted Popes, Calixtus I., Cornelius, and Julius I. ; S. Peter (in classic 
white vestments), and Calepodius, a martyr of the third century, here intro- 
duced because his body, together with those of the other saints in the same 
group, was brought from the catacombs to tins church. 

' As to ecclesiastical costume, this work affords decisive evidence of its 

S. CaUsto 261 

ancient splendour and varieties. We do not see the keys in the hands of 
S. Peter, but the large tonsure on his head ; that ecclesiastical badge which he 
is said to have invented, and which is sometimes the sole peculiarity (hesides 
the ever-recognisable type) given to this Apostle in art. 

'Above the archivoit we see a cross, between the Alpha and Omega, and 
the winged emblems of the Evangelists ; laterally, Jeremiah and Isaiah, each 
with a prophetic text on a scroll ; along a frieze below, twelve sheep advancing 
from the holy cities, Jerusalem and Bethlehem, towards the Divine Lamb, who 
stands on a mount whence issue the four rivers of Paradise — or, according to 
perhaps juster interpretation, the four streams of gosi)el truth. Palms and a 
phoenuc are seen beside the two prophets ; also a less common sjrmbol — caged 
birds, that signify the righteous soul incarcerated in the body, or (with highest 
reference) the Saviour in His assumed humanity ; such accessory reminding of 
the ancient usage, in some countries, of releasing birds at fnnerals, and of that 
still kept up amidst the magnificent canonisation rites of offering various kinds 
of birds, in cages, at the Papal throne. 

' Remembering the date of the composition before us, alx)ut a century and a 
half before the time of Cimabue and Giotto, we may hail in it, if not an actual 
Renaissance, the dawn, at least, that heralds a brighter day for art, compared 
with the deep gloom previous.' — Hemans' 'Mediaeval Christian Art.' 

Below these are another series of mosaics representing six scenes 
in the life of the Virgin, the work of Pietro Cavallini, of the thir- 
teenth century, when they were ordered by Bertoldo Stefaneschi, 
who is himself introduced in one of the subjects. In the centre 
of the tribune is an ancient marble episcopal throne, raised by a 
flight of steps. 

In the Sacristy is a picture of the Virgin with S. Rocco and 
S. Sebastiano, by Perugino. Here are preserved some beautiful frag- 
ments of mosaics of birds, &c., from the catacombs. 

Outside the right transept of S. Maria is a picturesque shrine, and 
there are many points about this ancient church which are interesting 
to the artist. The palace, which forms one side of the piazza at the 
west end of the church, formerly Palazzo Moroni, is now used as 
the summer residence of the Benedictine monks of S. Paolo, who 
are driven from their convent by the malaria during the hot months. 
During the revolutionary government of 1848-49, a number of priests 
suffered death here, without trial, by order of the republican ruffian, 
Zambianchi, and were buried in the garden, which has led to the 
monastery being regarded as ' the Carmes of Rome.' The modem 
Chtirch of S. Calisto contains the well in which that Pope suffered 
martyrdom, A.D. 222. This well, now seen through a door near the 
altar, was then in the open air, and the martyr was thrown into it 
from a window of a house in which he had been imprisoned and 
scourged, and where he had converted the soldier who was appointed 
to guard him. His festival has, till recently, been celebrated here 
with great splendour by the monks. 

Opposite S. Calisto is the Monastery of S. Anna, in which were 
passed the last days of the beautiful and learned Vittoria Colonna. 
As her death approached she was removed to the neighbouring 
house of her kinsman Giuliano Cesarini, and there she exp>ired 
(February 1547) in the presence of her devoted friend, Michelangelo, 
who always regretted that he had not in that solemn moment 
ventured to press his lips for the first and last time to her beautiful 
countenance. The Chapel of S. Anna dei Falegnami, where she was 

262 Walks in Rome 

buried, ' her body enclosed in a coffin of cypress wood lined with 
embroidered velvet,' was destroyed in 1887. 

Hence a street leads to the Church of S. Cosimato, now hemmed 
in by frightful modern houses, where stands of seats, facing the hill 
of S. Pietro in Moutorio, used to be placed during the Girandola. 
The once lovely little lawn in front has been turned into a hideous 
gravelled sjmce, and its noble old elm trees were all cut down in 
1866 by the tree-hating authorities ; but the space still bears the 
name of Prato di S. Cosimato. A courtyard is entered through a 
low arch supported by two ancient columns, having a high roof with 
rich terra-cotta mouldings— beautiful in colour. The court contains 
an antique fountain, and is exceedingly picturesque. The restored 
church has carefully sculptured details of cornice and moulding ; 
the door is a good specimen of mediaeval wood-carving. The wall 
on the left of the altar is occupied by a most beautiful fresco by 
Pinturicchio, representing S. Francis and S. Clare standing on either 
side of the Virgin and Child ; it has lately been ill restored. Opening 
from the end of the left aisle is a very interesting chapel, decorated 
with frescoes, and containing an exquisite altar reredos of the 
fifteenth century, in honour of the saints Severa and Fortunata, 
with statuettes of Faith, Justice, Charity, and Hope. This is really 
part of the tomb of Cardinal Cibo, brought hither from his chapel 
in S. Maria del Popolo. Attached to the church is a very large 
convent of Poor Clares, which produced two saints, Theodora and 
Seraphina, in the fifteenth century. It is now used as a hospice 
for aged poor. Its outer cloister, with small delicate round-headed 
arches, encloses a lovely orange-garden, and its arcades are full of 
fine fragments of sculpture. The second cloister is a good work of 
the Renaissance. 

Following the Via della Scala, on the south side of S. Maria in 
Trastevere, we reach the Porta Settimiana, built by Alexander VI. 
on the site of a gateway raised by Honorius, which marked the 
position of an arch of Septimius Severus. This is the entrance of 
the Via Lungara, containing the Corsini and Farnesina Palaces (see 
Chapter XX.). The gateway has forked battlements, but is much 
spoilt by recent plasterings. Near this is S. Dorotea, an ugly church, 
but important in church history from its connection with the 
foundation of the Order of the Theatins — which arose out of a 
revulsion from the sensuous age of Leo X. — and as containing the 
tomb of their founder, Don Gaetano di Teatino, the friend of 
Paul IV. 

'Dfes le regne de L^on X., quelques symptomes d'une reaction religieuse se 
manlfestferent dans les hautes classes de la soei6te romaine. On vit un certain 
nombre d'hommes eniinents s'affilier les uns aux autres, afln de trouver dans de 
saintes pratiques assez de force ponr resister k I'atmosphere enervante qui les 
entourait. lis prirent pour leiir association le titre et les emblemes de I'aniour 
di vin, et ils s'assembleren t, i des jours deterniiniis, dans I'eglise de Sainte-Doroth(5e, 
pr6s de la porte Settimiana. Parmi ces homnies de foi et d'avenir, on citait un 
archeveque, CarafTa ; lui protonotaire apostolique, Gaiitan de Thifene ; un noble 
Venitien, aussi distingu6 par son caract^re que par ses talents, Contarini ; et 
cinquante autres dont les noms rappellaient tons, ou une illustration, ou une 
haute position sociale, tels que Lippomano, Sadolet, Ghiberti. 

Fonte Sisto 263 

'Mais blentot ces premiers essais de ruptore arec la tendance generale des 
esprits enflammerent le zele de plusieurs des membres de la Congregation de 
iAmcnir dirin. Caraffa surtout, dont 1 ame ardente navait tronve qn'anxietes 
et fatigiie dans les grandeurs, aspirait a one vie d" action qui lui permit de 
s'employer, de tous ses moyens, a la reforme du monde. II trouva dans Gaetan 
de Thiene des dispositions conformes a ce qu'U dcslrait. Gaetan avail eependant 
nn caractere tres different du sien : doue d'une anfrelique douceur, craignant de 
se faire entendre, recherchant la meditation et la retraite, U eut vonln, lui 
aussi, reformer le iponde, mais il n'eut pas voulu en etre connn. Les qualites 
diverses de ces deui hommes rares se combinerent heurensement dans resecution 
du projet qn'ils avaient con^u, c'etait de former une association des ecclesiaa- 
tiques voues tout ensemble a la contemplation et a une vie austere, a la predica- 
tion et an soin des malades ; des ecclesiastiques qui donnassent i>artont au cletge 
I'exemple de FaccompUssement des devoirs de sa sainte mission.'— Go«r»i«n>, 
' Rome ChrftUmu,' iL 157. 

' When Doroth^i, the maiden of Cesarea, was condemned to death by Sapritins, 
she replied, "Be it so, then I diall the sooner stand in the presence of Christ, 
my spouse, in whose garden are the fruits of paradise, and roses that never 
fade." As she was being led to execution, the young Tbeophllus mockuig said, 
"O maiden, goest thou to join thy bridegroom? send me, then, I pray thee, of 
the fruits and flowers which grow in his garden." And the maiden bowed her 
head and smiled, saying, " Thy request is granted, O Theophilus," whereat he 
laughed, and she went forward to death. 

' And behold, at the place of execution, a beantifnl child, with hair like the 
sunbeam, stood beside her, and in his hand was a basket containing three fresh 
roses and three apples. And she said, 'Take these to Theophilus, and tell him 
that Dorothea waits for him in the garden from whence they came." 

' And the child sought TheophUus, and gave him the flowers and the fruits, 
saying, ' ' Dorothea sends thee these," and vanished. And the heart of TheophUus 
melted, and he ate of the fruit from heaven, and was converted, and professed 
himself one of Christ's servants, so that he also was martyred, and was translated 
into the heavenly garden.'— JI>^CT«<f. 

This story is told in nearly all the pictures of S. Dorothea. 

Hence we reach the utterly modernised Ponte Sisto, built 1473-75 
by Sixtus IV. in the place of the Pons Janiculensis (or, according 
to Ampere, the Pons Antoninus), which CaracaUa had erected to 
reach the garden in the Trastevere, formerly belonging to his 
brother Geta. The Acts of Eusebins describe the many christian 
martyrdoms which took place from this bridge. S. Symphorosa 
under Hadrian, S. Sabbas under Aurelian, S. Calepodius under 
Alexander, and S. Anthimus under Diocletian, were thrown into the 
Tiber from hence, with many others, whose bodies, usually drifting 
to the island then called Lycaonia, were recovered there by their 
faithful disciples. ' The bridge was rebuilt by A. Avianus Symmachns, 
prefect of the city, with the spoils of an older bridge of the time 
of Caracalla, and was dedicated to Valentinian and Valens, then 
emperors of the East and West. This bridge is said to have been 
broken down by a flood under Pope Adrian I., after which it 
became known as the Pons Fractus. An inscription begs the 
prayers of the passengers for its Papal founder. Recently the 
bridge has been completely modernised and spoilt, to caixy out a 
ludicrous scheme which unfortunately originated with the patriot 

1 See the Acts of the Martyrs S. Hippolytns and S. Adrian, and the Acts of 
S. Calepodius, quoted by Canina, R. Ant. p. 5S4. 

264 Walks in Rome 

Garibaldi, since the change of government in 1870. It is an old 
Italian superstition that you have no good luck if you cannot see 
a white horse, an old w^oman, and a priest, while crossing this 

Few would imagine the former beauty of the winding Tiber near 
this who see its hideous modern quays, lined with square box-like 
houses, upon which the grand old Palazzo Falconieri looks down in 
astonishment. When the branch of the river which flows under 
the first arch was diverted in 1878, Valentinian's bridge was found 
at the bottom of the stream, so perfect that the fragments of the 
inscription which ran along the whole of the south parapet were 
found in continuity. A triumphal arch which formed the approach 
from the Campus Martius was also found in the river, with the 
statues and groups by which it was surmounted, and an inscription 
' to the august Victory, faithful companion of our lords and masters, 
the S. P. Q. R.' 

Till 1887 the most enchanting views might be obtained from the 
bridge itself — on the one side of the island, of the Temple of Vesta, 
and the Alban hills ; on the other of S. Peter's rising behind the 
Farnesina, and the grand mass of the Farnese palace towering 
above the less important buildings. 

' They had reached the bridge and stopped to look at the view, perhaps the 
most beautiful of all those seen from the Roman bridges. Looking towards the 
hills, the Tiber was spanned by Ponte Rotto, under which the old black mills 
were turning ceaselessly, almost level with the tawny water ; the sunshine fell 
full on the ruins of the Palatine, about the base of which had gathered a crowd 
of modern buildings ; a brick campanile, of the Middle Ages, rose high above 
them against the blue sky, which was seen through its open arches ; beyond were 
the Latin HiUs ; on the other hand, S. Peter's stood pre-eminent in the distance ; 
nearer, a stack of picturesque old houses were half hidden by orange-trees, where 
golden fruit clustered thickly ; i women leant from the windows, long lines of 
flapping clothes hung out to dry ; below, the ferry-boat was crossing the river, 
impelled by the current. Modern and ancient Rome all mingled together — 
everywhere were thrilling names connected with all that was most glorious in 
the past. The moderns are richer than their ancestors ; the past is theirs as 
well as the present.'— Mademoiselle Mori. 

Close to the farther entrance of the bridge, opposite the Via 
Giulia, stood till 1879, when it was wantonly destroyed by the 
Italian Government, the noble Fountain of the Ponte Sisto, built by 
Paul V. from designs of Fontana, and celebrated in Ouida's novel 
of ' Ariadne.' No one can recollect its perfect proportions and the 
dash and play of its crystal waters, without a bitter pang of anguish 
over one of the most disgraceful of the many injuries which the city 
has sustained since the fall of the Papal powe.. The fountain may 
be rebuilt ; but can never have its original grandeur or beauty, 
and, having been designed for one especial site, it is unsuited for 

1 The old houses and orange-trees were wantonly destroyed by the government, 
with much of the Farnesina Gardens, in 1878. 

S. Paolo alia Regola 265 

In 1887 some remains found a little above the Ponte Sisto were 
identified by the inscription on a cippus found near it as those of 
the Pons Agrippae. 

Near this, in the Via della Regola, behind the Church of S. Paolo 
alia Eegola, is S. Paul's School, on the site of the building in which 
he is said to have instructed catechumens in the christian faith, and 
where tradition asserts that he held a discussion with the philo- 
sopher Seneca. The underground church, called Divi Pauli Apostoli 
Eospitium et Schola, is lighted up on January 25th, the feast of the 
Conversion of S. Paul. 



The Marmoratum— Arco di S. Lazzaro — Protestant Cemetery— Pyramid of Caius 
Cestius— Monte Testaccio — Porta S. Paolo— Chapel of the Farewell- -llie Tre 
Fontane (SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio — S. Maria Scala Coeli— S. Paolo alle Tre 
Fontane)— Basilica and Monastery of S. Paolo. 

[A tramway (30c.) with comfortable carriages, which starts every few minutes, 
leads to S. Paolo from the Piazza Montanara, to which there are omnibuses from 
the Piazza di Spagna.J 

BEYOND the Piazza Bocca della Verita, the Via della Marmorata 
was, till recently, spanned by an arch which nearly marked 
the site of the Porta Trigemina,^ by which Marius fled to Ostia before 
Sulla in B.C. 88. Near this stood the statue erected by public sub- 
scription to Minucius, whose jealousy brought about the execution 
of the patriot Maelius, B.C. 440. Here also was the Temple of 
Jupiter Inventor, whose dedication was attributed to the gratitude 
of Hercules for the restoration of his cattle, carried off by Cacus to 
his cave on the neighbouring Aventine. 

It was at the Porta Trigeraina that Camillus (B.C. 391), sent into 
exile to Ardea by the accusations of the plebs, stayed, and, stretch- 
ing forth his hands to the Capitol, prayed to the gods who reigned 
there that, if he was unjustly expelled, Rome might ' one day have 
need of Camillus.' 

Beyond the site of the arch, the road overhanging the shore of the 
Tiber, the koKt] clktt] of Plutarch,'^ skirts, on the other side, the 
wooded escarpment of the Aventine, crowned by its three churches 
S. Sabina, S. Alessio, and the Priorato. 

' De ce cut(5, entre I'Aventin et le Tibre, hors de la porte Trigemina, ^talent 
divers marchtis, notamment le marche aux bois, le march6 h la farine et au pain, 
les horrea, magasina de bles. Le voisinage de ces marches, de ces magasins et de 
I'emporium, produisait un grand mouvement de transport et fournissait de 
I'occupation a beaucoiip de portefaix. Plaute 3 fait allusion k ces porteurs de 
sacs de la porte Trigemina. On pent en voir encore tous les jours remplir le raeme 
office au meme lieu.' — Ampere, Hist. Horn. iv. 75. 

From the landing-place for modern Carrara marble, a new road on 
the right, planted with trees, leads along the river to the ancient 

1 Sometimes supposed to be a tufa arch discovered near the foot of the Aventine 
in 1887. 

2 Mom. 20. 3 Plautus, Capt. i. 1, 22. 


Arco di S. Lazaro 267 

Marmoratum, discovered 1867-68, when many magnificent blocks of 
ancient marble were found buried in the mud of the Tiber, and used 
by Pius IX. in church decoration. Excavations in the latter days of 
the Papal power laid bare the inclined planes by which the marbles 
were landed, and the projecting bars of stone with rings for mooring 
the marble vessels. 

In the neighbouring vineyard are the massive ruins of the 
Emporium, or magazine for merchandise, founded by M. Aemilius 
Lepidus and L. Aemilius Paulus, the aediles, in B.C. 186. The 
earliest instance of the use of concrete (jartura) is to be seen here. 
Upon the ancient walls of this time was engrafted a small and 
picturesque winepress of the fifteenth century, now half hidden in 
ugly modern buildings. 

A short distance beyond the turn to the Marmoratum the old 
road, above the present tramway, is crossed by an ancient brick 
arch, called Arco di S. Lazaro,^ or Arco della Salara, by the side 
of which is a hermitage. The arch is a remnant of the Horrea 
Galbana, or imperial warehouses, which once covered all the space 
between this and the Tiber, and which took their name from the 
family of Sulpicius Galba, the former owner of the soil. Above 
the arch, in the Servian wall, may be seen the specus of the Aqua 
Appia, or some say of the Anio Vetus. 

The tomb of Sulpicius Galba, owner of the Horrea Galbana, and 
grandfather of the Emperor, has been found near this. He was 
a praetor, and author of a work called by Suetonius 'Multiplex 
ac incuriosa historia.' 

Cutting a new road, the remains of the walls of Servius TuUius 
(see voL i. ) are seen on the left. Then we reach the Porta S. Paolo, 
built by Belisarius on the site of the ancient Porta Ostiensis. 

It was here, just within the Ostian Gate, that the Emperor 
Claudius, returning from Ostia to take vengeance upon Messalina, 
was met by their two children, Octavia and Britannicus, accom- 
panied by a vestal, who insisted upon the rights of her Order, and 
imperiously demanded that the Empress should not be condemned 

' Totila'entra par la porte Asinaria et une autre fois par la porte Ostiensis, 
aujourd'hui porte Saint-Paul ; par la meme porte, Genseric, que la mer apportait, 
et qui, en s'embarquant, avait dit a son pilote : " Ck)nduis-moi vers le rivage que 
menace la colere divine." '—Ampire, Emp. ii. 395. 

Close to this, till 1889 in a position of the most exquisite beauty, 
but now surrounded by tramways, for whose accommodation the 
grand Aurelian wall has been destroyed, is the famous Pyramid of 
Caius Cestins. It is built of brick coated with marble, and is 125 
feet high and 100 feet wide at its square basement. In the midst 
is a small sepulchral chamber, painted with arabesques. An in- 
scription on the exterior shows that the Caius Cestius Poplicins 
buried here was a praetor, a tribune of the people, and one of the 

1 From the stone on which Lazarus sat in front of the house of the rich man 
in the Passion-plays of the Middle Ages. 

268 Walks in Rome 

Septemviri of the Epulones 'appointed to provide the sacrificial 
feasts of the gods.' Another inscription tells that the tomb was 
built in 330 days, in accordance with the will of Cestius, by his heir 
Pontius Mela and his freedman Pothus. Cestius died about 30 B.C., 
leaving Agrippa as his executor, and desiring by his will that his 
body might be buried wrapped up in precious stuffs. Agrippa, 
however, applied to him the law which forbade luxurious burial, 
and spent the money partly upon the pyramid and partly upon 
erecting two colossal statues in honour of the deceased, of which 
the pedestals have been found near the tomb. In the Middle Ages 
this was supposed to be the sepulchre of Remus, and is so described 
by Petrarch, in spite of the great letters on its front. 

' Cette pyramide, sauf les dimensions, est absolument semblable aux pyramides 
d[Egypte. Si Ton pouvait encore douter que celles-ci etaient des tombeaux, 
rimitation des pyramides ^gyptiennes dans un tombeau remain serait nn argri- 
ment de plus pour prouver qu'elles avaient une destination funeraire. La 
chambre qu'on a trouv6e dans le monument de Cestius 6tait decor6e de peintures 
dont quelques-unes ne sont pas encore effacees. C'etait la coutume des peuples 
anciens, notamment des Egyptiens et des Etrusques, de peindre I'interieur des 
tombeaux, que Ton fermait ensuite soigneusement. Ces peintures, souvent trts 
considerables, n'etaient que pour le mort, et ne devaient jamais etre vues par 
I'oeil d'un vivant. II en 6tait certainement ainsi de celles qui d^coraient la 
chambre s6pulchrale de la pyramide de Cestius, car cette chambre n'avait aucune 
entree. L'ouverture par laquelle on y p^nfetre aujourd'hui est moderne. On 
avait d6pos6 le corps ou les cendres avant de terminer le monument, on acheva 
ensuite de le b4tir jusqu'au sommet.'— Ampere, J^vip. i. 347. 

' S. Paul was led to execution beyond the city walls, upon the road to Ostia. As 
he issued forth from the gate, his eyes must have rested for a moment on that 
sepulchral pyramid which stood beside the road, and still stands unshattered, 
amid the wreck of so many centuries, upon the same spot. That spot was then 
only the burial-place of a single Koman ; it is now the burial-place of many 
Britons. ITie mausoleum of Caius Cestius rises conspicuously amongst humbler 
graves, and marks the site where Papal Rome suffers her Protestant sojourners 
to bury their dead. In England and in Germany, in Scandinavia and in America, 
there are hearts which turn to that lofty cenotaph as the sacred point of their 
whole horizon ; even as the English villager turns to the grey church tower 
which overlooks the gravestones of his kindred. Among the works of man, that 
pyramid is the only surviving witness of the martyrdom of S. Paul ; and we may 
thus regard it with yet deeper interest, as a monument unconsciously erected by 
a Pagan to the memory of a martyr. Nor let us think those who lie beneath its 
shadow are indeed resting (as degenerate Italians fancy) in unconsecrated ground. 
Rather let us say, that a spot where the disciples of Paul's faith now sleep in 
Christ, so near the soil once watered by his blood, is doubly hallowed ; and that 
their resting-place is most fitly identified with the last earthly journey and the 
dying glance of their own patron saint, the apostle of the Gentiles.'— Coni/fceare 
and Uowson. 

At the foot of the Pyramid is the Old Protestant Cemetery, a 
most lovely and interesting spot. 

' The cemetery is an open space among the ruins, covered in winter with violets 
and daisies. It might make one in love with death to think that one should be 
buried in so sweet a -plAce.'— Shelley, Preface to ' Adonaiis.' 

Here is the grave of Keats, with the inscription: — ■ 

' This grave contains all that was mortal of a young English poet, who, on his 
death-bed, in the bitterness of his heart at the malicious power of his enemies, 
desired these words to be engraven on his tombstone: "Here lies one whose 
name was writ in water." February 24th, 1821.' 

Protestant Cemetery 269 

Go thou to Rome— at once the paradise. 

The grave, the city, and the wilderness ; 

And where its wrecks like shattered moantains rise. 

And flowerii^ weeds, and fragrant copses dress 

The bones of desolation's nakedness ; 

Pass, till the spirit of the spot shall lead 

Thy footsteps to a slope of green access. 

Where, like an infant's smile, over the dead 

A light of laughing flowers along the grass is spread, 

' And grey walls moulder round, on which dull Time 
Feeds, like riow fire upon a hoary brand ; 
And one keen pyramid, with wedge sublime, 
ParUioning the dust of him who planned 
This refuge for his memory, doth stand 
Like flame transformed to marble ; and beneath 
A field is spread, on which a newer band 
Have pitched in Heaven's smile their camp of death. 
Welcoming him we lose with scarce extinguished breath.* 

Sheiley't 'Adonais.' 

To a grave near that of Keats, the remains of his faithful friend, 
Joseph Severn, the artist, were removed in the spring of 1882. 

Very near, by the grave of two of Bansen's childiren, is that of 
Augustus William Hare, the elder of the two brothers who wrote the 
' Guesses at Truth,' ob. 1834. 

' When I am inclined to be serious, I love to wander up and down before the 
tomb of Caius Cestius. The Protestant burial-ground is there, and most of the 
little monuments are erected to the young — young men of promise, cut off when 
on their travels, full of enthusiasm, full of enjoyment ; brides in the bloom of 
their beauty, on their first journey ; or children borne from home in search of 
health. This stone was placed by his feUow-travellers, young as himself, who 
will return to the house of his parents without him : that, by a husband or a 
father, now in his native country. His heart is buried in that grave. 

' It is a quiet and sheltered nook, covered in winter with violets ; and the 
pyramid, that overshadows it, gives it a classic and singularly solemn air. You 
feel an interest there, a sympathy you were not prepar«i for. You are yourself 
in a foreign land ; and they are for the most part your countrymen. They caU 
upon you in your mother tongue — in English — in words unknown to a native, 
known only to yourself ; and the tomb of Cestius, that old majestic pile, has this 
also in common with them. It is itself a stranger among strangers. It has stood 
there tiU the language spoken round about it has changed ; uid the shepherd, 
bom at the foot, can read the inscription no longer.' — Rogers. 

And yet, in spite of this, of late years the authorities have diverted 
a new road, leading from nowhere to nowhere, that they might 
destroy the most beautiful cemetery in the world, and violate the 
graves and memorials of the English dead. The graveyard was 
partially destroyed and the magnificent old wall broken down, and 
then it rcas foufid that the road teas not icanted ! It had been vainly 
hoped that the municipality of Rome would be spared this final and 
crowning disgrace. 

' Sweet are the gardens of Rome ; but one is for Englishmen sacred ; 

AMio, that has ever been tbere, knows not the b^utifol spot 
MTiere our poets are laid in the shade of the pyramid lofty. 

Dark grey, tipped as with snow, close to the turreted walls ? 
TaU are the cypresses many, from which, in the evenings of summer, 

Nightingale nightingale calls, soon as the twilight descends. 

270 Walks in Rome 

Nature around is profuse ; the rose and the ivy are mingled ; 

Fit for the poet the place, either in life or in death. 
All is eternal around, norbelongeth to nation now living; 

Unto the world it belongs, unto the genius of man.' 

Eugene Lee-Hamilton. 

The New Burial-Ground, of very inferior interest and beauty, was 
opened in 1825. It extends for some distance along the slope of the 
hill under the old Aurelian wall, and is shaded by cypresses and 
carpeted with violets. Amid the forest of tombs we may notice that 
which contains the heart of Shelley (his body having been burnt 
upon the shore at Lerici, where it was thrown up by the sea). Leigh 
Hunt wrote the epitaph : — 

' Percy Bysshe Shelley, Cor Cordium. Natus iv. Aug. mdccxcii. Obiit viii. 


to which Shelley's faithful friend Trelawney added the lines from 
Ariel's song, which was much loved by the poet : — 

' Nothing of him that doth fade, 
But doth suffer a sea change 
Into something rich and strange.' 

A fresh tomb by Onslow Ford was erected 1891. Another notice- 
able tomb is that of Gibson the sculptor, who died 1868. 

From the fields in front of the cemetery (Prati del Popolo Romano), 
rises the Monte Testaccio, only IGO feet in height, but which used 
to be worth ascending for the sake of the splendid view it afforded. 
The extraordinary formation of this hill, which is entirely com- 
posed of broken pieces of pottery, has long been an unexplained 
bewilderment. Now, the usual impression is that it was formed 
by fragments of amphorae, landed near this, and broken either on 
their journey or in unloading, between 140 and 251 A.D. 

' Le Monte-Testaccio est pour moi, des nombreux problemes qu'offrent les anti- 
qTiites romaines, le plus difficile k resoudre. On ne pent s'arreter a discuter 
sdrieusement la tradition d'apres la(juelle il aurait 6te form6 avec les debris des 
vases contenant les tributs qu'apportaieut a, Rome les peuples sounds par elle. 
C'est Ik evidemment une legende du moyen age nee du souvenir de la grandeur 
romaine et imaginee pour exprimer la haute idee qu'on s'en faisait, conime on 
avait imagine ces statues de provinces placees an Oapitole, et dont chacune 
portait au cou une cloche qui sonnait tout .'i coup d'elle-meme ijuand ime 
province se soulevait, comme on a pretend u que le lit du 'fibre <5tait pav6 en 
airain par les tributs apportes aux empereurs remains. II f aut done chercher une 
autre explication.'— ^»Mpcre, Emp. ii. 386. 

The pilgrims of the year of jubilee in the reign of Alexander VI. 
(1500) were surprised by a duel fought on the Monte Testaccio, 
between a Burgundian and a Frenchman, the Princess of Squillace 
backing one of the combatants, and Cesare Borgia (son of the Pope) 
the other. The cross on the summit of the hill is one of the three 
used in the Passion-plays enacted in this quarter, and which culmi- 
nated here. 

At 6a Via Vanvitelli, near tliis, is the Museo de' Gessi — of plaster 
copies of well-known statues. 

Martyrdom of S. Paul 271 

Just outside the Porta S. Paolo is (on the right) a vineyard which 
belonged to S. Francesca Romana (born 138i, canonised 1608 by 
Paul v.). 

' Instead of entering'into the pleasures to which her birth and riches entitled 
her, S. Francesca went every day, disguised iu a coarse woollen garment, to her 
vineyard, and collected faggots, which she brought into the city on her head, and 
distributed to the poor. If the weight exceeded her womanly strength, she loaded 
therewith an ass, following after on foot in great humility.' — Mrs. Jameton'g 
' Monastic Orders.' 

A straight road a mile and a half long leads from the gate to the 
basilica. Half-way (on the left) is the humble Chapel which com- 
memorates the farewell of S. Peter and S. Paul on their way to 
martyrdom, inscribed ; — 

' In this Place SS. Peter and Paul separated on their way to martyrdom. 

'And Paul said to Peter, "Peace be with thee. Foundation of the Church, 
Shepherd of the flock of Christ." 

' And Peter said to Paul, " Go in peace. Preacher of good tidings, and Guide of 
the salvation of the just." ' i 

Passing the basilica, which looks outside like a very ugly railway 
station, let us visit the scene of the martyrdom before entering the 
grand church which arose in consequence. 

The road we now traverse is the scene of the l^end of Plaatilla. 

' S. Paul was l>eheaded by the sword outside the Ostian gate, about two miles 
from Rome, at a place called Ad Aquas Salvias, now the "Tre Fontane." ITie 
legend of his death relates that a certain Roman matron named PlautUla, one 
of the converts of S. Peter, placed herself on the road by which S. Paul passed 
to his martyrdom, to behold him for the last time ; and when she saw him she 
wept greatly and besought his blessing. The apostle then, seeing her faith, 
tuiTied to her, and l>egged that she would give him her veil to blind his eyes 
when he should be beheaded, promising to return it to her after his death. The 
attendants mocked at such a promise ; but Plautilla, with a woman's faith and 
charity, taking off her veU, presented it to him. After his martyrdom, S. Paul 
appeared to her, and restored the veil stained with his blood. 

'In the ancient representations of the martyrdom of S. Paul, the legend of 
Plautilla is seldom omitted. In the picture by Giotto in the Sacristy of S. Peter's, 
Hautilla is seen on an eminence in the background, receiving the veil from the 
hands of S. Paul, who appears in the clouds above ; the same representation, 
but little varied, is executed in bas-relief on the bronze doors of S. Peter's.' — 
Jameson's ' Sacred Art.'- 

The lane which leads to the Tre Fontane turns off to the left a 

little beyond S. Paolo. 

' In all the melancholy vicinity of Rome there is not a more melancholy spot 
thau the Tre Fontane. A splendid monastery, rich with aU the offerings of 
Christendom, once existed there : the ravages of that mysterious scourge of the 
Campagna, the malaria, have rendered it a desert ; three ancient churches and 
some ruins still exist, and a few pale monks wander about the swampy dismal 
confines of the hollow in which they stand. In winter you approach them 
thiou^ a quagmire ; in summer you dare not breathe in their pestilential 
vicinity; and yet there is a sort of dead beauty about the place, something 
hallowed as well as sad, which seizes on the fancy.' — Jameson's ' Sacred Art.' 

1 See the Epistle of S. Denis the Areopagite to Timothy. 

2 The handkerchief of Plautilla is mentioned in the Mirabilia as being an 
object of devotion in the twelfth century — 'Ad portam sancti Pauli est sudarium 

272 Walks in Rome 

Of late years, the aspect of the Tre Fontane has been greatly 
changed by the growth of the eucalyptus groves, which have done 
much to make the place more healthy and habitable, and in which 
the churches are now almost embosomed. Eucalyptine is sold by 
the monks. The convent was bestowed in 1867 by Pius IX. upon 
the French Trappists, and twelve brethren of the Order went to 
reside there. Entering the little enclosure now occupied by a 
lovely garden, the first church on the right is S. Maria Scala Coeli, 
supposed to occupy the site of the cemetery of S. Zeno, in which 
the 12,000 Christians employed in building the Baths of Diocletian 
were liuried. The present edifice was the work of Vignola and 
Giacomo della Porta in 1582. The name is derived from the legend 
that here S. Bernard had a vision of a ladder which led to heaven, 
its foot resting on this church, and of angels on the ladder leading 
upwards the souls whom his prayers had redeemed from purgatory. 
The mosaics in the apse were the work of F. Zxicchero, in the six- 
teenth century, and are perhaps the best of modern mosaics. They 
represent the saints Zeno, Bernard, Vincenzo, and Anastasio, adored 
by Pope Clement VIII. and Cardinal Aldobrandini, under whom the 
remodelling of the church took place. A vault is shown as the 
prison of S. Paul, 

The second church is the basilica of SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, 
founded by Honorius I. (625), and restored by Honorius III. (1221), 
when it was consecrated afresh. It is approached by an atrium 
with a penthouse roof, supported by low columns, and adorned 
with decaying frescoes, among which the figure of Honorius III. 
may be made out. The interior, which reeks wilh damp, is almost 
entirely of the twelfth century, and, as Gregorovius observes, ' there 
is no church in Rome where one breathes a greater air of antiquity 
than here.' The pillars are adorned with coarse frescoes of the 

' S. Vincenzo alle Tre Fontane so far deviates from the usual basilican arrange- 
ment as almost to deserve the appellation of gothic. It has the same defect as 
all the rest — its pier arches being too low, for which there is no excuse here ; but 
both internally and externally it shows a uniformity of design, and a desire to 
make every part ornamental, that produces a very pleasing effect, although the 
whole is merely of brick, and ornament is go sparingly applied as only just to 
prevent the building sinking to the class of mere utilitarian erections.'— i''er(7tt«- 
son's ' Handbook of Architecture,' vol. ii. 

The two saints whose relics are said to repose here were in no wise connected 
in their lifetime. S. Vincenzo, who suffered A.D. 304, was a native of Saragossa, 
cruelly tortured to death at Valencia, under Dacian, by being racked on a slow 
fire over a gridiron, 'of which the bars were framed like scythes.' Uis story 
is told with horrible detail by Prudentius. Anastasius, who died A.D. 628, was 
a native of Persia, who had become a Christian and taken the monastic habit at 
a convent near Jerusalem. He was tortured and finally strangled, under Chosroes, 
at Barsaloe, in Assyria. He is not known to be represented anywhere in art, save 
in the almost obliterated frescoes in the atrium of this church. 

The third church, S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane, was built by Giacomo 
della Porta for Cardinal Aldobrandini in 1590. It contains the 
pillar to which S. Paul is said to have been bound, the block of 
marble upon which he is supposed to have been beheaded, and the 

Tre Fontane 273 

three fountains which sprang forth wherever the severed head 
struck the earth during three bounds which it made after decapita- 
tion, crying thrice 'Jesus, Jesus, Jesus.' In proof of this story, it 
is asserted that the water of the first of these fountains is still 
warm, of the second tepid, of the third cold. Three modern altars 
above the fountains are each decorated with a head of the apostle 
in bas-relief. 

' A la premiere, I'ame vient i I'instant meme de s'echapper du corps. Ce chef 
glorieux est plein de vie I A la seconde, les ombres de la mort eou\Tent dejii ses 
admirables traits ; a la troisieme, le somraeil eteniel les a envahis. et, quoique 
demeures tout rayonnants de beaute, ils disent, sans parler, que dans ce monde 
ces le^Tes ne s'entr'ouvriront plus, et que ce regard d'aigle s'est voile pour tou- 
jours.' — Uiie Chretienne a BomeA 

The pavement is an ancient mosaic representing the Four Season.s, 
brought from the excavations at Ostia. The interior of this church 
has lately been beautified at the expense of a French nobleman, and 
the whole enclosure of the Tre Fontane has been improved by Mgr. 
de Merode, whose plantations of eucalyptus are doing so much to 
modify the malaria, which, till lately, made it impossible for any 
monks to survive the summer here. 

' As the martyr and his executioners passed on (from the Ostian gate), their 
way was crowded with a motley multitude of goers and comers Ijetween the 
metropolis and its harbour — merchants hastening to superintend the unloading 
of their cargoes — sailors eager to squander the profits of their last voyage in the 
dissipations of the capital — officials of the govemment charged with the adminis- 
tration of the provinces, or the command of the legions on the Euphrates or 
the Rhine — Chaldean astrologers — Phrygian eunuchs— ^iancing-girls from Syria, 
with their painted turbans— mendicant priests from Egypt, howling for Osiris — 
Greek adventurers, eager to coin their national cunning into Roman gold — 
representatives of the avarice and ambition, the fraud and lust, the superstition 
and intelligence, of the Imperial world. Through the dust and tumult of that 
busy throng, the small troop of soldiers threaded their way silently, under the 
bright sky of an Italian midsummer. They were marching, though they knew 
it not, in a procession more really triumphal than any they had ever followed, 
in the train of general or empei-or, along the .Sacred Way. Their prisoner, now 
at last and for ever delivered from captivity, rejoiced to follow his Lord "with- 
out the gate." The place of execution was not far distant, and there the sword 
of the headsman ended his long course of sufferings, and released that heroic 
soul from that feeble body. Weeping friends took up his corpse, and carried 
it for burial to those subterranean labyrinths, where, through many ages of 
oppression, the persecuted Church found refuge for the living, and sepulchres 
for the dead. 

' Thus died the apostle, the prophet, and the martyr, bequeathing to the 
Church, in her govemment and her discipline, the legacy of his apostolic labours ; 
leaving his prophetic words to be her living oracles ; poiuing forth his blood 
to be the seed of a thousand martyrdoms. Thenceforth, among the glorious 
company of the apostles, among the goodly fellowship of the prophets, among 
the noble army of martyrs, his name has stood pre-eminent. And whereso- 
ever the holy Church throughout all the world doth acknowledge God, there 

1 The accounts of the apostle's death vary greatly : ' S. Prudentius says that 
both S. Peter and S. Paul suffered together in the same field, near a swampy 
ground, on the banks of the Tiber. Some say S. Peter suffered on the same day 
of the month, but a year before .S. Paul. But Eusebius, S. Epiphanius. and most 
others, aflirm that they suffered tlie same year, and on June 29th.' — Atban 


274 Walks in Rome 

Paul of Tarsus is revered, as the great teacher of a universal redemption and 
a catholic religion — the herald of glad tidings to all mankind.' — Conybeare and 

Let us now return to the grand Basilica which arose to com- 
memorate the martyrdom on this desolate site, and which is now 
itself standing alone on the edge of the Campagna, entirely deserted 
except by a few monks, who linger in its monastery through the 
winter months, but take flight to S. Calisto before the pestilential 
malaria of the summer — though in the Middle Ages it was not so, 
when S. Paolo was surrounded by the flourishing suburb of Joanni- 
polis (fortified by John VIII. against the Saracens, whom he had 
defeated in the naval battle of Cape Circeo, 877), whose posses- 
sion was sharply contested in the wars between the popes and 

On the site of the vineyard of the Roman matron Lucina (or 
Cemetery of Commodilla), where she first gave a burial-place to the 
apostle, a ceUa memoriae existed at a very early age, one of those 
cells which were inviolate by Roman law, without regard to the 
religion of the deceased. In the time of Constantino a little basi- 
lica was built, looking towards the east. This primal oratory was 
enlarged (in an opposite direction — looking west) in 386 by the 
Emperors Valentinian II., Theodosius, and Arcadius.^ The church 
was restored by Leo III. (795-816), and every succeeding century 
increased its beauty and magnificence. The sovereigns of England, 
before the Reformation, were protectors of this basilica — as those 
of France are of S. John Lateran, and of Spain of S. Maria 
Maggiore — and the emblem of the Order of the Garter may still 
be seen amongst its decorations. 

'The very abandonment of this huge pile, standing in solitary grandeur on 
the banks of the Tiber, was one source of its value. AVhile it had been kept in 
perfect repair, little or nothing had been done to modernise it and alter its 
primitive form and ornaments, excepting the later addition of some mf)dern 
chapels above the transept ; it stood naked and almost rude, but unencumbered 
with the lumpish and tasteless plaster encasement of the old l)asilica in a modern 
Berninesque church which had disfigured the Lateran cathedral under pre- 
tence of supporting it. It remained genuine, thougli bare, as S. Apollinare in 
Classe, at Ravenna, the city eminently of unspoiled basilicas. No chapels, altars, 
or mural monuments softened the severity of its outlines ; only the series of 
Papal portraits running round the upper line of the walls redeemed this stern- 
ness. But the unbroken files of columns, along each side, carried the eye 
forward to the great central object, the altar and its " Confession ;" while the 
secondary row of pillars, running behind the principal ones, gave deptli and 
shadow, mass and solidity, to back up the noble avenue along which one glanced.' 
—Cardinal Wiseman. 

On the 15th July 1823, this magnificent basilica was almost 
totally destroyed by fire on the night which preceded the death 
of Pope Pins VII. 

1 A curious relic found near this, in the last century, was the plaque attached 
to a dog's collar, inscribed: 'I belong to the basilica of S. Paul the Apostle, 
rebuilt by our three sovereigns, and am in charge of Felicissimus the shep- 

S. Paolo fuori le Mura 275 

' Quelque chose de mysWrieux s'est li^ dans I'esprit des Remains a I'incendie 
de Saint-Paul, et les gens h, Timagination de ce peuple parlent avec ce sombre 
plaisir qui tient a la melaucolie, ce sentiment si rare en Italie, et si frequent 
en Allemagne. Dans la grande nef , sur le mm- au-dessus des colonnes, se trou- 
vait la longue suite des portraits de tons les papes, et le peuple de Rome voyait 
avec inquietude qu'il n'y avait plus de place pour le portrait du successeur de 
Pie VII. De lii les bruits de la suppression du saint-siege. Le venerable pontife, 
qui etait presque un martyre aux yeux de ses sujets, touchait h. ses demiers 
moments loi-squ'arriva I'incendie de Saint-Paul. II eut lieu dans la nuit du 15 
au 16 juillet lS-23 ; cette meme nuit, le pape, presque mourant, fut agite par un 
songe, qui lui presentait sans cesse un gi-and malheur arrive a I'eglise de Rome. 
II s'6veilla en sursaut plusieurs fois, et demanda s'il n'etait rien arrive de nou- 
veau. Le lendemaiii, pour ne pas aggraver son etat, on lui cacha I'incendie, et 
il est mort apres sans I'avoir jamais su.' — Stetidhal, ii. 94. 

' Not a word was said to the dying Pius VIT. of the destruction of S Paul's. 
For at S. Paul's he had lived as a quiet monk, engaged in study and in teaching, 
and he loved the place with the force of an early attachment. It would have 
added a mental pang to his bodily sufferings to learn the total destruction of that 
venerable sanctuary, in which he had drawn down by prayer the blessings of 
Heaven on his youthful labour.' — Wheman, 'Life ofPiujs VII.' 

The restoration of the basilica was immediately begun, and a 
large contribution levied for the purpose from all Roman Catholic 
countries. In 1854 it was reopened in its present form by Pius IX. 
Its exterior is below contempt. Its tower is a copy from the Roman 
tomb at S. Remy. The western atrium was added 1890-93. Its 
interior, supported by eighty granite columns, is most striking and 
magnificent ; but it is cold and uninteresting when compared with 
the ancient structure, 'rich with inestimable remains of ancient 
art, and venerable from a thousand associations.' ^ Architecturally 
it has the radical mistake of an immense disproportionate width 
in the central nave (80 feet by 290) which dwarfs the pillars on 
either side. 

If we approach the basilica by the door on the side of the monas- 
tery, we enter first a portico, containing a fine statue of Gregory XVI., 
and many fragments of the ancient mosaics, collected after the fire. 
One of the pillars, formerly in the north aisle, bears the name of 
Pope Siricius — ' tota mente devotus ' — who was governing the 
church when the early basilica was restored in 386. We may 
then visit a series of small chapels which were not burnt, from 
the last of which ladies might look into the beautiful cloister 
(designed by one of the Cosmati in 1285), which they were not 
permitted to enter under the Papal rule, but which contains various 
architectural remains, including a mutilated statue of Boniface IX. 
from the old basilica, and a fine sarcophagus, adorned with reliefs 
of the story of Apollo and Marsyas. 

The church is entered by the south end of the transept. Hence 
we look down upon the nave (306 feet long and 222 wide) with 
its four ranges of granite columns (quarried near the Lago Mag- 
giore), surmounted by a mosaic series of portraits of the Popes, an 
uninterrupted hierarchy, each five feet in diameter — the earlier 
following the traditional likenesses produced in the fifth century, 

1 Mrs. Jameson. 

276 Walks in Rome 

and either copied before tlie fire or saved from the flames.^ The 
grand triumphal arch which separates the transept from the nave is 
a relic of the old basilica, and was built by Galla Placidia, sister of 
Honorius, in 440. On the side towards the nave it is adorned by a 
mosaic of Christ adored by the twenty-four elders and the four 
beasts of the Revelation ;— on that towards the transept by the 
figure of the Saviour between S. Peter and S. Paul. 
It bears two inscriptions : the first, 

' Theodosius coepit, perfecit Honorius aulam 
Doctoris mundi sacratam corpore Pauli.' 

The other, especially interesting as the only inscription commemo- 
rating the great Pope who defended Rome against Attila : 

' Placidia; pia mens operis decus homne [sic] paterni 
Gaudet pontiflcis studio splendere Leonis.' 

The mosaics of the tribune, also preserved from the fire, were 
designed by Cavallini, a pupil of Giotto, in the thirteenth century, 
and were erected bj'^ Honorius III. They represent the Saviour with 
S. Peter and S. Andrew on the right, and S. Paul and S. Luke on the 
left — and beneath these the twelve apostles and two angels. The 
Holy Innocents (supposed to be buried in this church !) are repre- 
sented lying at the feet of our Saviour. 

' In the mosaics of the old basilica of S. Paolo the Holy Innocents were repre- 
sented by a group of small figures holding palms, and placed immediately beneath 
the altar or throne, sustaining the gospel, the cross, and the instruments of the 
passion of our Lord. Over these figures was the inscription, H. I. S. INNOCENTS.' 
— Jameson's ' Sacred Art.' 

Beneath the triumphal arch stands the ugly modern baldacchino, 
which encloses the ancient altar canopy, erected, as its inscription 
tells us, by Arnolphus and his pupil Petrus in 1285. In front is the 
'Confession,' where the Apostle of the Gentiles is believed to repose, 
beneath which still remains a marble slab engraved 'Paolo Apostolo 
Mart.' The baldacchino is inscribed : 

' Tu es vas electionis, 
Sancte Paule Apost<)Ie, 
Praedicator veritatis 
In universo mundo.' 

It is supported by four pillars of Oriental alabaster, presented by 
Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt. The altars of malachite, at the ends 
of the transepts, were given by the Emperor Nicholas of Russia. 

' Les schismatiques et les musulmans eux-mOmes sont venus rendre honunage 
a ce souverain de la parole, qui entrainait les pcuples an martyre et subjuguait 
toutes les nations .'^i7"»ie Chretienne a Rome. 

In a building so entirely modern, there are naturally few indi- 
vidual objects of interest. Among those saved from the old basilica, 

1 Those of the Popes of the first four centuries were saved, and are preserved iu 
a corridor of the monastery. 

S. Paolo fuori le Mura 277 

is the magnificent paschal candlestick, by Niccolo di Angelo, covered 
with sculpture in high relief, and one of the most curious pieces of 
mediaeval sculpture in Rome. The altar at the south end of the 
transept has an altar-piece representing the Assumption by Agricola, 
and statues of S. Benedict by Baini, and S. Scholastica by Tenerani. 
Of the two chapels between this and the tribune, the second, the 
Cappella del Coro, was saved from the fire, and is by Carlo 

The altar at the north end of the transept is dedicated to S. Paul, 
and has a picture of his conversion by Camuccini. At the sides are 
statues of S. Gregory by Lahaureur, and of S. Romualdo by Stocchi. 
Of the chapels between this and the tribune, the first, dedicated to 
S. Stephen, has a statue of the saint, by Rinaldi; the second is dedi- 
cated to S. Bridget (Brigitta Brahe), and contains the famous crucifix 
(attributed to Pietro Cavallini, but really of later date and another 
school), which is said to have spoken to her in 1370. 

' Xot far from the chancel is a beautiful chapel dedicated to S. Bridget, and orna- 
mented with her statue in marble. During her residence in Rome she frequently 
came to pray in this church ; and here is preserved, as a holy relic, the cross from 
which, during her ecstatic devotion, she seemed to hear a voice proceeding.' — 
Frederika Bremer. 

The npper walls of the nave are decorated with frescoes by 
Galiardi, Podesti, and other modern artists. In 1890-93 a portico 
has been built towards the river. The ancient quadri-portico was 
adorned by Leo I. with a fountain surmounted by a Bacchic Kan- 
tharos inscribed with an epigram urging the faithful to purify 
themselves both inwardly and outwardly before venturing to enter 
the holy place. The fountain was seen by Cola di Rienzi in the 
fourteenth century ; in the fifteenth it had disappeared. In the 
seventeenth century all the sacred edifices by which the basilica 
was surrounded had perished, including the portico — two thousand 
yards long, supported by a thousand marble columns, and roofed 
with lead— which connected the basilica with the Ostian gate, and 
was intercepted half-way by the church of the Egyptian martyr 
S. Menna. 

Among the most interesting of the objects saved from the fire 
and preserved in the sacristy, are the bronze gates ordered by 
Hildebrand (afterwards Gregory VII.), when Legate at Constan- 
tinople, for Pantaleone Castelli, in 1070, and adorned with fifty- 
four scriptural compositions, wrought in silver thread, inlaid upon 

The two great festivals of S. Paul are solemnly observed in this 
basilica upon January 2oth and June 30th, and that of the Holy 
Innocents upon December 28th. 

Very near S. Paolo, the main branch of the little river Almo, the 
' cursuque brevissimus Almo ' of Ovid, falls into the Tiber. This is 
the spot where the priests of Cybele used to wash her statue and 
the sacred vessels of her temple, and to raise their loud annual 
lamentation for the death of her lover, the shepherd Atys : 

278 Walks in Rome 

' Est locus, in Tiberim quo lubricus influit Almo, 
Et nomen magno perdit ab amne minor, 
Illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos 
Almonis dominam sacraque lavit aquis.' 

Ovid, Fast. iv. 33. 

' Phrygiaeque matris Almo qua levat ferrum. 

Martial, Exi. iii. 47, 2. 

' Un vieux pretre de Cybfele, vetu de pourpre, y lavait chatiue annee la pierre 
sacree de Pessinunte, tandis que d'autres pretres poussaient des hurlements, 
frappaient sur le tambour de basque qu'on place aux mains de Cybele, souftlaient 
avec fureur dans les Hiites phrygiennes, et que Ton se donnait la discipline — ni 
plus ni moins qu'on le fait encore dans I'eglise des Caravite—a,yoc des fouets 
garnis de petits cailloux ou A.'os&e.\et&.'— Ampere, Ilist. Rom. iii. 145. 

The Campagna on this side of Rome is perhaps more stricken by 
malaria than any other part, and is in consequence more utterly 
deserted. That this terrible scourge has followed upon the de- 
struction of the villas and gardens which once filled the suburbs of 
Rome, and that it did not always exist here, is evident from the 
account of Pliny, who says : 

' Such is the happy and beautiful amenity of the Campagna, that it seems to be 
the work of a rejoicing nature. For truly so it appears in the vital and perennial 
salubrity of its atmosphere (vitalis ac perennis salubritatis coeli temperies), in its 
fertile plains, sunny hills, healthy woods, thick groves, rich varieties of trees, 
breezy mountains, fertility in fruits, vines, and olives, its noble flocks of sheep, 
abimdant herds of cattle, numerous lakes, and wealth of rivers and streams 
pouring in upon it, many seaports, in whose lap the commerce of the world lies, 
and which run largely into the sea as it were to help mortals.' 

Under the emperors, the town of Ostia^ (founded by Ancus 
Martins, and containing 80,000 inhabitants) reached such a degree 
of prosperity that its suburbs are described as joining those of 
Rome, so that one magnificent street almost united the two. This 
is now, beyond S. Paolo, a road through a desert, only one human 
habitation breaking the utter solitude. 

1 See Days near Rome. 



Villa Borghese— Raffaelle's Villa— Casino and Villa of Papa Giiilio— (Claude's 
Villa— Arco Oscuro— Acqua Ace tosa)— Chapel of S. Andrew— Ponte-Molle 
(Castle of Crescenza-Prima Porta— The Cremera- The AUia)— (The Via 
Cassia) Villa Madama— Monte Mario— Villa Mellini— Porta Angelica. 

IMMEDIATELY outside the Porta del Popolo^— the Porta Fla- 
minia, where the two fine towers of Sixtus IV. have been 
recently destroyed,- together with curious remains of a pyramidal 
monument which were then discovered — on the left was the old 
English church, a vast cruciform ' upper chamber,' admirably suited 
for its purpose, pulled down 1888. 

'As to the position selected for this building, it is to be observed that, 
although originally restricted by the regulations of the Roman Catholic hier- 
archy to a locality outside the walls, the greatest possible attention was paid 
to the convenience of the English, the great majority of whose dwelling-houses 
were in this immediate quarter. The English church in Rome, therefore, though 
nominally outside the walls, was really, as regards centrality, in the very heart 
of the city. The greatest possible facilities were afforded by the authorities to 
our countrymen in all matters relating to the establishment ; and though the 
general t)ehaviour of the Roman inhabitants is such as to render the precaution 
almost unnecessaiy, the protection of the police and military was invariably 
afforded diu-ing the hours of divine service. . . . WTiatever Ije the disagreements 
on points of religious faith between Protestant and Catholic, there was (under 
the Popes) at least one point of feeling in common between both in this respect ; 
for the streets were tranquil, the shops were shut, the demeanour of the people 
was decent and orderly, and, notwithstanding the distance from England, 
Sunday felt more like a Sunday at home than in any other town in Europe.'— 
See Sir G. Head's ' Tonr in Rome.' 

The Papal government of Rome had more tolerance for a religion 
which was not its own than that of the early Emperor.^. Augustus 
refused to allow the performance of Egyptian rites within a mile of 
the city walls. 

On tiie right of the Gate is the handsome entrance of the beauti- 
ful Villa Borghese, thrown open to the public on Tuesdays, Thurs- 
days, Saturdays, and Sundays, from one to sunset. The ' Villa 

1 Known first as Porta Flaminia, then till the fifteenth century as Porta S. Valen- 
tino, from the neighbouring basilica and catacombs. 

2 In this destruction were discovered bas-reliefs of the five horses, ' Palmatus, 
Danaus, Ocean, Victor, and A'inde.x,' which had been removed by the Pope from 
the tomb of the champion Publius Aelius Gutta Calpumianus. 


280 Walks in Rome 

Burghesiae Pincianae ' was founded in the beginning of the six- 
teenth century by Cardinal Scipio Caffarelli Borghese, with the 
co-operation of his uncle, Paul V., for the benefit of the people of 
Eome.^ Almost regal in their habits, their charities, and in public 
estimation under the Papal rule, the Borghese family, after 380 
years of sumptuous splendour, have been totally ruined since the 
change of government. 

'The entrance to the Villa Borghese is just outside the Porta del Popolo- 
Passing beneath that not very impressive specimen of Michelangelo's architec- 
ture, a minute's walk will transport the visitor from the small uneasy lava stones 
of the Roman pavement into broad, gravelled carriage drives, whence a little 
farther stroll brings him to the soft turf of a beautiful seclusion. A seclusion, 
but seldom a solitude ; for priest, noble, and populace, stranger and native, all 
who breathe the Roman air, find free admission, and come hither to taste the 
languid enjoyment of the day-dream which they call life. 

'The scenery is such as arrays itself to the imagination when we read the 
beautiful old myths, and fancy a brighter sky, a softer turf, a more pic- 
turesque arrangement of venerable trees, than we find in the rude and un- 
trained landscapes of the western world. The ilex trees, so ancient and time 
honoured are they, seemed to have lived for ages undisturbed, and to feel no 
dread of profanation by the axe 'any more than overthrow by the thunder- 
stroke. It has already passed out of their dreamy old memories that only a 
few years ago they were grievously imperilled by the Gaul's last assault upon 
the walls of Rome. As if confident in the long peace of their lifetime, they 
assume attitudes of evident repose. They lean over the green tiu'f in ponderous 
grace, throwing abroad their great branches without danger of interfering with 
other trees, though other majestic trees grow near enough for dignified society, 
but too distant for constraint. Never was there a more venerable quietude 
tlian that which sleeps among their sheltering boughs ; never a sweeter sun- 
shine than that which gladdens the gentle gloom which these leafy patriarchs 
strive to diffuse over the swelling and subsiding lawns. 

' In other portions of the grounds the stone pines lift their dense clumps of 
branches upon a slender length of stem, so high that they look like green 
islands in the air, flinging down a shadow upon the turf so far off that you 
scarcely know which tree lias made it. 

' Again, there are avenues of cypress, resemljling dark flames of huge funeral 
candles, which spread dusk and twilight round about them instead of cheerful 
radiance. The more open spots are all a-bloom, early in the season, with 
anemones of wondrous size, both white and rose-coloured, and violets that 
betray themselves by their rich fragrance, even if their blue eyes fail to meet 
your own. Daisies, too, are abundant, but larger than the modest little English 
flower, and therefore of small account. 

' These wooded and flowery lawns are more beautiful than the finest English 
park scenery, more touching, more impressive, through the neglect that leaves 
Nature so much to her own ways and methods. Since man seldom interferes 
with her, she sets to work in her quiet way and makes herself at home. There 
is enough of human care, it is true, bestowed long ago, and still bestowed, to 
prevent wildness from growing into deformity ; and the result is an ideal land- 
scape, a woodland scene that seems to have been projected out of the poet's 
mind. If the ancient Faun were other than a mere creation of old poetry, and 
could reappear anywhere, it nuist be in such a scene as this. 

'In the openings of the wood there arc fountains plashing into marVjle basons, 
the depths of which are shaggy with water- weeds ; or they tumble like natural 
cascades from rock to rock, sending their murmur afar, to make the quiet and 
silence more appreciable. Scattered here and there with careless artifice, stand 
old altars bearing Roman inscriptions. Statues, gi-ey with the long corrosion 
of even that soft atmosphere, half hide and half reveal themselves, high on 
pedestals, or perhaps fallen and liroken on the turf. Terminal figures, columns 

1 See the contemporary biography of the Cardinal, written under his patronage, 
in the Casanatense Library at the Minerva. 

Villa Borghese 281 

of marble or granite porticoes and arches, are seen in the vistas of the wood- 
paths, either veritable relics of antiquity, or with so exquisite a touch of artful 
ruin on them that they are better than if really antique. At all events, grass 
grows on the tops of the shattered pillars, and weeds and flowers root them- 
selves in the chinks of the massive arches and fronts of temples, as if this were 
the thousandth summer since their winged seeds alighted there. 

'What a strange idea— what a needless labour— to construct artificial ruins in 
Rome, the native soil of ruin I But even these sportive imitations, wrought by 
man in emulation of what time has done to temples and palaces, are perhaps 
centuries old, and, beginning as illusions.'have grown to be venerable in sober 
earnest The result of all is a scene such as is to be found nowhere save in 
these princely villa-residences in the neighbourhood of Kome : a scene that 
must have required generations and ages, during which growth, decay, and 
man's intelligence wrought kindly together, to render it so gently wild as we 
behold it now. 

' The final charm is bestowed by the malaria. There is a piercing, thrilling, 
delicious kind of regret in the idea of so much beauty lieing thrown away, or 
only enjoyable at its half-development, in winter and early spring, and never 
to be dwelt amongst, as the home scenery of any human being. For if you come 
hither in summer, and stray through these glades in the golden sunset, fever 
walks arm-in-arm with you, and death awaits you in the end of the dim vista. 
Thus the scene is like Eden in its loveliness : like Eden, too, in the fatal spell 
that removes it beyond the scope of man's actual jjossessions.' — Transformation- 

' Oswald et Corinne terminerent leur voyage de Rome par la Villa-Borghese, 
celui de tous les jardins et de tous les palais romains oii les splendeurs de la 
nature et des arts sont rassemblees avec le plus de gout et d' eclat. On y voit 
des arbres de toutes les especes et des eaus magnifiques. Une reunion incroy. 
able de statues, de vases, de sai'cophages antiques, se nielent avec la fraicheur 
de la jeune nature du sud. La mythologie des anciens y senible ranimee. Les 
naiades sont placees sur le bord des ondes, les n>-mphes dans les bois dignes 
d'elles, les tombeaux sous les ombrages elyseens ; la statue d'Esculape est au 
milieu dune ile ; celle de Venus semble sortir des ondes ; Ovide et Virgile 
pourraient se promener dans ce beau lieu, et se eroire encore au siecle d'Auguste. 
Les chefs-d'oeu\Te de sculpture que renferme le palais, lui donnent une magni- 
ficence a jamais nouvelie. On apergoit de loin, a travers les arbres, la ville de 
Rome et Saint-Pierre, et la campagne, et les longues arcades, debris des aque- 
ducs qui transportaient les sources des montagnes dans I'ancienne Rome. Tout 
est la pour la pens^e, pour I'imagination, jwur la reverie. 

'Les sensations les plus pures se confondent avec les plaisirs de I'ame, et don- 
nent I'idee d'un bonheur parfait ; mais quand on demande, pourquoi ce sejour 
ravissant n'est-il pas habite? Ton vous repondque le mauvais air (to cattit«t aria) 
ne permet pas d'y vivre pendant I'ete.' — Madame de Stael. 

The Casino, at the farther end of the villa, bnilt by Cardinal 
Scipio Borghese, the favourite nephevr of Panl V., is visible on 
Taesdavs, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 1 to 4— entrance 1 fr. 
The collection in this villa contains no exceedingly important 
statues. In the vestibule are some reliefs from the Arch of 
Claudius in the Corso, destroyed in 1527. The decorations of 
many of the rooms are by the Scotchmen Gavin Hamilton and 
David Moore, and the Prussian J. P. Hackaert, a pupil of Le 
Soeur.i We first enter a great hall, with a ceiling painted by Mario 
Rossi, and a floor paved with an ancient mosaic discovered at the 
Torre Nuova (one of the principal Borghese farms) in 1835. 

' Cette mosaique fort curieuse nous offre et les combats des gladiateurs entre 
eux, et leurs luttes avec les animaux feroces. Cette mosaique est dun dessin 
aussi barbare que les scenes representees ; tout est en harmonie, le sujet et le 

1 See the Journal of Miss Berry, who saw the rooms being decorated in 

282 Walks in Rome 

tableau. Le sentiment de repulsion qu'inspire la cruaute roniaine n'en est 
que plus complet ; celle-ci n'est point adoucie par I'art at parait dans toute sa 

'On voit les gladiateurs se poursuivre, s'attaquer, se massacrer, couverts 
d'armures qui ressemblent ii celles des chevaliers : vous diriez une odieuse 
parodie du moyen age. Dans le corps de I'un des combattants un glaive est 
enfonc^. Des cadavres sont gisants parmi les flaques de sang ; ii cut6 d'eux est 
le © fatal, initiale du mot grec ©ai/aro? — a laquelle leur juge impitoyable, le 
peuple, les a condamn^s ; du grec partout. Le niaitre excite ses eleves en leur 
montrant le fouet et la palme ; les vainqueurs elevent leurs (Spees, et sans doute 
la foule applaudit. lis ont un air de triomphe. Oe sont des acteurs renonim^s. 
Aupres de chacun son nom est ecrit ; ces noms barbares ou etranges : I'un 
s'appelle Buccibus, un autre Cupidor, un autre Licentiosus, avis effronte aux 
dames romaines.' — Ampere, iv. 31. 

Leaving the great hall on the right, we may notice : 

1st Room. 

{In the Centre.) 

Statue of Princess Pauline Borghese, sister of Napoleon I., as Venus 
Victrix, by Canova. 

' Canova esteemed his statue of the Princess Borghese as one of his best works. 
No one else could have an opportunity of judging of it, for the prince, who 
certainly was not jealous of his wife's person, was so jealous of her statue, that 
he kept it locked up in a room in the Borghese Palace, of which he held the 
key, and not a human being, not even Canova himself, could get access to it.' — 
Eaton's 'Home.' 

Canova took Chantrey to see this statue by night, wishing, as was his wont, to 
show it l)y the light of a single taper. Chantrey, wishing to do honour to the 
artist, insisted upon holding the taper for the best light himself, which gave rise 
to jMoore's lines : 

' When he, thy peer in art and fame, 
Hung o'er the marble with delight ; 
And while his ling'ring hand would steal 

O'er every grace the taper's rays, 
Gave thee, with all the generous zeal 
* Such master-spirits only feel, 

The best of fame— a rival's praise 1 ' 

Iviii. Venus Genetrix. 

Ixiv. The Rape of Cassandra — a relief. 

2nd Room. 
{In the Centre.) 

David with the Sling, executed by Bernini in his eighteenth yeai'. 

3rd Room. 
(In the Centre.) 

Daphne changed into a Laurel as she fled from the love of Apollo. 

' And now despairing, cast a mournful look 
Upon the streams of her paternal brook : — 
Oh ! help (she cry'd), in this extrcmest need, 
If water-gods ai-e deities indeed : 
Gape, earth, and this unhappy wretch entomb ; 
Or change my form, whence all my sorrows come. 
Scarce had she finished, when her feet she found 
Benumb'd with cold, and fasten'd to the ground : 

Villa Borghese 283 

A filmy rind about her body grows ; 

Her hair to leaves, her arms extend to boughs : 

The nymph is all into a laurel gone : 

The smoothness of her skin remains alone.' 

Ovid, Metam, i. {Dryden}. 
ith Room. 

A handsome gallery with paintings by Marehetti and De Angelii, adorned 

with porphyry busts of the twelve Caesars, 
cxxxv. Ivy-crowned bust of Ariadne — the bast celebrated in Onida's 

clsv. Sepulchral urn of porphyry found in the Mausoleum of Hadrian. 

5th Room. 

clxxiL The Hermaphrodite ; found near S. Maria Vittoria. 
clxxvL ' Fedele,' a copy of the bronze Boy at the Capitol. 

6<A Room. 
(In the Centre.) 

Aeneas carrying off Anchises, executed when Bernini was only fifteen 
years old. 

7th Room. 
(In the Centre.) 

Boy on a Dolphin. 
' D'autres statues peuvent deriver de la grande composition maritime de Scopas. 
Tel est le Palemon, assis sur un dauphin, de la villa Boi^hese, d'aprus lequel a ete 
evideniment cohqu le Jonas de I'eglise de Sainte->Lirie du Peuple, qu'on attribue 
a KaphaeL' — Ampere, Hist, Bom. iii. 284. 

8tli Room. 
(In the Centre.) 

Dancing Sat)T, found on the Tia Salara. 
From the right of the 4th Hall a staircase ascends to the Picture 
Gadlery, removed from the Palazzo Borghese after the ruin of the 
family in 1892. It is the best private collection in Rome, probably 
in the world. Turning to right from the entrance, we should espe- 
cially notice — 

1st HalL 
Left Wall— 

34. School of Francia : Madonna and Child. 

35, 40, 44, 49. Fr. Albani : The Four Seasons. 

'The Seasons, by Francesco Albani, were, beyond all others, my favourite 
pieces ; the beautiful, joyous angel-children— the Loves, were as if creations of 
my own dreams. How delieiously they were staggering alxjut in the picture of 
Spring ! A crowd of them were sharpening arrows, whilst one of them turned 
round the great grindstone, and two others, floating above, poured water upon 
it- In Summer they flew about among the tree-branches, which were loaded 
with fruit, whit-h they plucked ; they swam in the fresh water, and played with 
it. Autumn brought the pleasures of the chase. Cupid sits, -with a torch in his 
hand, in his little chariot, which two of his companions draw ; while Love 
beckons to the brisk hunter, and shows him the place where they can rest them- 
selves side by side. Winter has lulled all the little ones to sleep ; soimdly and 
fast they lie sluml)ering around. The Njnnphs steal their quivers and arrows, 
which they throw on the fire, that there may be an end of the dangerous weapons.' 
— Andersen, 'The Improrisatore.' 

4-2. Guereino : The Return of the Prodigal Son. 
51. Gxiido Cagnaeei : A Sibyl. 

284 Walks in Rome 

Wall of Exit— 

*53. Domenichino : La Caccia di Diana, one of the most famous works of 

the master from profane history, and full of attractive details. 
BomenicMno : i S. Cecilia, usually called the Cumaean Sibyl ! 

Window Wall — 

*57. School of Francia : S. Antonio. 
60. Jacopo Boateri : Holy Family. 
*61. Fratieia : Madonna and Child. 
*65. Francia : S. Stephen— splendid in colour. 

' Few paintings are so full of the essence of the purest art as this S. Stephen. — 

2nd Hall. 

97. Moronic): Portrait. 

94. Bronzino : Cosimo de' Medici. 

92. Baldassare Peruzzi : A Naked Woman. 

Zrd Hcdl.— Dutch School. 

Indifferent specimens. 
ith Hall. 

303. The Nuptials of Alexander and Roxana. 

294. The Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona. 

300. ' II Bersaglio dei Dei.' 

These three frescoes are from the Casino of RafFaelle in the Villa 
Borghese (destroyed in the siege of Rome in 1849), and are supposed 
to have been painted by his pupil, Perino del Vaga, from his 

5th Hall. — School of Ferrara. 

240. Garofalo : Madonna and Child with S. Joseph and S. Michael. 
' Of the late period of the master : his liquid brown shadows now incline to 
black. ' — MorelH. 

*217. Dosso Dosd: The EnchantressCirce— a magniflcent specimen of the 

6th Hall. — The Venetian School. 
Entra'nce Wall— 

*133. Sebastiano del Piomho : Tlie Flagellation. 

137. Battista Zelotti (attributed to Paolo Veronese): S. John Baptist 
preaching. (Unfinished.) 

Left Wall— 

101. School of Paolo Veronese : S. Antonio preaching to the Fishes. 
101. Caravaggio : Holy Family. 

115. Bart. Licino da Pordenone: Portraits of the family of Licini da 

1 Domeuichino may be studied at Rome better than anywhere else. His 
principal frescoes include— the four Evangelists of the Tribune and the cupola 
of S. Andrea della Valle, the four allegorical figures at S. Carlo a' Catinari, the 
Martyrdom of S. Andrew at S. Gregorio, the Niartyrdom of S. Sebastian at S. 
Maria degli Angeli, the ceiling of the principal chapel of S. Silvestro a Monte 
Cavallo, the Assumption on the ceiling of S. Maria in Trastevere, the episodes 
in the life of S. Jerome in the portico of S. Onofrio, the frescoes of the chapel of 
S. Cecilia in S. Luigi dei Francesi. His principal pictures include— the Conimn- 
nion of S. Jerome at the Vatican, the Ecstasy of S. Francis at the Cappuccini, the 
Deliverance of S. Peter at S. Pietro in Vincoli, the Bath of Diana and the so- 
called Sibyl at the Villa Borghese, another Sibyl at the Capitol, Saul and David 
at the Palazzo Rospigliosi, and the Terrestrial Paradise at the Palazzo Barberini. 

Galleria Borghese 285 


*12o. Correggio : Danae. In the corner of this picture are the celebrated 
Cupids sharpening an arrow. This magnificent work, painted for the 
Duke of Mantua, and wliich Giulio Eoniano dechired to have no etiual, 
has suffered from many wanderings, — to Spain, to the house of Leoni 
Aretino at Milan, to the Emperor Rudolph at Prague, to Stockholm, 
Paris, London, and to Paris again, where it was purchased by Prince 

7th Ball. 
Entrance WaU — 

*1"6. Giov. Bellini : Madonna and Child. 
181. Dogso Dossi : Portrait. 
185. Lorenzo Lotto : Portrait. 
188. Titian: S. Dominic. 

*186. Bonifazio (the Younger) : The Return of the Prodigal Son. 
193. Lorenzo Lotto, MDVIII. : Madonna with S. Onofrio and S. Augustine 

'An exquisite early work of the master.' — Morelli. 
Left WaU— ^^ 

*147. Titian : Sacred and Profane Love, with Cupid vainly fishing for 
Truth in a well. 

' An exquisite allegorical romance, with the most poetic landscape imagin- 
able.' — ilorelli. 

' Out of Venice there is nothing of Titian's to compare to his Sacred and Pro- 
fane Love. It represents two figures : one, a heavenly and youthful form, un- 
clothed, except with a light drapery ; the other, a lovely female, dressed In the 
most splendid attire ; both are sitting on the brink of a well, into which a little 
winged Love is groping, apparently to find his lost dart. . . . Description can 
give no idea of the consummate beauty of this composition. It has all Titian's 
matchless warmth of colouring, with a correctness of design no other painter of 
the Venetian school ever attained. It is nature, l)ut not individual nature : it 
is ideal l^eauty in all its perfection, and breathing life in all its truth, that we 
behold.' — Eaton's 'Rome.' 

' Two female forms are seated on the edge of a sarcophagus-shaped fountain ; 
the one in a rich Venetian costume, with gloves, flowers in her hands, and a 
plucked rose beside her, is in deep meditation, as if solving some diflicidt ques- 
tion. The other is unclothed ; a red drapery is falling behind her, while she 
exhibits a fonu of the utmost beauty and delicacy ; she is turning towards the 
other figure with the sweetest persuasiveness of expression. A Cupid is playing 
in the fountain ; in the distance is a rich, glowing landscape.'— fi^Hj/^er. 

' La Fable et la Verite ferait un meilleur Wtee, mais le titre exact devrait etre 
la Nature et la Civilisation.' — E. ilontiij^it. 

149. Paris Bordone : The Woman taken in Adultery. -^ 

Window Wall— 

♦156. Bonifazio (the Elder) : Christ and the.Mother of Zebedee's Children. 
Rujht Wall— 

163. Palma Veeehio: Holy Family. The Madonna is a Bergamesque 

peasant girl. 
170. Titian : Venus blindfolding Cupid. 

8fA Hall (returning to the entrance and left). 

495. Marcello Provenzali: Mosaic Portrait of Paul V., founder of the 
Borghese fortunes. 

9<A Hall. 
Left Wall— 

461. Andrea Solario : The Cross-Bearing. 
459. Sodoina .- Madonna and Child. 

286 Walks in Eome 

Right Wall— 

439. Lorenzo di CredifJ) .•''Holy Family. 

435. Marco d'Oggiono : S. John. 

433. Lorenzo di Credi : Holy Family. (Unfinished.) 

429. Bern. Luini : S. Agata. 

10th Hall 

Entrance Wall — 

310. Fra Bartolommeo : Holy Family. 
Bight Wall— 

3.'>2. Antonio da Pollajuolo : Holy Family. 

348. Botticelli : Holy Family and Angels. 

346. An indifferent copy from Titian by Sassoferrato : The Three Ages of 
Man. I 
Wall of Exit. 

340. Carlo Dolce : Madonna. 

336. Andrea del Sarto (?) : Madonna and Child with S. John. 

334. Andrea del Sarto Q) : Madonna and Cliild with S. John. 

331. Andrea del SartoQ) : Madonna and Child with thi-ee children. 
*328. Andrea del Sarto : The Magdalen. 2 
Window Wall — 

326. Lucas Cranach : Venus and Cupid. 

' Sous I'ombre opacjue d'une foret, les pieds dans une herbe <5paisse et mouill6e, 
se dresse, comme un fantome diabolique, une grande femme nue, aux chairs 
blanches, k la tete blonde, coiffee d'une toque seigneuriale de velours. C'est un 
grand ver humain ne de I'humidite de la terre, une fllle de I'ombre et des soli- 
tudes veTdoyanies.'—Emile Montegut. 

11th HaU. 

Entrance Wall — •• 

371. Ghirlandajo : S. Catherine. 
*361. Raffaelle : The Entombment. 

' This picture was the last work of Raffaelle before he went to Rome. It has a 
touching story. It was painted for Atalanta Baglioni, the mother of the young 
chieftain Grifone, slain in a street conflict in the streets of Perugia, July 1,'), 1500. 
Being absent in the country at the time, Atalanta was recalled to her dying son, 
with his young wife Zeuobia. As she approached, his murderers stood aside, 
dreading her malediction, but were surprised by Jier exhorting him to pardon 
them with his dying bi-eath. In the picture Atalanta afterwards " laid her own 
maternal sorrows at the feet of a yet higher and holier suffering." It was placed 
by her in a chapel in S. Francesco de' Conventuali at Perugia : Paul V. bought it 
for the Borghese. The "Faith, Hope, and Charity " at the Vatican formed a pre- 
della for this picture. 

' Raffaelle's picture of " Bearing the Body of Christ to the Sepulchre," though 
meriting all its fame in respect of drawing, expression, and knowledge, has lost 
all signs of reverential feeling in the persons of the bearers. The reduced size 
of the winding-.sheet is to blame for this, by bringing them rudely in contact 
with their precious burden. Nothing can be finer than their figures, or more 
satisfactory than their laliour, if we forget what it is they are carrying ; but it is 
the weight of the burden only, and not the character of it, which the i)ainter has 
kept in view, and we feel that the result would have been the same ha<l these 
figures been carrying a sack of sand. Here, from the youth of the figure, the 
bearer at the feet appears to be St. John.'— Lady Eastlake. 

1 See Kugler, ii. 440. 

" The authenticity of all the other pictures in this gallery, ascrilied to Andrea, 
is doubtful. The works of Andrea are often confounded with those of his pupil 
Donienico Piiligo. 

Galleria Borghese 287 

355. Sasgoferrato {Copy of the Raffaelle at Palazzo Barberini): The 
Left Wall— 

382. Sassoferrato : Madonna and Child. 
*386. Perugino : S. Sebastian. 
390. L'Ortolano : Mourners over the Dead Christ. 
Window Wall — 

394. Ettsebio di S. Giorgio : S. Sebastian. 

396. Antonello da Messina : Portrait, 

397. BafaelleCi) : Male Portrait. 

398. F. Zuechero : The Dead Christ with Angels. 

399. Timoteo della Vite : Portrait. 
*401. Perugino : >[adonna and Child. 

Right Wall— 

408. Peri no del T'rt^a "after Kaflfaelle (or Pontomio?): Portrait of 

Cardinal Bibbiena. 
411. Vandyke : The Entombment. 

413. Giulio Romano — after Raffaelle : Portrait of Julius II. 
420. Gittlio Romano, after Raffaelle : S. John in the Wilderness. 

In the upper part of the grounds, not far from the walLs of Rome, 
stood the Villa Olgiati, once the Villa of Raffaelle. It contained 
three rooms ornamented witli frescoes from the hand of the great 
master. The best of these are now preserved in the Villa Borghese. 
The Villa Olgiati was destroyed during the siege of Rome in 1849, 
when many of the fine old trees on this side of the grounds were 
cut down. 

'The Casino of Raffaelle was unfurnished, except with casks of wine, and un- 
inhabited, except by a contadina. The chamber which was the bedroom of 
Kaffaelle was entirely adorned with the work of his own hands. It was a small 
pleasant apartment, looking out on a little green lawn, fenced in with trees 
irregularly planted. The walls are covered with arabesques, in various whimsical 
and beautiful designs — such as the sports of children ; Loves balancing them- 
selves on poles, or mounted on horseback, full of glee and mirth ; Fauns and 
Satyrs ; Mercury and Minerva : flowers and curling tendrils, and every beautiful 
composition that could suggest itself to a classic imagination in its most sportive 
moo<l. The cornice was supported by painted Caryatides. The covered roof 
was adorned with fom- medallions, containing portraits of his mistress, the 
Fomarina — it seemed as if he took pleasure in multiplying that beloved object, 
so that wherever his eyes turned her image might meet them. There were three 
other paintings, one representing a Terminus with a target before it, and a troop 
of men shooting at it with bows and arrows which they had stolen from unsus- 
pecting Cupid, lying asleep on the ground. Tlie second represented a figure, 
apparently a gotl, seated at the foot of a couch, with an altar before him. in a 
temple or rotunda, and from the gardens which appeared in perspective through 
its open intercolumniations were seen advancing a troop of gay yoimg nymphs, 
bearing vases of roses upon their heads, i . . . llie last and best of these paint- 
ings represented the nuptials of Alexander the Great and Roxana.' — Eattm's 

On Xew Year's Day and Easter, the King and Queen of Italy are 
always seen driving here tofjether, a sight only permitted on those 
days by the rigours of royal etiquette. 

Just outside the Porta del Popolo, a small gate on the left of the 
Villa Borghese led to a beautiful villa, known under its late pro- 

1 This picture is now called the Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona. 

288 Walks in Rome 

prietor as VUla Esmeade, of considerable extent, and possessing 
beautiful views of Kome and the Sabine mountains from its heights, 
which are adorned with a few ancient statues and vases. But the 
villa is being rapidly destroyed for modern building. 

We now enter upon the ugly dusty road which leads in a straight 
line to the Milvian Bridge, which the extravagant Gallienus in- 
tended to connect with the city by a portico 9000 feet long. By 
this road the people went out to meet the messengers who brought 
the news of the defeat of Hannibal, and by this road the last 
triumphal procession entered Rome — that of the Emperor Honorius 
and Stilicho (described by the poet Claudian) in a.d. 403 — a whole 
century having then elapsed since the Romans had beheld their 
last triumph — that of Diocletian. 

The hill on the right of the road, Monte Parioli, is composed of 
the coarse travertine which Vitruvius justly describes as an excellent 
weather stone, but easily calcined by fire. Under the hill, just 
beyond where the new road turns off, are the Catacombs of 
S. Valentine, a priest beheaded c. 268, on the Flaminian Way, and 
buried on the property of the matron Lubinella, near the spot 
of his martyrdom. Close to the entrance of the catacombs are 
interesting remains of the basilica built by Pope Julius I. c. 252, 
and restored in the seventh century. Around it is an early chris- 
tian burial-ground, in which some of the tombs and sarcophagi 
still remain. A curious metrical epitaph praises the virtues of 
Aurelia Bebrana, wife of Flavius Crescentius, 368. Just beyond the 
entrance to the catacombs is the Villa Gloria, where the Cairoli 
brothers (commemorated by a monument on the Pincio), taken by 
the Papal troops, were executed, after their rash attempt against 
Rome in 1867. On the other side the same hill is undermined by 
the Catacombs of SS. Gianutus and Basilla. A beautiful drive which 
skirts these hills has been formed (1888-91) called the Viale Parioli, 
or Passeggiata Regina Margherita, from the Porta del Popolo to the 
Porta Salara. 

Half a mile from the gate, rises conspicuously on the right of the 
road the Casino Papa Giulio, with picturesque overhanging cornices 
and sculptured fountain. The courtyard has a quaint cloister. The 
destruction or 'removal' of the front of this noble building has 
been one of the atrocities contemplated under the present govern- 
ment. This is the ' Villino,' and, far behind, but formerly connected 
with it by a long corridor, is the Villa Papa Giulio, decorated with 
columns from the Baths of Zenobia, near Tivoli. Its inner courts, 
its corridors, and sumptuous fountain, are of great beauty. Several 
rooms have very richly decorated ceilings, painted by Taddeo 
Zucchero. Michelangelo was consulted by the Pope as to the 
building of this villa, and Vasari made drawings for it, but ' the 
actual architect was Vignola, a modest genius, who had to suffer 
severely, together with all his fellow-workmen, from the tracas- 
series of the Pope's favourite, the Bishop Aliotti, whom the less- 
enduring Michelangelo was wont to nickname Monsignor Tante 

Villa Papa Giulio 289 

'The villa of Papa Giulio is still visited by the stranger. Restored to the 
presence of those times, he ascends the spacious steps to the gallery, whence he 
overlooks the whole extent of Rome, from Monte Mario, with all the windings of 
the Tiber. Tlie building of this palace, the laying out of its gardens, were the 
daily occupation of Pope Julius III. The place was designed by himself, but 
was never completed : every day brought with it some new suggestion or caprice, 
which the architects must at once set themselves to realise. This pontitf desired 
to forward the interests of his family, but he was not inclined to involve him- 
self in dangerous perple.xities on their account. The pleasant blameless life of 
his villa was that which was best suited to him. He gave entertainments, which 
he enlivened with proverbial and other modes of expression, that sometimes 
mingled blushes with the smiles of his guests. In the important affairs of the 
church and state he took no other share than was absolutely inevitable. This 
Pope Julius died March 23, 1555.' — Banke's ' History of the Popes.' 

' C'est uniquement comme protecteur des arts et comme prince magiiifique que 
nous pouvons envisager Jules III. Sa mauvaise sante lui faisait rechercher le 
repos et les douceurs dune vie grande et libre. Aussi avait-il fait edifler avec 
une sorte de tentlresse paternelle cette belle villa, qui est celebre, dans Ihistoire 
de Tart, sous le nom de Vigne du pape Jules. Michel-Ange, V'asari, Vignole en 
avaient dessine les proflls ; les nymphees et les fontaines etaient d'Ammanati ; 
les peintures de Taddeo Zuccari. Du hautd'une galerie elegante on decouvTait 
les sept coUines, et d'ombreuses allees, tracees par Jules III., egaraient les pas 
du vieillard dans ce dedale de tertres et de vallees qui separe le pont oil peril 
Maxence de la ville eteruelle.' — Gournerie, 'Rome Chritienne,' ii. 172. 

Pope Julius used to come hither, with all his court, from the 
Vatican by water. The richly decorated barge, filled with venerable 
ecclesiastics, gliding between the osier-fringed banks of the yellow 
Tiber, with its distant line of churches and palaces, would make 
a fine subject for a picture. The chambers of the villa are now 
occupied by a well-arranged museum of the Etruscan antiquities 
(open from 9 to 3, entrance 1 fr., on Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays) found at Falerii (Civita Castellana), including a skull 
with its false teeth set in gold. Some of the Etruscan vases and 
jewels are of great beauty, but the halls of the old palace are 
even more interesting than their contents. In one of the courts is 
a model of a little Etruscan temple at Alatri. 

Nearly opposite the Casino Papa Giulio, on the farther bank of the 
Tiber, was the picturesque classic Villa of Claude Lorraine, whither 
he was wont to retire during the summer months, residing in the 
winter in the Tempietto at the head of the Trinita steps. This villa 
was best seen from the walk by the river-side, which is reached by 
turning at once to the left on coming out of the Porta del Popolo. 
Hence it made a good foreground to the view of the city and distant 
heights of the Janiculan. Modern buildings have spoilt the beauty 
since 1880, and a great portion of the villa itself has been wantonly 

'This road is called "Poussin's Walk," because the great painter used to go 
along it from Rome to his villa near Ponte Molle. One sees here an horizon such 
as one often finds in Poussin's pictures.'— i^redmifca Bremer. 

Close to the Villa Papa Giulio is the tunnel called Arco Oscuro, 
passing which, a steep lane, with a beautiful view towards S. Peter's, 
ascends between the hillsides of the Monte Parione and descends 
on the other side (following the turn to the right) to join the Viale 
Parioli near the Tiber bank, about two miles from Rome, where is 


290 Walks in Eome 

situated the Acqua Acetosa, a refreshing mineral spring like seltzer 
water, enclosed in a fountain erected by Bernini for Alexander VII. 

' Acqua Acetx)sa, 
Buona per la siwsa,' 

is a well-known early morning cry in Eome. 

There is a lovely view from hence across the Campagna in the 
direction of Fidenae (Castel Giubileo) and the Tor di Quinto. 

' A green hill, one of those bare table-lands so common in the Campagna, rises 
on the right. Ascend it to where a broad furrow in the slope seems to mark the 
site of an ancient road. You are on a plateau, almost quadrangular in form, 
rising steeply to the height of nearly two hundred feet above the Tiber, and 
isolated, save at one angle, where it is united to other high ground by a narrow 
isthmus. Kot a tree — not a shrub on its turf-grown surface — not a house — not a 
ruin— not one stone upon another, to tell you that the site had been inhabited. 
Yet here once stood Antemnae, the city of many towers,i one of the most ancient 
of Italy ! - Not a trace remains above ground. Even the broken pottery, that 
infallible indicator of bygone civilisation, which marks the site and determines 
the limits of habitation on many a now desolate spot of classic ground, is here 
so overgrown with herbage that the eye of an antiquary would alone detect it. 
It is a site strong by nature, and well adapted for a city, as cities then were ; for 
it is scarcely larger than the Palatine Hill, which, though at first it embraced 
the whole of Rome, was afterwards too small for a single palace. It has a 
peculiar interest as one of the three cities of .Sabina,^ whose daughters, ravished 
by the followers of Romulus, became the mothers of the Roman race. Antemnae 
was the nearest city to Rome — only three miles distant— and therefore must 
have suffered most from the inhospitable violence of the Romans.' — Dennis' 
' Cities of Etriiria,' ch. iii. 

There is a walk — rather dangerous for carriages — by the river 
from hence to the Ponte Molle. Here the beautiful Miss Bathurst 
was drowned by her horse slipping backwards with her into the Tiber 
in 1824. 

The river-bank presents a series of picturesque views, though the 
yellow Tiber in no way reminds us of Virgil's description : 

'Caeruleus Tybris, eoelo gratissimus amnis.' 

Aen. viii. 64. 

Continuing to follow the main road from the Porta del Popolo, 
on the left is the round Church of S. Andrew, with a doric portico, 
built by Vignola, in 1527, to commemorate the deliverance of 
Clement VII. from the Germans. 

Farther, on the right, is another Chapel in honour of S. Andrew's 

' One of the most curious instances of relique-worship occurred here in the 
reign of Aeneas Sylvius, Pope Pius II. The head of S. Andrew was brought in 
stately procession from the fortress of Narni, whither, as the Turks invaded the 
llorea, it had been brought for safety from Patras. It was intended that the 
most glorious heads of S. Peter and S. Paul should go forth to meet that of their 
brother apostle. But the mass of gold which enshrined, the cumbrous iron which 
protected these reliques, was too heavy to be moved ; so, without them, the Pope, 
the cardinals, the whole population of Rome, thronged forth to the meadows 
near the Milvian Bridge. The Pope made an eloquent address to the head, a hymn 

1 'Turrigerae Antemnae.'— Virg. Ae7i. vii. 6.31. 

2 Antemnaque prisco 

Crustumio prior.'— St'Z. Jtal. viii. 367. 

3 The other two were Caenina and Crustumerium. 

The Ponte MoUe 291 

was sung entreating the saint's aid in the discomfiture of the lurks. It rested 
that day on the altar of Santa Maria del Popolo, and was then conveyed through 
the city, decorated with all splendour, to S. Peter's. Cardinal Bessarion preached 
a semion, and the head was deposited with those of his brother apostles under 
the high alt&r.'—Milman's 'Latin Christianity.' 

A mile and a half from the gate, the Tiber is crossed by the 
Ponte MoUe, built by Pius VII. in 1815, on the site and foundations 
of the Pons Milvius, which was erected B.C. 109 by the Censor 
M. Aemilius Scaurus. It was here that, on the night of December 
3, B.C. 63, Cicero captured the emissaries of the Allobroges, who 
were engaged in the conspiracy of Catiline. Hence, on October 27, 
A.D. 312, Maxentius was thrown into the river and drowned after 
his defeat by Constantino at the Saxa Rubra. The statues of our 
Saviour and John the Baptist, at the farther entrance of the bridge, 
are by Mochi. 

Here are a number of taverns and trattoric, much frequented by 
the lower ranks of the Roman people, reached by tramway from 
the Porta del Popolo. Similar places of public amusement seem 
to have existed here from imperial times. Ovid describes the 
people coming out hither in troops by the Via Flaminia to celebrate 
the fete of Anna Perenna, an old woman who supplied the plebs 
with cakes during the retreat to the Mons Sacer, but who after- 
wards, from a similitude of names, was confounded with Anna, 
sister of Dido. 

' Idibus est Annae festum geniale Perennae, 

Haud procul a ripis, advena Tibri, tuis. 
Plebs venit, ac virides passim disjecta per herbas 

Potat ; et accumbit cum pare quisque sua. 
Sub Jove pars durat ; pauci tentoria ponunt ; 

Sunt, quibus e ramis frondea facta casa est : 
Pars, ul)i pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis, 

Desuper extentas imposuere togas. 
Sole tamen vinoiiue calent ; annosque precantiu-, 

Quot suniant cyathos, ad numerumque bibunt. 
Invenies illic, qui Nestoris ebibat annos : 

Quae sit per calices facta Sibylla suos. 
Illic et cautant, quidquid didicere theatris, 

Et jactant faciles ad sua verba nianus : 
Etducunt posito duras cratere choreas, 

Jtultaque diffusis saltat aniica comis. 
Cum redeunt, tituliant, et sunt spectacula vulgo, 

Et fortunatos olivia turba vocat. 
Occurri miper. Visa est niihi digna relatu 

Pompa : senem potuni jwta trahebat anus.' 

Fast. iii. 523. 

Here three roads meet. That on the right is the old Via 
Flaminia, begun B.C. 220 by C. Flaminius the censor. This was 
the great northern road of Italy, which, issuing from the city 
by the Porta Ratumena, which was close to the tomb of Bibulus, 
followed a line a little east of the modern Corso, and passed the 
Aurelian wall by the Porta Flaminia, near the present Porta 
del Popolo. It extended to Ariminum (Rimini), a distance of 210 

1 See Dyer's Hist, of the City of Rome. 

292 Walks in Rome 

Following this road for about 1^ mile, on the left are the ruins 
called Tor de Quinto. A little farther on the right of the road are 
some tufa rocks, with an injured tomb of the Nasones. They 
were painted by Poussin, and contain some of the hermit-caves 
common in Apulia and Calabria in the tenth and twelfth centuries. 
Their hermits came from the Abbey of S. Leochar near the Tor de 
Quinto. The rocks have recently been quarried for the Halls of 
Justice in the Prati. Following the valley under these rocks to 
the left, we reach (1^ mile) the fine Castle of Crescenza, now a 
farmhouse, picturesquely situated on a rocky knoll — once inhabited 
by Poussin, and reproduced in the background of many of his 
pictures. In the interior are some remains of ancient frescoes. 

It was near this that Saxa Euhra^ was situated, where Con- 
stantine (a.d. 312) gained his decisive victory over Maxentius, who, 
while attempting to escape over the Milvian Bridge, was pushed 
by the throng of fugitives into the Tiber, and perished, engulfed 
in the mud. The scene is depicted in the famous fresco of Giulio 
Romano in the stanze of the Vatican. On the opposite side of the 
river, Castel Giubileo, on the site of the Etruscan Fidenae, is a con- 
spicuous object. 

On the right of the road are two large tombs, the first being 
probably that which Andersen had in his mind when he described 
the life of a peasant in a Campagna tomb in the Improvisatore. 
We now pass the Ostcria di Grotta liossa. Close to Due Case the 
road crosses a bridge, four and a half miles from Rome, close to the 
point where the Tiber receives the little river Valca, considered to be 
identical with the Cremera. Higher up it is called Fosso di FormcUo, 
and, nearer its source, Fosso di Sorbo. Hither the devoted clan of 
the Fabii, three hundred and six fighting men, retired from Rome, 
having offered to sustain, at their own cost and risk, the war which 
Rome was then carrying on against Veii. Here, because they felt 
a position within the city untenable on account of the animosity of 
their fellow-patricians, which had been excited by their advocacy 
of the agrarian law and their popularity with the plebeians, they 
established themselves on the hillock just above the river, which 
they fortified, and where they dwelt. The hill, with steep sides 
overhung by brushwood, is now crowned by ruined walls. At the 
end of three years the Veientians, by letting loose herds of cattle 
like the vaccine which one still sees wandering in that part of the 
Campagna, drew the Fabii into an ambuscade, and they were all 
cut off to a man. According to Dionysius, a portion of the little 
army remained to guard the fort, and the rest fled to another 
hill, perhaps that now known as Vaccareccia. These were the last 
to be exterminated. 

'They fought from dawn to sunset. The enemy slain by their hand formed 
heaps of corpses which barred their passage.' — They were summoned tn sur- 
render, but they preferred to die.— 'The people of Veii showered arro)V8 and 
stones upon them from a distance, not daring to approach them again. Tlie 

1 Masses of reddish rock of volcanic tufa are still to be seen here, breaking 
through the 8oil of the Campagna. 

The ViUa of Livia 293 

arrows fell like thick snow. The Fabil, with swords blunted by force of 
striking, with bucklers broken, continued to flght, snatching fresh swords from 
the hands of the enemy, and rushing upon them with the ferocity of wUd ijeasts.' 
Dionysius, ix. 21. 

Seven miles from Rome the road passes Prima Porta, a hollow 
between rocks. On the left are remains of the mediaeval tower 
where the first toll was taken from pilgrims approaching Rome. 
At the entrance of the little chapel by the road the basin for the 
Aqua Santa was the tomb of a cook. Upon the hill on the right, 
protected by a roof, are the important remains of the Villa (ad 
Gallinas Albas) of Livia,^ wife of Augustus, and mother of Tiberius. 
When first opened, the rooms, supposed to be baths, were covered 
with frescoes and arabesques in a state of the most marvellous 
beauty and preservation. From the character of the paintings, a 
trellis-work of fruit and flowers, amid which birds and insects are 
sporting, it is supposed that they are the work of Ludius, described 
in Pliny, who ' divi Augusti aetate primus instituit amoenissimam 
parietum picturam, villas et portions ac topiaria opera, lucos, ne- 
mora . . . blandissimo aspectu minimoqueimpendio.' The frescoes 
have been ruined by a German artist, who covered them with a 
waxj' preparation which he believed would preserve them, but 
which had just the contrary effect. It was here that the magni- 
ficent statue of Augustus, now in the Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican, 
was discovered in 1863. 

'What Augustus's affection for Livia was is well known. " Preserve the re- 
membrance of a husband who has loved you very tenderly," were the last words 
of the Emperor, as he lay on his deathbed. And when asked how she contrived 
to retain his affection, Diou C'assius tells us that she replied, " My secret is very 
simple : I have made it the study of my life to please him, and I have never 
manifested any indiscreet curiosity with regard to his public or private affairs." ' 

A mile and a half beyond the Villa of Livia, in the Campagna on 
the right of the road, seventeen magnificent 3Iosaics were discovered 
by the strange inspiration of a cowherd on the land of the Piacentini, 
enlightened farmers. The mosaics are supposed to belong to a casino 
of Livia, and to have been executed for her in anticipation of the con- 
quest of Egypt by Augustus. They have the peculiar and beautiful 
turquoise blue of Egypt. The lotus is frequently introduced. One 
scene represents the worship of Isis, with purely Egyptian figures. 

Beyond this, ten miles from Rome, the Scannabeccki, identified 
with the AUia of fatal memory, 'infaustum Allia nomen,' is seen 
flowing into the Tiber on the other side. 

(The direct roarl from the Ponte Molle is the ancient Via Cassia, 
which must be followed for some distance by those who make the 
interesting excursions to Veil, Galera, and Bracciano, each easily 
within the compass of a day's expedition. On the left of this road, 
three miles from Rome, is the fine sarcophagus of Publius Vibius 

1 The palm-trees of the villa withered and the white hens died a few days 
after the extinction of the imperial line of Livia in the person of Kero. 

294 Walks in Rome 

Maximus and his wife Eeginia Maxima, popularly known as ' Nero's 

Following the road to the left of the Ponte MoUe, we turn up a 
steep incline to the deserted Villa Madama, built by Giulio Romano, 
from designs of Raffaelle, for Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, afterwards 
Clement VII. It derives its name from Margaret of Austria, daughter 
of Charles V., and wife, first of Alessandro de' Medici, and then of 
Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma ; from this second marriage it 
descended, through Elisabetta Farnese, to the Bourbon kings of 
Naples. The villa is beautifully situated at the edge of one of the 
lower spurs of the hill, has a grand view, and is still (1896) a pic- 
turesque and desolate spot, abounding in cyclamen and nightingales. 
Peasants live in its upper chambers, and the vast lofty halls below 
have well-lighted friezes, and ceilings covered with exquisite stucco 
and fresco decorations by Giulio Romano and Giovanni da Udine, 
which have been engraved by Gruner. These decorations probably 
owe much to the then recent discovery of the frescoes and stuccoes 
of the Baths of Titus. 

' They consist of a scries of beautiful little pictures, representing the sports of 
Satyrs and Loves ; Juno, attended by her peacocks ; Jupiter and Ganymede ; and 
various subjects of mythology and fable. The paintings in the portico have been 
of first-rate excellence ; and:I cannot but regret that designs so beautiful should 
not l)e engraved before their last traces disappear for ever. A deep fringe on one 
of the deserted chambers, representing angels, flowers, caryatides, &c., by Giulio 
Romano ; and also a fine fresco on a ceiling, by Giovanni da Udine, of Phoebus 
driving his heavenly steeds, are in somewhat better preservation. 

'It was in the groves that surrounded Villa Madama that the "Pastor Fido" 
of Guarini was represented for the first time before a brilliant circle of princes 
and nobles, such as these scenes will see no more, and Italy itself could not now 
produce.' — Eaton's 'Rome.' 

The frescoes and arabesques executed here by Giovanni da Udine 
were considered at the time as among the most successful of his 
works. Vasari says that in these he ' wished to be supreme, and to 
excel himself.' Cardinal de' Medici was so delighted with them 
that he not only heaped benefits on all the relations of the painter, 
but rewarded him with a rich canonry, which he was allowed to 
transfer to his brother. 

One can scarcely doubt from the description of Martial that this 
villa occupies the site of that in which the poet came to visit his 
friend and namesake. 

' Juli jugera pauea Martialis, 
Hortis Hesperidum beatiora, 
Longo Janiculi jugo recumbunt. 
Lati coUibus imminent recessus ; 
Et planus modico tumore vertex 
Coelo perfruitur sereniore ; 
Et, curvas nebula tegente valles, 
Solus luce nitet peculiari : 
Puris leniter admoventiir astris 
Celsae culmina delicata villae. 
Hinc septem dominos videre montes, 
Et totam licet aestimare TSioraa.n\.' — Ep. iv. 64. 

The Monte Mario 295 

Somewhere in the woods of the villa stood the once famous 
Chapel of the Holy Cross (' Oratorium Sanctae Crucis '\ where a 
cross was erected in memory of Constantine's vision of the ' Sign 
of Christ,' and where the ' procession of the great litany ' from 
S. Lorenzo in Lucina to S. Peter's by the A'ia Flaminia and Ponte 
Milvio, on April 23, always halted. 

The Villa Madama is situated on one of the slopes of Monte Mario 
(450 feet) ; which is ascended by a winding carriage-road from near 
the Porta Angelica. This hill, in ancient times called Clivus Cinnae, 
was in the Middle Ages Monte Maio, and is thus spoken of by 
Dante ('Paradiso,' xv. 109). Its name changed to Mario through 
Mario Mellini, its possessor in the time of Sixtus V. We pass the 
Church of S. Maria del Rosario, and the site of the very interesting 
Church of S. Croce de Monte Mario, originally built by Bishop Pontius 
of Orvieto in 1350, destroyed, with its curious inscriptions and grave- 
stones, in 1883. A gate with an old pine-tree is that of the Villa 
Mellini, which possessed a grand old ilex avenue, and a magnificent 
view over Rome from its terraces, lined with cypresses ; but one of 
the forts erected for the defence of Rome by the present government 
has been established here, and the villa is now entirely closed to the 

' ITie Monte Mario, like Cooper's Hill, is the highest, boldest, and most prominent 
part of the line ; it is about the height and steepness too of Cooper's HiJl, and has 
the Tiller at the foot of it, like the Thames at Anchorwick. To keep up the resem- 
blance, there is a sort of terrace at the top of the Monte Mario, planted with 
cypresses, and a villa, though dilapidated, crowns the summit, as well as at our 
old friend above Egham. Here we stood, on a most delicious evening, the ilex 
and the gum-cistus in great profusion about us, the slope below full of vines and 
olives, the cypresses above our heads, and before our eyes all that one has read 
of in Roman history— the course of the Tiber between the lulls that bound it, 
coming down from Fidenae and receiving the Allia and the Anio ; beyond, the 
Apennines, the distant and higher summits still quite white with snow; in front, 
the Alban HiUs ; on the right, the Campagna to the sea ; and just beneath us the 
whole length of Rome, ancient and modem — S. Peter's and the Coliseum, rising 
as the representatives of each — the Pantheon, the Aventine, the Quirinal, all the 
well-known objects distinctly laid before us. One may safely say that the world 
cannot contain many views of such mingled beauty and interest as this.' — 
Dr. Arnold. 

' Les maisons de campagne des grands seigneurs donnent I'idee de cette solitude, 
de cette indifference des possesseurs au milieu des plus admirables sejours du 
monde. On se promene dans ces immeuses jardins, sans se douter qii'Lls aient un 
maitre. L'herliecroit au milieu des allees ; et, dans ces memes allees abandonnees, 
les arbres sont taUles artistement, selou I'ancien gout qui regnait en France : 
singuliere bizarrerie que cette negligence du necessaire, et cette affectation de 
I'inutile ! '—Mine, de Stael. 

In the garden, prominent on the hillside, still stands the famous 
Pine of Monte Mario, which was saved from destruction by Sir 
George Beaumont, and whose trunk was embraced by Wordsworth, 
who wrote a sonnet upon it. ^ 

In the spring of 1881, military engineers, working on the summit 
of Monte Mario, facing the Tiber, came upon the hypogaeum of an 

1 See Wordsworth's Poems, 111, 196. 

296 Walks in Rome 

historic tomb, containing five sarcophagi, two cippi, and a beautiful 
cinerary urn of one Sextus Curius Eusebius, and, in the centre 
of the chamber, the beautiful pedestal of the lady for whom the 
mausoleum was built, inscribed — D . M . miniciae . marcellae . 
FUNDANi . F . vix . A . XII . M . XI . D . VII. ^ She appears to have 
been the daughter of C. Minicius Fuudanus, often mentioned in 
ancient inscriptions with C. Vettennius Severus, his colleague in the 
consulship from May 1 to September 1, a.d. 107, and afterwards 
governor of the province of Asia. He is frequently mentioned by 
Pliny and Plutarch, who were his intimate friends. It is interesting 
to read at her monument the letter in which Pliny describes the 
daughter's death to his friend Marcellinus. 

' I feel deeply sad for the loss of the younger daughter of our Fundanus, a 
charming, lovely girl, worthy not only of a longer life, but almost of immortality. 
Although not yet fourteen years old, she showed the quietness and gravity of a 
matron, with the suavity and modesty of a virgin. How sweet it was to see her 
embracing her father, welcoming her father's friends, loving her governess and 
her teachers ! In the course of her sickness she confidently gave herself up to 
the care of physicians, and tried to keep up the spirits of her elder sisters and of 
her father by fighting courageously against the violence of the malady. She was 
already betrothed to a young gentleman of her choice ; the day of the wedding 
had already been settled ; we had already received our invitations . . . and now, 
what a terrible change ! I cannot tell you how sadly despondent I felt when I 
heard Fundanus himself ordering that all the money set aside for her trousseau 
and jewellery should be spent in the funeral ceremonies.' 2— i?^. v. 16. 

(Behind the Monte Mario, about four miles from Rome, is the 
Church of S. Onofrio in Campagna, with a curious ossuary.) 

Just outside the site of the Porta Angelica, in the district now 
defiled by some of the worst abominations of Sardinian Rome, was 
the vine3'ard in which Alexander VI. died. 

' This is the manner in which Pope Alexander VI. came to his death. 

' The cardinal datary, Adrian de Corneto, having received a gracious intimation 
that tlie pontiff, together with the Duke Valentinos, designeil to come and sup 
with him at his vineyard, and that his holiness would bring the supper with him, 
the cardinal suspected that this determination had been taken for the purpose of 
destroying his life by poison, to the end that the duke might have his riches and 
appointments, the rather as he knew that the Pope had resolved to put him to 
death by some means, with a view to seizing his property, as I have said — which 
was very great. Considering of the means by >vhich he might save himself, he 
could see but one hope of safety : he sent in good time to the Pope's carver, with 
whom he had a certain intimacy, desiring that he would come to speak with him ; 
who, when he had come to the said cardinal, was taken by him into a secret place, 
where they two being retired, the cardinal showed tlie carver a sum, prei)ared 
beforehand, of 10,000 ducats in gold, which the said cardinal persuaded the carver 
to accept as a gift and to keep for the love of him, and after many words they 
were at length accepted, the cardinal offering, moreover, all the rest of his wealtli 
at his conmiaiul — for he was a very rich cardinal— for he said tliat he could not 
keep the said riches by any other means than through tlie said carver's aid, and 
declared to him, " Vou know of a certainty what the nature of the Pope is, and 
I know that he has resolved, with the Duke Valentinos, to procure my life by 
poison, through your hand,"— wherefore he besought the carver to take pity on 
him, and to give him his life. And having said this, the carver declared lo him 
the manner in which it was ordered that the poison should be given to liini at the 
supper, but being moved to compassion, he promised to preserve his life. Now 

1 This tomb is now in the Museo delle Terme, In the cloister of the Angeli. 

2 See letter of Lanciani in the A thenaeum, March 5, 1881. 

The Porta Angelica 297 

the orders were that the carver should present three boxes of sweetmeats, in 
tablets or lozenges, after the supper, one to the Pope, one to the said cardinal, 
and another to the duke, and in that for the cardinal there was poison ; and thus 
being told, the said cardinal gave directions to the aforesaid can'er in what 
manner he should serve them, so as to cause that the Ihjx of poisoned confect 
which was to be for the cardinal should l)e placed before the Pope, so that he 
might eat thereof, and so poison himself and die. And the Pope l>eing come 
accordinu'ly with the duke to supper on the day appointed, the cardinal threw 
himself at his feet, kissing them and embracing them closely ; then he entreated 
his holiness, with most affectionate words, saying he would never rise from those 
feet until his holiness had granted him a favotir. Being questioned by the pontiff 
what this favour was, and requested to rise up, he would first have the grace he 
demanded, and the promise of his holiness to grant it. Sow, after much per- 
suasion, the Pope remained snflicieutly astonished, seemg the perseverance of the 
cardinal, and that he would not rise, and promisetl to grant tlie favt^ur. Then 
the cardinal rose up and said. " Holy Father, it is not fitting that when the master 
comes to the house of his servant, the servant should eat with his master like an 
equal [eonfrezer parimente]," and therefore the grace he demanded was the just 
and honest one, that he, the servant, should wait at the table of his master, and 
this favour the Pope granted him. Then having come to supper, and the time 
for serving the confectionery having arrived, the carver put the poisoned sweet- 
meats into the box. according to the first order given to him by the Pope, and the 
cardinal lieing well informed as to which box had no poison, tasted of that one, 
and put the poisoned confect bef<ire the Pope. Then his holiness, trusting to his 
carver, and seeing the cardinal tasting, judged that no poison was there, and ate 
of it heartily ; while of the other, which the Pope thought was poisoned, but 
which was not, the cardinal ate. Xow, at the hour accustomed, according to the 
quality of that poison, his holiness began to feel its effect, and so died thereof ; 
but the cardinal, who was yet much afraid, having physicked himself and vomited, 
took no harm and escaped, though not without difficulty.' — Sanxito iv., Trans- 
lation in lianke'g '■Iliitory of the Popes.' 

The wine of the Vatican hill has had a bad reputation even from 
classical times. ' If you like vinegar,' wrote Martial, ' drink the 
wine of the Vatican ' ! ^ and again, ' To drink the wine of the 
Vatican is to drink poison.' ^ 

(Here is the entrance of the Val dlnfemo, forme